The decline of the 17th centuryPresentation Transcript
Philip III (1598-1621). He was the son and the successor of Philip II and also he was the king of Spain and Portugal. He didin’t governed his kingdom. His works were realized by their chief-ministers or “validos”.
Philip III had a short and a pacific reign. He left his kingdom to the duke of Lerma. He kept the peace in the exterior of the Iberian peninsula through the truce of the 12 years (1609). And in the interior the most important fact was the expulsion of the moriscos in 1609.
He was the king of Spain between 1621 and 1665. He was the son of Philip III. Like his father, he left his government responsabilities in the hands of his chief- minister the Count-Duke of Olivares .
Count-duke of Olivares Philip IV
Foreign policy was different from that of the previous government. In 1621 when the truce came to an end, Spain was involved in European conflicts again. This changes were produced in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648).
At first Spain won some battles such as Brenda ( city of the Low countries ) in 1626.
the rendition of Brenda by Velázquez in 1633
The Spanish victories culmonated in the Battle of Nördlingen (in Germany), in 1634, when the German and Swedish protestants were defeated, but later the Spanish were defeated at the battle of Rocroi (France) in 1643.
Olivares changed domestic policy. His two objectives were:
-To share the military expenses among all
the territories of the Hispanic Monarchy.
- To increase the kings’ power by reducing the
the autonomy of the territories.
These reforms met with strong opposition.
Tenga Vuestra Majestad por el negocio más importante de su monarquía hacerse rey de España; quiero decir, Señor, que no se contente Vuestra Majestad con ser rey de Portugal, de Aragón, de Valencia, conde de Barcelona, sino que trabaje y piense con consejo maduro y secreto por reducir estos reinos de que se compone España al estilo y leyes de Castilla.
THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR
Was a religious and political conflict which affected much of Europe between 1618 and 1648.
It began in Bohemian protestants rebelled against their king Ferdinand II, the Holy Roman Emperor. He asked the king of Spain for help, and the revolt was suppressed.
However, the other protestants regions of the Empire supported the Bohemian rebels, and the war continued.
THE END OF THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR
France, a catholic country, allied itself with the protestants in 1635. Spanish troops were unable to contend with so many enemies, and suffered many defeats.
In 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia finished the Thirty Years’ War. This signified the loss of Spanish supremacy in Europe. Much of central Europe had been destroyed.
THE REVOLTS OF CATALONIA AND PORTUGAL
The Count-Duke of Olivares’ centralist policy caused various revolts in the Hispanic Monarchy.
The most serious revolts took place in Catalonia and Portugal. The rebellion in Catalonia finished in 1652, but the Portuguese expelled Philip IV’s representatives, and declared their independence.
He was the last king of the “Austrias”. He inherited the throne in 1665, when he was only four years old. His mother Mariana of Austria became regent until 1675, when the king came age.
However, the king was mentally and physically ill and could not rule, so his mother and different chief- ministers ran the government.
Charles died in 1700. He died with no heirs. This caused conflicts between the supporters of Philip of Bourbon (French) and the supporters of Charles of Austria, but finally the throne of Spain was occupied by a new dynasty the House of Bourbon. And this marked the end of the Spanish branch of the House of Austria.