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  • 1. Project 2 Case Study, Analysis & Documentation of Building Services Systems Building Services (ARC 2423) Group Report (Mr Adib’s Group) Ong Wei Hoow (0304468) Gan Sze Hui (0303709) Lau Hao Shun (1101G13277) Celine Tan Jean Inn (0303669) Brandon Ang Ee Shen (0302955) Nicholas Tiong Ing Jun (1103P11824)
  • 2. 2 | P a g e Table of Content Page Number Abstract 5 Acknowledgement 6 Introduction 7 1 Mechanical Ventilation & Air Conditioning System 8 1.1 Literature Review 1.1.1 Mechanical Ventilation 1.1.2 Air conditioning 1.2 Centralized Air-Conditioning System 1.2.1 Introduction of ACMV System in Pinnacle Sunway 1.3 Air Handling System 1.4 Cooling Tower 1.5 Chilled Water System 1.5.1 Piping 1.5.2 Refrigerant Pump 1.6 ACMV Advanced Features 1.6.1 Emergency Air Supply 1.6.2 Corridor Pressurization Provision 1.6.3 Off-office Hours AC Provision 1.7 Conclusion 2 Electrical Supply System 26 2.1 Literature Review 2.2 High Voltage Room (TNB Substation) 2.3 Consumer Switch Room 2.4 Main Switch Board Room 2.4.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cylindrical Tank 2.4.2 Circuit Breaker 2.4.3 Rubber Mats 2.5 Sub Switch Boards 2.6 Distribution Boards 2.7 Genset Room 2.8 Cable Tray System 2.9 Bus Duct 2.10 Electric Riser Room 2.11 Underfloor Trunking System 2.12 Electrical Meter Base 2.13 Conclusion
  • 3. 3 | P a g e 3 Cold Water Supply System 45 3.1 Literature Review 3.1.1 Direct Cold Water Supply System 3.1.2 Indirect Cold Water Supply System 3.2 Water Meter 3.3 Gate Valve & Stop Valve 3.4 Pipework 3.4.1 Copper Pipes 3.4.2 Steel Pipes 3.4.3 Polythene pipe 3.4.4 Unplasticised PVC (UPVC) 3.4.5 Piping 3.5 Pump 3.6 Water Storage Tank 3.7 Conclusion 4 Sewerage & Sanitary System 59 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Sanitation Components and Systems 4.2 Pipework 4.3 Traps 4.4 Venting 4.5 Conclusion 5 Mechanical Transportation System 68 5.1 Literature Review 5.2 Vertical Transportation 5.2.1 Introduction & Function of Lift 5.2.2 Operation of System 5.3 Component of System 5.3.1 Lift System 5.3.2 Machine Room 5.3.3 Operating Panel 5.4 Design Consideration 5.5 Conclusion
  • 4. 4 | P a g e 6 Fire Protection System 90 6.1 Literature Review 6.1.1 Education of Fire Protection System 6.1.2 Active Fire Protection 6.1.3 Passive Fire Protection 6.2 Active Fire Protection 6.2.1 Smoke Detector 6.2.2 Fire Control Room 6.2.3 Fire Alarm System 6.2.4 Fireman Intercom System 6.2.5 Water Based System 6.2.5.1 External Fire Hydrant System 6.2.5.2 Fire Pump Room 6.2.5.3 Sprinkler System 6.2.5.4 Fire Hose Reel System 6.2.5.5 Wet Riser System 6.2.5.6 Water Tank 6.2.6 Non-water Based System 6.2.6.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fire Suppression System 6.2.6.2 Portable Fire Extinguishers 6.3 Passive Fire Protection 6.3.1 Fire Evacuation System and Escaper Route 6.3.2 Emergency Exit Language 6.3.3 Fire Escape Door 6.3.4 Fire Escape Staircase 6.3.5 Fire Resistance Material 6.4 Conclusion 7 References 136
  • 5. 5 | P a g e ABSTRACT In a group of 6, we were assigned to investigate and analyze the building services and its mechanisms of an office unit called Pinnacle Sunway. Through this program, we are able to be known about the basic principles, process and equipment of a commercial building in real life. Apart from that, we are able to understand and familiarize with the drawing conventions and standard for different building services systems. We had the chance to explore up close the systems of the said building in detail. From this exercise, we were able to demonstrate our understanding into accommodating spaces and components required for installation of the services in the building.
  • 6. 6 | P a g e ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank Mr Yap of Suncon and Mr Tai to allow our team to visit the Pinnacle Sunway building. We are also grateful that Mr Tai has provided us with all of the necessary information throughout the building including statistics information and schematics drawing. Without their help, we won’t be able to finish the project with the required information. We would also like to thank Mr Chin and his team of engineers for bringing us for a tour around the building through the prominent service rooms and the mechanics of the are such as the lift motor room, the fan room and the firefighting system room. We are grateful that they relentlessly explaining the systems of each room and the machines within. If it weren’t for his team, we would only know the building on a surface level.
  • 7. 7 | P a g e INTRODUCTION Total Area: Site Area: 7,284m2 Substructure GFA: 41,455m2 Superstructure GFA: 65,425m2 Typical Floor Plate: 2,600m2 NFA: 53,612m2 The Pinnacle Sunway is the latest Green building features & MSC status commercial buildings built within the Klang Valley. The Pinnacle office tower strategically located in the enclave within Sunway Pyramid, Sunway Hotel and Menara Sunway and The Pinnacle offers a net lettable area of over 580,000sf. It boasts a high speed broadband connectivity and smart security system. The 27- storey office tower with a pyramid top is the tallest building in Bandar Sunway and currently, it is the only Grade A green building within the Bandar Sunway and Subang area. The Pinnacle Sunway is the maiden in-house project of Sunway Construction that uses Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) technology, which consists of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). VDC is one of the most promising developments in the construction industry as it allows an integrated approach of managing design, scheduling, estimation and fabrication processes.
  • 8. 8 | P a g e MECHANICAL VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 1.1 Literature Review HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. HVAC system design is a sub discipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. HVAC is important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and in marine environments such as aquariums, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors. 1.1.1 Mechanical Ventilation A building ventilation system that uses powered fans or blowers to provide fresh air to rooms when the natural forces of air pressure and gravity are not enough to circulate air through a building. Mechanical ventilation is used to control indoor air quality, excess humidity, odours, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates specialized ventilation systems can remove excess moisture from the air. Ceiling fans are commonly seen as ventilation systems as they are usually the most visible mechanical system in a building; however ceiling fans do not provide real ventilation, as there is no introduction of fresh air. Ceiling fans only circulate air within a room for the purpose of reducing the perceived temperature by method of evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupants. Also hot air rises therefore; ceiling fans may be used to keep a room warmer in the winter by circulating the warm from the ceiling to the floor. Figure 1.1.1.1: Rotary Heat Exchanger Source: http://uolventilation.weebly.com/mechanical .html Figure 1.1.1.2: Ceiling Fan Source: http://uolventilation.weebly.com/mechanical .html
  • 9. 9 | P a g e Main Methods of Forced Ventilation: 1) PRESSURE SYSTEM - a system which air is blown through the building by a fan or other blower placed at the inlet. The air pressure in the building is slightly greater than that of the outer atmosphere. 2) VACUUM SYSTEM - causing an inrush of fresh air. This is done by an exhaust fan placed at the outlet to the vent flue or stack. The air pressure in the building is slightly lower than that of the outer atmosphere. However a combination of these two methods can be used to create a BALANCED SYSTEM: Figure 1.1.1.3: Illustration of Balanced System Source: http://uolventilation.weebly.com/mechanical.html
  • 10. 10 | P a g e 1.1.2 Air conditioning Centralized systems are defined as those in which the cooling (chilled water) is generated in a chiller at one base location and distributed to air-handling units or fan-coil units located throughout the building spaces. The air is cooled with secondary media (chilled water) and is transferred through air distribution ducts. The system is broken down into three major subsystems: the chilled water plant, the condenser water system (or heat rejection system) and the air-delivery system. Figure 1.1.2.1: Chilled Water Centralized System. Source: http://www.seedengr.com/Cent%20Vs%20Decent%20AC%20Systems.pdf
  • 11. 11 | P a g e Components: 1. Plant Room The plant room is where the the heavy machinery of the system are housed. Refrigerant is cooled in the plant room and distributed to the air handling unit (AHU) located in different room(s) at different level(s)/zone(s). Treated & cooled air is supplied from the AHU to the rooms in the same level/zone via the ducts. Usually this system is installed during the construction of a building & should be integrated with the structure & spaces of a building in the early stage of design. 2. Air Handling Unit AHU An air handler, or air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a blower, heating or cooling elements filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to a duct work ventilation system that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns it to the AHU. Sometimes AHUs discharge (supply) and admit (return) air directly to and from the space served without ductwork. 3. Water Chiller A water chiller is a mechanical device used to facilitate heat exchange from water to a refrigerant in a closed loop system. The refrigerant is then pumped to a location where the waste heat is transferred to the atmosphere. In air conditioning, chilled water is often used to cool a building's air and equipment, especially in situations where many individual rooms must be controlled separately, such as a hotel. A chiller lowers water temperature to between 40° and 45°F before the water is pumped to the location to be cooled. 4. Fan Coil Unit A fan coil unit (FCU) is a simple device consisting of a heating or cooling coil and fan. It is part of an HVAC system found in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. Typically a fan coil unit is not connected to ductwork, and is used to control the temperature in the space where it is installed, or serve multiple spaces. It is controlled either by a manual on/off switch or by thermostat. Due to their simplicity, fan coil units are more economical to install than ducted or central heating systems with air handling units. However, they can be noisy because the fan is within the same space. Unit configurations are numerous including horizontal (ceiling mounted) or vertical (floor mounted).
  • 12. 12 | P a g e 1.2 Centralized Air-Conditioning System 1.2.1 Introduction of ACMV System in Pinnacle Sunway According to the MS 1525 code 8.9, ACMV System: The ACMV system stand of 3 different basic systems: 1. Central air-distribution systems In this type, either ACWV System Equipment or an engineered and field assembled combination of ACMV System Components, receives re-circulated room air (plus outside air as required) from a central duct system, performs the required ventilating or air-conditioning functions, and delivers the conditioned air to the central duct system, for final delivery to the conditioned space(s) of the building. 2. Central circulating water systems In this type, a centrifugal , rotary , screw , scroll or reciprocating, compression refrigeration or absorption refrigeration type water-chilling package provides chilled water to a central piping system ; and the piping system supplies cooled water, as required, to water-air heat exchangers (terminal units) serving the conditioned space(s) of the building. The water chilling package, including its heat-rejecting element, and the terminal units are considered to be ACMV System Components. 3. Multiple unit systems. In this type, a number of units ACMV Equipment, each receiving a supply of electric power of different outputs due to the difference in mechanisms.
  • 13. 13 | P a g e 1.3 Air Handling System An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a blower, heating or cooling elements filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to a ductwork ventilation system that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns it to the AHU. Sometimes AHUs discharge (supply) and admit (return) air directly to and from the space served without ductwork. Small air handlers, for local use, are called terminal units, and may only include an air filter, coil, and blower; these simple terminal units are called blower coils or fan coil units. A larger air handler that conditions 100% outside air, and no recirculated air, is known as a makeup air unit (MAU). An air handler designed for outdoor use, typically on roofs, is known as a packaged unit (PU) or rooftop unit (RTU). However in the Pinnacle Sunway building, cooling units are not done using air flow, but instead being liquid chilled. This means the refrigerant is pumped by a separate motor (see 1.5.2).
  • 14. 14 | P a g e 1.4 Cooling Tower A cooling tower is a heat rejection device which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. The cooling towers in Sunway have 3 units on level 25: 1. 1 no. TCS 1200-2EG 2 CELL 2. 2 nos. TCS 1250-1EG 1 CELL Figure 1.4.1 Rooftop MEP Plants Layout Level 24-25 in Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 1.4.2 Cooling Tower at Level 25 in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 15. 15 | P a g e 1.5 Chilled Water System Figure 1.5.0.1 shows Chilled Water Piping at Level 23th -26th in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 16. 16 | P a g e Figure 1.5.0.2: Basement 1 Chiller Unit in Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 1.5.0.3: Plan of the Condenser Unit and its details.
  • 17. 17 | P a g e Figure 1.5.0.4: Location of the Basement 1 Chiller room, just next to the main lift pits. Chilled water cooling is very different from typical residential air conditioning where a refrigerant is pumped through an air handler to cool the air. Regardless of the source of water, the chilled water (between 4°and 7°C) is pumped through an air handler, which captures the heat from the air, then disperses the air throughout the area to be cooled. The condenser water absorbs heat from the refrigerant in the condenser barrel of the water chiller, and is then sent via return lines to a cooling tower, which is a heat exchange device used to transfer waste heat to the atmosphere. The extent to which the cooling tower decreases the temperature depends upon the outside temperature, the relative humidity and the atmospheric pressure. The water in the chilled water circuit will be lowered to the Wet-bulb temperature or dry-bulb temperature before proceeding to the water chiller, where it is cooled to between 4°and 7°C and pumped to the air handler, where the cycle is repeated.
  • 18. 18 | P a g e 1.5.1 Piping Figure 1.5.1.1 Piping with initials Meanings of some of the common initials: CWS – Condensed water supply : To help the mechanical equipments lose heat CWR – Condensed water return : To recycle the lost heat gained CHWP- S – Chilled Water Supply : To cool the refrigerant CHWP- R – Chilled Water Return : Return to cooling tower Analysis According to MS 1525 code 8.4: “All piping installed to serve buildings and within buildings should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses. Additional insulation with vapor barriers may be required to prevent condensation under some conditions.”
  • 19. 19 | P a g e 1.5.2 Refrigerant Pump Figure 1.5.2.1 Refrigerant Pump This pump serves to pump refrigerant to the AHU rooms to cool the air in the Air Handling Units. After a while, this refrigerant will warm up as it gains heat. This substance is then pumped back from the AHU rooms to the chiller to be chilled again. In this system, two types of system are present: 1. Pump for refrigerant to AHU rooms 2. Pump for warm refrigerant to return to the chiller from AHU
  • 20. 20 | P a g e 1.5.3 Monitor Component Figure 1.5.3.1: Monitor for Refrigerant Pump (left) ; Controls for compressor unit (right) Measuring equipments are located on every pipe of the module leading towards the chilled water and cooling tower. This helps during the maintenance handling. The lowest temperature of the chilled water in the chiller system would be 7 °C, this being the supply water while the return chilled water is usually 13°C. The monitor unit on the compressor makes it easy to shut down, set timer to the system or perform emergency stops shall the unit fail. Overall the process that goes inside the compressor is automated.
  • 21. 21 | P a g e 1.6 ACMV Advanced Features 1.6.1 Emergency Air Supply The interfacing in between Fresh Air Fan control panel, Electrical power supply and the Building Control system (BCS) giving this advance feature that in the event of power failure in the building, the standby generator will take place, the BCS will activate the Fresh Air Fan at the roof floor to deliver sufficient fresh air through the fresh air shaft to each and every individual floor. Figure 1.6.1.1 Plan showing where the air ducts go and the duct unit itself. Fresh Air Supply
  • 22. 22 | P a g e 1.6.2 Corridor Pressurization Provision When one floor being occupied and partitioned up by few tenants, a common corridor need to be built up in comply to the Building by-law’s requirement. This common corridor serves as the fire escape route during fire mode. The corridor pressurization facility has been provided in this building. The interfacing in between Pressurization Fan panel and Fire Alarm signal has been well configured , so that during fire emergency, fire safety escape to the tenants can be obtained. Figure 1.6.2.1 Showing the accessibility of the tenants to fire escape CommonCorridor Tenant 1 Tenant 3 Tenant 2 Tenant 4 CommonCorridor Corridor Pressurization Shaft & Grilles
  • 23. 23 | P a g e 1.6.3 Off-office Hours AC Provision For the tenant who plans to install additional air conditioning unit (Split unit) in the future, the provision of condensate pipe is ready for connection at the four corners of the building. Figure1.6.3 Location of Provisional Holes of AC
  • 24. 24 | P a g e Figure 1.6.4 Location on wall of Provisional Holes of AC Provision for drainage tapping point Condensate Pipe
  • 25. 25 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 41: Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning 1) Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority. 2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition to the permanent air conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half-an-hour of the air-conditioning system failing, not less that the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air conditioning system is not functioning. 3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are mechanically ventilated or air conditioned. 4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these By-laws relating to natural ventilation and natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or corridors. 1.6 Conclusion The air conditioning unit needs no introduction to its contribution. The importance of thermal comfort makes the system valuable today. Coupled with an automated system in the motor unit of the chiller machine to control power output, the AC system in Pinnacle Sunway is very efficient and optimal in conserving energy. Cooling towers assist greatly in keeping the AC units from overheating. The need for ventilation is not left out, having vents , emergency air supply units and pressurization unit. In overall terms, the system is organized properly to fit the demand of the clients and the needs of the habitants in the building.
  • 26. 26 | P a g e ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 2.1 Literature Review Everything in this world made up of atoms. Each one of them has three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Electrons spin around the centre of an atom. They have a negative charge and for Protons, which are in the centre of atoms, have a positive charge. Normally, an atom has as many protons as it has electrons. It is stable or balanced. Carbon, for example has six protons and six electrons. Scientists can make electrons travel from one atom to another. An atom that loses electrons is positively charged, an atom that gets more electrons is negatively charged. Electricity is created when electrons move between atoms. Positive atoms look for free negative electrons and attract them, so that they can be balanced. In this past, burning a fossil fuel, such as coal or oil, most often use to produce usable energy. The result of the heat energy was used directly as heat and light or converted by machines into motion. In the end of the 19th century, this heat been used to create another form of usable energy, electricity. But for the modern world nowadays, nuclear is use for fossil fuels has affected only the heat production portion of this process. Electricity is generated at a power generating plant and distributed by high-voltage transmission lines through various distribution systems until it reaches your home or business. An electrical supply system is a network of electrical components used to supply, transmit and use electric power. An example of an electric power system is the network that supplies a region's homes and industry with power - for sizable regions, this power system is known as the grid and can be broadly divided into the generators that supply the power, the transmission system that carries the power from the generating centres to the load centres and the distribution system that feeds the power to nearby homes and industries. Electricity is generated at a power generating plant that distributing power to substations via high voltage transmission lines. Near the center of all the power station is a generator, is a rotating machine that convert mechanical energy to electrical power by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source make use of the generator varies widely. I t depends the company of a country has access to. Most of the power station in the world burns fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas to generate electricity. But there is an increasing use of cleaner renewable source such as solar, wind, wave and hydroelectric. However, in Malaysia, burning fossil fuel is to generate electricity.
  • 27. 27 | P a g e Figure 2.1.1: shows that Malaysia TNB electrical power plant. Then, a step up transmission substation receives electric power from a nearby generating facility and uses a large power transformer to increase the voltage for transmission to distant locations. Not only that, a transmission bus is used to distribute electric power to one or more transmission lines. There can also be a tap on the incoming power feed from the generation plant to provide electric power to operate equipment in the generation plant. Furthermore, a substation can have circuit breakers that are used to switch generation and transmission circuits in and out of service as needed or for emergencies requiring shut-down of power to a circuit or redirection of power. The longer the cable, the higher the resistance, the lower the power being supply so it need a large amount of voltage to transfer to another location Figure 2.1.2: shows the step up transmission substation.
  • 28. 28 | P a g e After that, it is transferred by transmission line to electrical pylons. An electrical pylon usually is a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line. An overhead transmission is used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy in a long distance. After that, it is transferred to substation and lastly to transformer or the pole to home or building. Below is the basic diagram of electric supply system. Figure 2.1.3: shows the electrical pylons. Figure 2.1.4: shows the basic structure of the Electric System
  • 29. 29 | P a g e 2.2 High Voltage Room (TNB Substation) The High Voltage Room is the direct link from the transmission cables receiving electricity, the high voltage needed to be reduced to a lower voltage with a step- down transformer room for the power needed in the whole building before it distribute to the whole building. Figure 2.2.1: shows TNB room in Pinnacle Sunway has been repainted again for the aesthetic. Figure 2.2.2: shows the location of TNB room that located at the Basement Level 1 in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 30. 30 | P a g e 2.3 Consumer Switch Room The consumer room is located directly next to the TNB room mainly to reduce the voltage drop because the further current has to travel; the reduction in current is higher due to resistance in the wires. Hence the rooms are located side by side. In the consumer room, a transformer is installed to step down the electricity from 11KV to 415 V which are much more suitable for usage. The step down is done by the transformer by the means of a primary coil and a secondary coil, as electricity pass through a coil of wire, a magnetic field is created, and any other coil or wires nearby will be induced of electricity, hence a step down transformer usually have more coils in the primary coil and half or less coils in the secondary coil as to step down the electricity. Figure 2.3.1: Shows the location of consumer switch room at the Basement Level 1 in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 31. 31 | P a g e Transformer room (Step-down Transformer) A device used to change the voltage of an alternating current in one circuit to a different voltage in a second circuit, or to partially isolate two circuits from each other. Transformers consist of two or more coils of conducting material, such as wire, wrapped around a core (often made of iron). The magnetic field produced by an alternating current in one coil induces a similar current in the other coils. If there are fewer turns on the coil that carries the source of the power than there are on a second coil, the second coil will provide the same power but at a higher voltage. This is called a step-up transformer. If there are fewer turns on the second coil than on the source coil, the outgoing power will have a lower voltage. This is called a step-down transformer. 2.4 Main Switch Board Room An electric switchboard is a device that directs electricity from one or more sources of supply to several smaller regions of usage. It is an assembly of one or more panels, each of which contains switches that allow electricity to be redirected. The role of a switchboard is to allow the division of the current supplied to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution and to provide switching, current protection and (possibly) metering for those various currents. In general, switchboards may distribute power to transformers, panel boards, control equipment, and, ultimately, to individual system loads. Inside a switchboard there will be one or more bus bars. These are flat strips of copper or aluminum, to which the switchgear is connected. Bus bars carry large currents through the switchboard, and are supported by insulators. Bare bus bars are common, but many types are now manufactured with an insulating cover on the bars, leaving only connection points exposed. The operator is protected from electrocution by safety switches and fuses. There may also be controls for the supply of electricity to the switchboard, coming from a generator or bank of electrical generators, especially frequency control of AC powers and load sharing controls, plus gauges showing frequency and perhaps a synchroscope. The amount of power going into a switchboard must always equal to the power going out to the loads.
  • 32. 32 | P a g e Figure 2.4.0.1: Main Switch Room located at Basement Level 1 in Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 2.4.0.2: Shows the location of the Main Switch Room in Basement Level 1.
  • 33. 33 | P a g e 2.4.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cylindrical Tank For the safety precaution, Inert gas, CO2 has been long used to prevent ignition of potentially flammable mixtures and extinguish fire involving flammable liquids or gases. Although inert gases certainly help extinguish fire by displacing oxygen, they are even more effective by acting as a heat sink, absorbing combustion energy. CO2 is stored in cylinders as a liquid under great pressure. In does not conduct electricity and will not normally damage sensitive electronic equipment. In Pinnacle Sunway, such system is used in the transformer room and main switch board room instead of water- based sprinkler system. Figure 2.4.1.1 CO2 cylindrical tank located in the Main Switch Board room
  • 34. 34 | P a g e 2.4.2 Circuit Breaker There is a MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker) panel is locate in the Main Switch Room Pinnacle Sunway. This panel can rate current up to 1000 A and it trip current may be adjustable. Besides that, it can be thermal or thermal- magnetic operation. A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. The difference between breakers and fuse is that. Breakers are used for high voltage currents as they break the circuits faster than fuses, if the circuits is not broken fast enough an electric arc mat form, passing on high voltage current throughout the circuit and damaging appliances connected to it. Fuses are normally used in lower voltage electrical equipment such as Distribution Boards. Figure 2.4.2.1: shows the MCCB in the Main Switch Room at Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 2.4.2.2: shows Molded Case circuit breaker diagram.
  • 35. 35 | P a g e 2.4.3 Rubber Mats Based on Electricity Supply Act 1990 and Electricity Regulation 1994, rubber mats are placed on the floor beside Main Switch Boards as a safety measures for the maintenance crew or MSB users so to prevent human bodies to become a conductor for earthling during a high voltage current leak thus minimizing chances of fat al electric shocks. Figure 2.4.3.1 shows the rubber mats are being used in Main Switch Board Room in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 36. 36 | P a g e 2.5 Sub Switch Boards The sub switch boards are located on every three level to regulate the electricity that is being supplied by the main switch board to that level. This is part of a protection and prevention act as if there is any power surge that might causes a trip and only the level that affected will auto cut off electric supply. Figure 2.5.1 Sub Switch Board 2.6 Distribution Boards A distribution board is a component of an electricity supply system which divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit, in a common enclosure. Normally, a main switch, and in recent boards, one or more residual-current devices (RCD) or residual current breakers with overcurrent protection (RCBO), are also incorporated. A distribution board is a smaller panel board that has a similar function to a switch board, but for a distribution board, it is a sub division of electricity from the switch boards that supply for only a specific level in Pinnacle Sunway. If one of the office units in that particular floor needs repair in any electrical related matter, the other level of offices unit in that particular floor will not be affect. Within the distribution boards are switches which again sub divide the unit into smaller division where electricity is supplied, each switch is fitted usually with a fuse, so if any power surge, the electrical appliances will not be damaged.
  • 37. 37 | P a g e Figure 2.6.2 show the location of the Distribution Board and Sub switch board for typical floor. Figure 2.6.1: shows Distribution Board
  • 38. 38 | P a g e 2.7 Genset Room A Genset room is a generator that helps to generate electricity if the building havs any power failure. Genset room is located at Basement 3 at Pinnacle Sunway. The work of this generator is to provide electricity during blackout or power failure. Figure 2.7.2: show the location of the Gen set room at Pinnacle Sunway Basement Level 3. Figure 2.7.1: shows Diesel Generator.
  • 39. 39 | P a g e Placing a generator also important, it should be placed and be protected against harmful materials carried from air such as dust, thread, smoke. The ground also should be stable and flat. No authorized person must not enter the generator room and need a proper way to carry and install the generator at the room. Cooling and ventilation Motor and alternator release heat and cause increasing of ambient temperature. Increasing of temperature affects negatively working of the generator. For this reason, enough ventilation should be provided so as to keep cool motor and alternator. Air must enter the generator room by alternator; exist from the room by means of flexible bellows canvas made of tent canvas passing over the motor and through radiator. If a canvas is not used for ejecting hot air out of the room, fan reduces the efficiency of cooling via expanding hot air in the generator room. 2.8 Cable Tray System These are fire resistance cable; these cables will hold and prevent the wiring from melting for an average time of an hour. Mineral Insulated Copper Clad (MICC) cables are special wiring which connects the generator to the Main Switch Board Room for fire emergency. Figure 2.8.1: Cable Tray System
  • 40. 40 | P a g e 2.9 Bus Duct Conductor bars are assembled with insulators in grounded enclosures. This assembly is known as bus duct, can be used for connections to large switchgear or for bringing the main power feed into a building. A form of bus ducts known plug-in bus is used to distribute power down the length of a building; it is constructed to allow tap-off switches or motor controllers to be installed at definite places along the bus. The advantage of using bus duct is it saves more space and requires less space than normal cable. Figure 2.9.1: shows Bus duct in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 41. 41 | P a g e 2.10 Electric Riser Room The main are from Riser Rooms or Extended Distribution Boards are present. The electricity is distributed laterally through a series of cable tray system to risers around the building. Figure 2.10.1: shows Electric Riser in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 42. 42 | P a g e 2.11 Underfloor Trunking System The underfloor trunking system is provided at every typical floor in Pinnacle Sunway. The system comes with the underfloor termination box. On each termination box complete with: a) 4 nos. of 13A power socket outlets c/w wiring. b) 4 nos. provision ports for Cat 6 Jack (for Network data & telephone cable termination) Figure 2.11.1: shows the placement of Underfloor Termination Box in typical floor. Figure 2.11.2: Underfloor Termination Box.
  • 43. 43 | P a g e 2.12 Electrical Meter Base An electrical meter base, also known simply as an electrical meter, measures how much energy an office business building uses so the electric company knows how much to charge. But the most common type of electrical meter is the electromechanical induction meter. Figure 2.12.2: shows the different placement of meter in typical floor. Figure 2.12.1: shows the electrical meter base in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 44. 44 | P a g e 2.13 Conclusion According to Universal Building By Law (UBBL) obeyed by the Pinnacles Sunway, every element in electricity supply system are built accordingly in the correct place and each of the electricity component play their roles. In conclusion, we can conclude that the electricity supply system at Pinnacle Sunway follow the necessary requirements set by the governments for operating the building in terms of electricity, the voltage supplied is adequate. Below is the sum up of the flow electricity supply system. From all the above it is for the safety of the workers and the peoples in the building and to aware the flow of the electricity.
  • 45. 45 | P a g e COLD WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 3.1 Literature Review An adequate supply of water is a basic requirement for most buildings for reasons of personal hygiene or for activities such as cooking and manufacturing processes. In most areas a piped supply of water is available from a Public Water Board or Public Utility Company mains supply system. The water authority by a system of screening, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination, aeration and fluoridation makes the water fit for human consumption before allowing it to enter the mains. The water company's mains are laid underground at a depth where they will be unaffected by frost or traffic movement. The lay-out of the system is generally a circuit with trunk mains feeding a grid of subsidiary mains for distribution to specific areas or districts. The materials used for main pipes are cast iron and asbestos cement which can be tapped whilst under pressure; a plug cock is inserted into the crown of the mains pipe to provide the means of connecting the communication pipe to supply an individual building. The procedure for the design of a water distribution system for a building is straightforward. It is assumed that an adequate reliable supply of clean potable water is available. The design procedure is then as follows: a) Determine the pressure of the source. Decide whether to use the source directly, reduce the pressure or increase it. b) Determine whether the structure will be treated as a single unit or whether it is necessary to zone it. c) Decide whether to use an up feed or down feed system. d) Determine the pressure and flow requirements of all fixtures and all continuous water uses. e) Determine maximum instantaneous water demand. This is a combination of fixture use and other water uses in the building. f) Determine the service size on the service size on the basis of maximum water requirements. g) Determine minimum pipe sizes on the basis of required flow rates and pressure for the water use device farthest from the service. h) Determine location of shock arresters and any other special devices required.
  • 46. 46 | P a g e 3.1.1 Direct Cold Water Supply System In this system the whole of the cold water to the sanitary fittings is supplied directly from the service pipe. The direct system is used mainly in northern districts where large, high level reservoirs provide a good mains supply and pressure. Another advantage of the direct system is that drinking water is available from several outlet points. The main disadvantage is the lack of reserve should the mains supply be cut off for repairs, also there can lowering of the supply during peak demand periods. When sanitary fittings are connected directly to a mains supply there is always a risk of contamination of the mains water by back siphonage. This can occur if there is a negative pressure on the mains and any of the outlets are submerged below the water level, such as a hand spray connected to the taps. 3.1.2 Indirect Cold Water Supply System In this system all the sanitary fittings, except for a drinking water outlet at the sink, are supplied indirectly from a cold water storage cistern positioned at a high level, usually in the roof space. This system requires more pipe work but it gives a reserve supply in case of mains failure and it also reduces the risk of contamination by back siphonage. It should be noted that the local water authority determines the system to be used in the area. Figure 3.1.1.1 shows direct cold water supply system Source: www.practicaldiy.com/plumbing/water- supply Figure 3.1.1.2 shows indirect cold water supply system Source: www.practicaldiy.com/plumbing/water- supply
  • 47. 47 | P a g e 3.2 Water Meters Water meters are supplied at the discretion of the local water authorities and most new buildings are required to have them. There are two common approaches to flow measurement, displacement and velocity. Common displacement designs include oscillating piston and mutating disc meters. Velocity -based designs include single and multi-jet meters and turbine meters. Figure 3.2.1 shows the use of water meter in Pinnacle Sunway in the schematic diagram. Figure 3.2.2 shows displacement of water meter. Source: www.practicaldiy.com/plumbing/water- supply Figure 3.2.3 shows patent water meter. Source: www.practicaldiy.com/plumbing/water- supply
  • 48. 48 | P a g e 3.3 Gate Valve & Stop Valve The gate valve also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so gate valves are often used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. The gate faces can form a wedge shape pr they can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Gate valves are primarily used to permit or prevent the flow of liquids, but typical gate valves shouldn't be used for regulating flow, unless they are specially designed for that purpose. On opening the gate valve, the flow path is enlarged in a highly nonlinear manner with respect to percent of opening. This means that flow rate does not change evenly with stem travel. Also, a partially open gate disk tends to vibrate from the fluid flow. Most of the flow change occurs near shutoff with a relatively high fluid velocity causing disk and seat wear and eventual leakage if used to regulate flow. Gate valves are characterized as having either a rising or a non-rising stem. Rising stems provide a visual indication of valve position because the stem is attached to the gate such that the gate and stem rise and lower together as the valve is operated. Figure 3.3.1 detail drawings of valves. Source: www.practicaldiy.com/plumbing/water- supply
  • 49. 49 | P a g e Figure 3.3.2 the valves in Pinnacle Sunway. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 226: Automatic System for Hazardous Occupancy Where hazardous processes, storage or occupancy are of such character as to require automatic system sprinkles or other automatic extinguishing system, it shall be of a type and standard appropriate or handled or for the safety of the occupants.
  • 50. 50 | P a g e 3.4 Pipework Any of the materials which are suitable for the service pipe are equally suitable for distribution pipes and the choice is very often based on individual preference, initial costs and possible maintenance costs. 3.4.1 Copper pipes Copper pipes have a smooth bore giving low flow resistance, they are strong and easily jointed and bent. Joints in copper pipes can be made by one of three methods: a) Manipulative compression joint: the end of the pipe is manipulated to fit into the coupling fitting by means of a special tool. No jointing material is required and the joint offers great resistance to being withdrawn. It is usually by a law requirement that this type of joint is used on service pipes below ground. b) Non-manipulative compression joint: no manipulation is required to the cut end of the pipe, the holding power of the joint relies on the grip of a copper cone wedge within the joint fitting. c) Capillary joint: the application of heat makes the soft solder contained in a groove in the fitting flow around the end of the pipe which has been cleaned and coated with a suitable flux to form a neat and rigid joint. Examples of copper pipe joints are shown in Figure 3.4.2 Steel pipes Steel pipes for domestic water supply can be obtained as black tube, galvanized or coated and wrapped for underground services. The joining is usually made with a tapered thread and socket fitting, to ensure a sound joint, stranded hemp and jointing paste should be wrapped around the thread; alternatively a non- contaminating white plastic seal type can be used. ( see Figure 4 )
  • 51. 51 | P a g e 3.4.3 Polythene pipe Polythene pipe is very light in weight, easy to joint, non-toxic and is available in long lengths, which gives a saving on the number of joints required. Jointing of polythene pipes are generally of the compression type using a metal or plastic liner to the end of the tube ( see Figure 4 ). To prevent undue sagging polythene pipes should be adequately fixed to the wall with saddle clips, recommended spacings are fourteen times the outside diameter for horizontal runs and twenty- four times outside diameter for vertical runs. 3.4.4 Unplasticised PVC (UPVC) This is plastic pipe for cold water services which is supplied in straight lengths up to 9000mm long and in standard colors of grey, blue and black. Jointing can be by a screw thread but the most common method is by solvent welding. This involves cleaning and chamfering the end of the pipe which is coated with the correct type of cement and pushed into a straight coupling which has also been given a similar coat of cement. Figure 3.4.4.1 shows pipe joint details. Source: Chudley, R. 1987
  • 52. 52 | P a g e 3.4.5 Piping CWS - Condensed water supply: To help the mechanical equipments lose heat CRW - Condensed water return: To be recycle to lose heat gained CHWS - Chilled water supply: To cool the refrigerant CHWR - Chilled water return: Return to Cooling Tower Analysis According to MS 1525 code 8.5: "All piping installed to serve buildings and within buildings should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses. Additional insulation with vapor barriers may be required to prevent condensation under some conditions." Figure 3.4.5.1 shows the piping in chilled water room in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 53. 53 | P a g e 3.5 Pump A pump is a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement and gravity pumps. Figure 3.5.1 shows 2 pumps that found in the water supply room. This device are called booster pump. Figure 3.5.2 shows that a series of valves and piping and can the water storage is behind the wall Figure 3.5.1 shows the pumps used by Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 54. 54 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 section 247(2): Water storage Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances. The water supply system in Pinnacle Sunway is split into two parts. First is that the water supply from the ground floor to level 15. Second part would be starting from level 15 to level 26.The building needs separated pumps is because due to the building is too high, so the pump couldn't achieve such powerful pressure to pump the water to the top of the building. Figure 3.5.3 shows the pumps starting from level 15 to the roof of Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 55. 55 | P a g e 3.6 Water Storage Tank There are few interesting water storage tank which located at the top floor of Pinnacle Sunway. The name of the water tank is called "Hot Dipped Galvanized Steel Tank". Basically the system is simple and yet cost effective and requires a very short time for installation. The steel panels are bolted together for water storage typically for fire protection systems, domestic water and air conditioning systems in building. These water storage tanks are normally supplied complete with covers, internal and external ladders, and water level indicators and are mostly hot dip galvanized for corrosion protection. The pressed steel water storage tanks are bolted together from the outside with seal strip and bitumen compound for water tightness. Figure 3.6.1 shows hot dipped galvanized water storage tank.
  • 56. 56 | P a g e Figure 3.6.2 shows the location of water tank at Basement Level in Pinnacle Sunway. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 247: Water Storage 1) Water storage capacity and water flow rate for firefighting system and installation shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the tenth schedule to these by - laws. 2) Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for the hose reel system, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connection accessible to fire appliances. 3) Storage tanks for automatic sprinkle installation where full capacity is provided without the need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.
  • 57. 57 | P a g e There are two parts of water supply services that serve Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 3.6.3: Schematic diagram showing the piping system from the ground floor to level 15 Figure 3.6.4: Schematic diagram showing the water supply system from level 15 to level 26
  • 58. 58 | P a g e 3.7 Conclusion To conclude that, we have identified and understood relevant information related to water supply system and sewerage system. We have understood how each components functions and its connectivity, as well as space implications. Therefore, we can conclude that the fundamental purpose of water supply system is to make sure every floor from the ground floor to the top floor that there is an adequate supply of clean water.
  • 59. 59 | P a g e SEWERAGE & SANITARY SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review Sanitary fittings or appliances can be considered under two headings: 1) Soil fitments: those which are used to remove soil water and human excrete such as water closets and urinals. 2) Waste water fitments: those which are used to remove the waste water from washing and the preparation of food including appliances such as wash basins, baths, showers and sinks. 4.1.1 Sanitation Components and Systems All sanitary appliances should be made from impervious materials, be quiet in operation, easy to clean and be of a convenient shape fixed at a suitable height. A number of materials are available for most domestic sanitary fittings including: 1) Vitreous china: a white clay body which is vitried and permanently fused with a vitreous glazed surface when fired at a very high temperature generally to the recommendations of BS 3402. Appliances made from this material are non- corrosive, hygienic and easily cleans with a mild detergent or soap solution. 2) Glazed fireclay: consists of a porous ceramic body glazed in a similar manner to vitreous china; they are exceptionally strong and resistant to impact damage but will allow water penetration of the body if the protective glazing is damaged. Like vitreous china, these appliances are non-corrosive, hygienic and easily cleaned. 3) Vitreous enamel: this is a form of glass which can be melted and used to available, the choice usually being one of personal preference. BS 1188 gives recommendations for ceramic wash basins and pedestals and specifies two basic sizes. 6356 x 457 and 559 x 406. These basins are a one-piece fitment having an integral overflow, separate waste outlet and generally pillar taps Figure 4.1.). Wash basins can be supported on wall - mounted cantilever brackets, leg supports or pedestals. The pedestals are made from identical material to the wash basin and are recessed at the back to receive the supply pipes most manufacturers recommend that small wall mounted safety brackets are also used. to the taps and the waste pipe from the bowl. Although pedestals are designed to fully support the wash basin most recommend that small wall mounted safety brackets are also used.
  • 60. 60 | P a g e Figure 4.1.1: Shows wc pans and cisterns. Source: Chudley, R. 1987.
  • 61. 61 | P a g e 4.2 PIPEWORK Approved Document H sets out in detail the recommendations for soil pipes, waste pipes and ventilating pipes. These regulations govern such things as minimum diameters of soil pipes, material requirements, provision of adequate waste seals by means of an integral trap and non- integral trap, the positioning of soil pipes on the inside of a building, overflow pipework and ventilating pipes. The only pipework which is permissible on the outside of the external wall is any waste pipe from a waste appliance situated at ground floor level providing such a pipe discharges into a suitable trap with a grating and the discharge is above the level of the water but below the level of the grating. Three basic pipework systems are in use for domestic work, namely: 1. One-pipe system 2. Two-pipe system 3. Single stack system Whichever system is adopted the functions of quick, reliable and quiet removal of the discharges to the drains remains constant. One-pipe system It consists of a single discharge pipe which conveys both soil and waste water directly to the drain. To ensure that water seals in the traps are not broken deep seals of 75 mm for waste pipes up to 65 mm diameter and 50 mm for pipes over 75 mm diameter are required. To allow for unrestricted layout of appliances layout of appliances most branch pipes will require an anti-siphon arrangement. (Figure 4.2.1) . The advantage of this system is the flexibility of appliance layout; the main disadvantage is cost; and generally the one-pipe system has been superseded by the more restricted. This system has been applied in Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 4.2.1: Shows One-pipe system
  • 62. 62 | P a g e Figure 4.2.2: Shows Schematic Diagram of Sewerage & Sanitary System of Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 63. 63 | P a g e 4.3 TRAPS The principal function of a trap is to provide a water sea between the drainage piping that connects to the outside sewer and the fixture. This water seal prevents entry into the building of odors, sewer gas and vermin from the sewer, via the fixture. All traps operate on the principle of siphonage. As water is added to the inlet end, an equal quantity of water leaves the outlet end, provided the pressures at both ends are approximately equal. Figure 4.3.1: various type of fixture traps. Water closets (a) have integral traps. Other fixtures (b) normally use the p (1 /2 s) trap. The drum trap (c) is prohibited because it is not self-cleaning. The full s trap (d) is not permitted because it may seld-siphon if the outlet vertical leg fills with waste. The bell trap (e) is prohibited because it fouls easily.
  • 64. 64 | P a g e Refer to Figure 4.3.1, only the P trap is acceptable by CODE. Traps must be self- scouring, that is, self-cleansing. That means that all the polluted water that enters the inlet, with all the suspended particles of soap, dirt, waste and the like, must travel completely through the trap, leaving a seal of clean water. The drum trap has a tendency to collect material and will not self-clean. The bell trap and traps with moving parts tend to foul easily. The S trap will self-siphon as soon as the outlet leg fills with water. These traps are therefore, prohibited. A standard P trap may not be installed more than 24 inch below the fixture drain because the momentum of water falling from a greater height might destroy the trap seal by simply pushing all the water out of the trap. The length of the trap arm may not exceed that shown. (Figure 4.3.2). The reason for this limitation is to prevent self- siphoning due to sloping of the trap arm to a point below the weir level of the trap. The trap would then self-siphon exactly like a full S trap. The limited trap arm length also ensures the adequate air movement that is required for proper venting and pressure equalizing. A fixture trap should be the same pipe size as the waste pipe to which it is connected. All traps must be accessible for cleaning and must have a cleanout plug, because sooner or later all traps need maintenance. Figure 4.3.2:: The maximum distance between the weir of a trap and the inside wall of the vent pipe to which it connects is specified by code. The trap arm is sloped towards the waste pipe. It must never be so long that the flow of wter will block the vent pipe. That is, the top of the vent connection must be above the trap weir. The minimum trap arm length, also specified by code, is two pipe diameters.
  • 65. 65 | P a g e 4.4 Venting The purpose of venting each fixture trap should be fairly apparent at this point. It is useful, however, to review and summarize the purpose and functioning of vent piping. First, it must be emphasized that, every vent extends through the roof into outside air. This is true for a vent extension of a soil/waste stack. The stack always extends into fresh air so that it can supply or exhaust air, as required by the flow of waste in the drain piping. Venting performs the following functions: a) It provides an air vent at each fixture trap. This ensures atmospheric pressure on the outlet side of the fixture trap. This, in turn, prevents the trap seal from being blown out or sucked out by pressures generated by drainage flow. b) It provides a safe path to exhaust sewer gases and foul odors that come from the sewer connection via the drainage piping. Building vent piping acts as a sewer vent in the absence of a building trap and a street level fresh air vent. c) It fills the drainage piping with fresh air, thus reducing odors, corrosion and the formation of slime in the piping. d) It aids in the smooth flow of drainage that occurs when air moves freely in a drain pipe. Types of vent a) Individual vent - The simplest, most direct, most effective way of venting a fixture trap is to provide an individual vent for every trap. This vent arrangement is also called continuous venting and back venting. It is called continuous venting because the vent is a continuation of the drain to which it connects. It is called a back vent because the vent pipe extends up behind the fixture, and it called an individual vent because there is one for each fixture. b) Branch vent - A branch vent is a vent connecting one or more individual vents to a vent stack. c) Common vent - A common vent is a single vent that connects to a common drain for back to back fixtures d) Stack vent - A stack vent is an extension of a soil stack to fresh air above the roof. This extension begins above the highest fixture branch connection. Stack venting is used principally in single family homes and on the top floor of multistory buildings.
  • 66. 66 | P a g e Figure 4.4.1 shows schematic diagram of Pinnacle Sunway sewerage system
  • 67. 67 | P a g e Analysis: Under Law Of Malaysia Act 133 Street, Drainage, Building Act 1974, Section 56(1) Rainwater pipes not to be used as soil pipe state that: “no pipes used in the carrying of rainwater from any roof shall be used for the purpose of carrying off soil and drainage from any privy or water closet or sullage water.” Under Law of Malaysia Act 133 Street, Drainage, Building Act 1974, Section 57 No water pipe, stack pipes or down spout used for conveying surface water from any premises shall be used or permitted to serve or to act as ventilating shaft to any drain or sewer. 4.5 Conclusion In conclusion, sewerage system plays an important role in the building. The aim is to keep the cleanliness and hygienic of the building away from the human wastes and odors. We have clearly analyze and studied about each components with its own functions. Besides, through our observation of the services in Pinnacle Sunway, they obeyed accordingly to Law Of Malaysia.
  • 68. 68 | P a g e MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 5.1 Literature Review Vertical transportation normally use in high-rises building to transport passengers from one vertical floors to another inside a building. All buildings with more than one storey must have at least one set of stairs and the provision of stairs is a very important consideration when designing building in order to ensure all the occupants of the building can travel between different floors. Mechanical transportation such as lift is advance vertical transportation which provides convenience to passengers to travel between floors in the building. Lift is an electrical apparatus for raising and lowering people or goods to different floors of the building. A lift installation has an important bearing on the efficient functioning of the building it serves, and to obtain different efficient service the number and type of lifts must take into account several factors including the type of building and nature of its occupancy. Ideal performance of a lift installation will provide minimum waiting time car for each floor, comfortable acceleration, rapid transportation and rapid loading and unloading at all stops. Lifts have architectural design impact due to the passenger satisfaction, oriented service consideration, and more important, the major space elements which integrated into a building is the design of lift lobby. In all types of buildings a lift lobby is desirable and should be large enough to allow traffic to move in both directions on the landing without being obstructed by people waiting for the lift. Lift lobbies should be visible from entrance halls. The unit of lift needed in a building is determined by the population of the building, initial cost and maintenance cost. A number of lifts are preferably to group together to reduce waiting time and cost of installation. There are two types of lift which are electrical lift and oil hydraulic lift. Consideration of types of lift is based on the requirement of building design. The distant and location of lift is designed based on UBBL (Uniform Building By Law). The consideration of division of rider traffic between lifts in office building is important. Lifts should be sited in the central area and take into account the proximity of entrances to the building and staircases.
  • 69. 69 | P a g e 5.2 Vertical Transportation 5.2.1 Introduction & Function of Lift The Pinnacle Sunway is an office high-rises building consists of 2 groups of lift and 1 group of fire-fighter lift. Each group consists of 6 lifts. Lift for low zone mainly serves for basement level to level 13th while high zone lifts mainly serves for level 13ath to 25th . From ground floor to 13th floor of the building are operating by the motor room at low zone while from 13ath floor to 25th floor are operating by another motor room at high zone. Fire-fighter lift operates all the way from ground floor to 25th floor. Figure 5.2.1.1: Floor plan which indicate lifts at low zone area (Ground floor to 13th floor) Figure 5.2.1.2: Lift motor room which operate low zone lifts located at 16th floor
  • 70. 70 | P a g e Figure 5.2.1.3: Section of low zone lift shaft and machine room location
  • 71. 71 | P a g e Figure 5.2.1.4: Floor plan which indicate lifts at high zone area (13ath floor to 25th floor) Figure 5.2.1.5: Lift motor room which operate high zone lifts located at 26th floor
  • 72. 72 | P a g e Figure 5.2.1.5: Section of high zone lift shaft and machine room location
  • 73. 73 | P a g e Figure 5.2.1.7: the entrance to the lift lobby. 5.2.2 Operation of System The pinnacle Sunway uses “gear-less traction elevators” for the lift system as the building has 25th floor which hydraulic system of lift can only reach 20 meters height of the building. The elevators car is computerized system control which is computerized and all the control happens in the control room located at the ground floor. The system keeps connection between monitoring server and the passengers in lift. The system will showcase the location of each lift all the time. The system will also inform to monitor server when there are any elevator breakdown which helps the mechanic to take immediate action. There are low zone and high zone machine room dedicated to the elevators.
  • 74. 74 | P a g e Figure 5.2.2.1: Control room located at ground floor of Pinnacle Sunway Figure 5.2.2.2: Dedicated elevator display computer terminals are part of the extensive control and communication equipment installed at the control room
  • 75. 75 | P a g e Figure 5.2.2.3: Immediate answer when emergency happens from the elevator and the system clearly stated the location of calls from which level and shaft of elevator.
  • 76. 76 | P a g e
  • 77. 77 | P a g e Figure 5.2.2.4: Key switch panel to be located at control room which allows admins to control the lift car when emergency or breakdown happens. Elevators traveling away from this designated landing reverse direction and proceed without stopping. Upon reaching the designated landing, passengers are able to exit the elevator and building safely.
  • 78. 78 | P a g e 5.3 Component of System 5.3.1 Lift System In Pinnacle Sunway lift system, electric lift system have been applied. They are exclusively driven by traction machines and gearless. The designation “traction” means that the power from an electric motor is transmitted to the multiple rope suspension of the car and a counterweight by friction between the specially shaped grooves of the driving or traction sheave of the machine and the ropes. In a gearless traction machine, they have the wheel attached directly to the motor. Gear-less traction elevators in Pinnacle of Sunway are capable of speeds up to 2000 feet per minute. This machine-room-less traction elevator is the result of technological advancements that often allow a significant reduction in the size of the electric motors used with traction equipment. Figure 5.3.1.1: Components of a gear- less traction elevator.
  • 79. 79 | P a g e Figure 5.3.1.2: Lift well plan at lift lobby located at ground floor with 6 lifts services provided in this building
  • 80. 80 | P a g e Figure 5.3.1.3: Dimension of lift car cage with standard rules and regulation by Pinnacle Sunway and have been recognize by fire department to ensure fire safety purpose. Figure 5.3.1.4: Front view and structural lift shafts of the lifts with appropriate dimension especially for disable people with wheel chairs to access lift.
  • 81. 81 | P a g e Figure 5.3.1.5: Sectional drawings of the lift door with proper dimensions and fire rated. Figure 5.3.1.5: Interior of the lift car cage for fire-fighter lift which approved by fire department.
  • 82. 82 | P a g e Figure 5.3.1.6: Fireman’s toggle switch located beside the fire-fighter lift which enables fire-fighters to use in order to rescue people who may be trapped on upper floors during an event of fire in a building.
  • 83. 83 | P a g e 5.3.2 Machine Room In Pinnacle Sunway, machine room located at the top of the low zone and high zone of lift shaft, as this position provides the greatest efficiency. The room ventilated with air-conditioning to ensure the motor not overheated when it’s under operation. Figure 5.3.2.1: machine room layout plan with proper dimension, rules and regulation.
  • 84. 84 | P a g e Figure 5.3.2.2: High-torque electric motors powered either by AC. A brake is mounted between the motor and drive sheave (or gearbox) to hold the elevator stationary at a floor.
  • 85. 85 | P a g e Figure 5.3.2.3: This brake is an external drum type and is actuated by spring force and held open electrically; a power failure will cause the brake to engage and prevent the elevator from falling. Figure 5.3.2.4: Machine room inside the building with several gear-less high- torque electric motors.
  • 86. 86 | P a g e Figure 5.3.2.5: By using variable voltage variable frequency technology, the elevator control cabinet is able to achieve constant speed regulation on motor and elevator speed, which helps make sure passengers feel comfortable during elevator starting and operation. It also improves the elevator operation efficiency and saves energy consumption.
  • 87. 87 | P a g e 5.3.3 Operating Panel Elevator car operating panel in pinnacle of Sunway uses “The Destination Oriented Allocation System: DOAS” system. This system allocates passengers to cars depending on destination floors. When a passenger enters a destination floor at a hall, the hall operating panel immediately indicates which car will serve the floor. Because the destination floor is already registered, the passenger does not need to press a button in the car. Furthermore, dispersing passengers by destination prevents congestion in cars and minimizes waiting and traveling time. Figure 5.3.3.1: The operating panel from outside of lift with touchscreen technology while inside of the lift without any floor selection button due to card access system to register the floor level.
  • 88. 88 | P a g e Figure 5.3.3.2: Diagram showing the advantages of DOAS system. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 153: Smoke Detector for Lift Lobby. 1) All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors. 2) Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo-detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which after thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a preset time. Lift lobby should be large enough to allow traffic to move in two directions. Referring to UBBL 1984 clause 124, a lift shall be provided for non-residential building which exceeds 4 storeys above or below main entrance. It is also essential in building less than 4 storeys if access for elder or disabled is required. Minimum walking distance to lift shall not exceed 45m. Lift should be sited in the central area of a building to minimize the horizontal travel distance.
  • 89. 89 | P a g e 5.4 Design Consideration In my opinion, the design of gear-less traction system for lift system able to achieve comfortable environment for passengers with smoothness of the ride, minimal travel time and low degree of noise. While on the other hand, for “The Destination Oriented Allocation System” on operating panel might not working well due to no floor level button provided inside the lift. Visitors who without any card would not able to change the floor level once they enter the lift. The system with two machine rooms for low zone and high zone are well-designed which able to achieve and maintain the efficiency of the elevators. The position and distant of the lift lobby are located in the centre of the ground floor with proper consideration and refers to rules and regulations. 5.5 Conclusion Vertical transportation plays an important role in high rises office like Pinnacle Sunway which able to bring convenience to the occupants and disable people. According to Uniform Building By Laws (UBBL), The Pinnacle Sunway concerns on the human flow inside the building which provided 2 groups of lift and 1 group of fire-fighting lift. Proper arrangement of the lift location which located at the central of the lobby without exceed certain distant from the main entrance reflects the rules and regulation of fire protection system. Proper maintenance check-up held regularly ensure occupants use this services comfortable and convenience.
  • 90. 90 | P a g e FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 6.1 Literature Review Fire is a result of the chemical combustion which content the present of major element such as: a) Fuel b) Oxygen c) Heat It is visible, tangible side effect of matter changing form. In controlled state, fire is most useful and beneficial of mankind who virtually depends upon it for survival. In uncontrolled and wild state, has no mercy and respect for persons and places. The purpose of the fire protection system no matter is active or passive, both play an important roles in saving human’s life and prevent the passage and spread of smoke and fire from one area to another area of building, to allow occupants have a safe escape of the building. Furthermore, fire protection is to prevent and reduce the amount of damage to the building structures and reduce the risk of collapse for the emergency services which could achieve through: 1. Education of Fire Protection System 2. Active Fire Protection 3. Passive Fire Protection 6.1.1 Education of Fire Protection System Educating the operators and owners about the emergency precautions to be taken in the case of fire occurred. Fire precaution system is essential to effective management of a fire scene. Precaution to take place in order to avoid the unwanted effects that may result in loss of human’s life. While fire protection system act as an reaction taken in particular building in order to have more time to escape. Therefore, Fire Protection Systems focuses on the operational characteristics and abilities of different types of systems and equipment that are used during department operation to access a water source, apply a suppression agent to control a particular type of fire, provide information concerning the location of a fire, and more. By ensure the operators and owners were fully understood about the fire safety, a designed fire safety plan is needed to understand the applicable of building fire codes.
  • 91. 91 | P a g e 6.1.2 Active Fire Protection (AFP) Active Fire Protection (AFP) system is a system that can include manual or automatic fire detection and fire suppression. There are always on alert and first to act in case of fire. The overall aim of active system is to extinguish the fire by:  Detecting the fire early and evacuate the building.  Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire.  Control the movement of smoke and fire.  Suppress and/ or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel. 6.1.3 Passive Fire Protection (PFP) Passive Fire Protection (PFP) is one components of structural fire protection, which provide existing fire safety to the building and safety prevention in the Pinnacles Sunway. It is also to maintain fundamental requirements of building compartmentation, structural stability, fire separation and safe means of escape. Passive fire system helps to slow down the fire spread when event of fire occurred. Passive fire protection in concentrate to design of building which included escape route, emergency access, opening protection and uses of materials that are always present and do not rely on the operation of any form of mechanical device. Passive systems in the form of fire rated doors, barrier, ceilings and structural fire protection.
  • 92. 92 | P a g e 6.2 Active Fire Protection (AFP) 6.2.1 Smoke Detector Smoke detector is an indicator of fire. It is one of the important safety tools to detect smoke or heat from fire in the building. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 153: Smoke Detectors for Lift Lobbies. 1) All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors. 2) Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which after thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a pre-set time. Figure 6.2.1.1: Photoelectric smoke detector There are two most commonly type of smoke detection that are ionization smoke detector and photoelectric smoke detector. Pinnacle Sunway is equipped with photoelectric smoke detector. Photoelectric smoke alarms are generally more responsive to fires that begin with a long period of Photoelectric-type alarms aim a light source into a sensing chamber at an angle away from the sensor. Smoke enters the chamber, reflecting light onto the light sensor; triggering the alarm.
  • 93. 93 | P a g e Figure 6.2.1.2: Sensing chamber in a photoelectric smoke detector. Smoke particles deflect the light beam and trigger the alarm. Source: http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G1907
  • 94. 94 | P a g e 6.2.2 Fire Control Room Figure 6.2.2.1: shows Fire Control Room (Red Box) is located at ground floor which near to the main lobby. According to the guidelines, the fire control room has to meet the requirement of the building that has an effective height of more than 50m and shall be separated from the rest of the building by two-hour fire rated elements of structure. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 238: Command and Control Centre Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 meters in height shall be provided with a command and control center located on the designated floor and shall contain a panel to monitor the public address, fire brigade communication, sprinkler, water flow detectors, fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station by passing the switchboard.
  • 95. 95 | P a g e As a result, Pinnacle Sunway meets the condition of UBBL. It is located at the ground floor which near to the main lobby, lift and staircase. In addition, it is also located next to the security room, so the guards can observe the control room continuously and able to take an appropriate action when there are any signals from the detectors come directly to the control unit. Figure 6.2.2.2: The Fire Control Room in Pinnacle Sunway is fully equipped. For instance, the building has a direct communication system to the nearest firefighting station to allow for immediate warnings via Digital Alarm Communicator “Direct Link” to Jambatan Bomba.
  • 96. 96 | P a g e The general requirements for Fire Control Room are: a) Have a minimum floor area of 10 m2 , can be larger depending on the equipment required. b) Be sited near the main entrance to the building’s main lobby in a designated room. c) Preferably be adjacent to a fire lift lobby or any other location as designated by the relevant authority. d) Be accessible via 2 paths of travel. One form the front entrance and the other form a public place or fire-isolated passageway, which leads to a public space and has a two-hour fire rated door. e) Have an independent air handing system if mechanical ventilation is provided throughout the building. f) Be adequately illuminated to not less than 400 lux. g) Provide the ability to communicate (e.g. via telephones and loudspeakers) with all parts of the building, and with fire and other emergency services. h) Be provided with insulation from ambient building noise. i) Be under the control of the Chief Fire Warden (or similar appointed person). A Fire Control Room must contain the following facilities: a) Automatic fire alarm and sprinkler indicator boards with facilities for sounding and switching off alarms and visual status indication for all relevant fire pumps, smoke control fans, air-handling systems, generators and other required fire safety equipment installed in the building depending on the circumstances and the system present in each building shown in Figure 6.2.2.2. b) A telephone connected directly to the external exchange. c) The control console of the Emergency Warning and Intercommunication System (EWIS) shown in Figure 6.2.2.2. d) A blackboard or whiteboard not less than 1200mm. e) A pin board not less than 1200mm wide x 1000mm high. f) A raked plan layout table of a size suitable for laying out the building plans g) A repeater panel of the lifts position indicator board.
  • 97. 97 | P a g e h) A switch to isolate background music when required. i) Remote switching controls for gas or electrical supplies. j) Building security, surveillance and management systems if they are completely segregated from all other systems shown in Figure 6.2.2.3. Figure 6.2.2.3: Building security, surveillance and management system can be seen in the Fire Control Room.
  • 98. 98 | P a g e 6.2.3 Fire Alarm System In Pinnacle Sunway, there are two types of fire alarm mechanisms that need to be installed in the building to notify people in the building that there may be a fire and need to be evacuated. The fire alarm mechanisms are fire emergency light and fire alarm bell. Figure 6.2.3.1: The schematic diagram of the fire alarm system in Pinnacle Sunway. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 155: Fire Mode of Operation 1) The fire mode of operation shall be initiated by a signal from the fire alarm panel which may be activated automatically by one of the alarm devices in the building or manually. 2) If mains power is available all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls, overriding the emergency stop button inside the car, but not any other emergency or safety devices, and park with doors open. 3) The fire lifts shall then be available for use by the fire brigade on operation of the fireman’s switch. 4) Under this mode of operation, the fire lift shall only operate in response to car calls but not to landing calls in a mode of operation in accordance with by-law 154. 5) In the event of main power failure, all lift shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor and operate under emergency power.
  • 99. 99 | P a g e Under UBBL 1984 Section 237: Fire Alarms 1) Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule to these by-laws. 2) All premises and building with gross floor area excluding car park and storage area exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5 meters in height shall be provided with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) be given in adjoining section. 3) Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master control. In Pinnacle Sunway, the fire alarm system is set up to alert the occupants through noise, light or both at the same time. The fire alarm system there has installed fire emergency light and fire alarm bell as well. Figure 6.2.3.2: The picture shows the fire emergency light, control panel box, alarm bell and emergency break glass installed in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 100. 100 | P a g e Emergency Light The function of fire emergency light is to alert people in the building through light and sound. This mechanism is effective for people whom are deaf or poor hearing that could not be able to hear the fire alarm bell instead they might notice the fire emergency light in order for them to evacuate. The light in green showed normal situation as for the red light showed fire in order for people to evacuate. The emergency light usually installed in a common area for immediate and effective way for people to evacuate or to escape. Alarm Bell Alarm bell is also named as alarm sounder shown in Figure, functionally in manual or automatic as it can be operated from the fire control room as well as by breaking down the glass of manual call point. If a smoke detector detects smoke or heat or someone operates a manual call point, then alarm bell will operate to alert others in the building that there may be a fire and to evacuate. It may also incorporate remote signaling equipment, which would alert the fire brigade via a central station. Manual Call Point A manual call point is an emergency break glass device that enables the occupants to raise the alarm by breaking the frangible element on the fascia. Most of the manual call points mounted 1.4m from the floor and installed where they can be easily seen especially on the floor landings of stairways and at exits to open air. Moreover, the manual call points should be installed on the floor side of an access door to a staircase so the floor of origin is indicated at the control panel. Extra call points should be installed, where necessary, so that the greatest travel distance from any point in the building to the nearest call point does not exceed 30m. A greater number of call points may be needed in high risk area or if the occupants are likely to be slow in movement.
  • 101. 101 | P a g e 6.2.4 Fireman Intercom System Fire intercom system provides a communication between the Master Console, or commonly known as Fire Command Centre and the remote Handset Stations. The system consists of a remote handset station and Master control panel which is normally installed at the Fire Control Room. The Intercom handset stations are located at staircases of each floor in Pinnacle Sunway. At the Master control panel, a call alert lamp shall flash with audible signal when there is incoming call. Upon lifting the handset, the audible signal will be silenced. The master control panel is also equipped with a fault indicator unit to indicate the type of fault as shown in Figure 6.2.4.1. Figure 6.2.4.1 Fire intercom system in Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 6.2.4.2 shows the schematic diagram of Fireman Intercom System.
  • 102. 102 | P a g e 6.2.5 Water Based System 6.2.5.1 External Fire Hydrant System External fire hydrant system consists of hydrants connected to same pipeline; the other end of the pipeline is attached to the pumps and water supply tank of the firefighting room. The firefighting hydrant line is close loop pipe system to maintain the pressure in the water hydrant firefighting system. The networks of pipes are located underground. The hydrants are used in case of emergency when there is need for more water. The fireman connects their equipment to the outlets of the hydrant, forcing water into the system. When a hydrant valve is opened, the system experiences a drop in water pressure. The drop in water pressure is detected by a pressure switch which is turn starts the booster pumps, drawing water from the water supply to increase the water pressure of the system. This water has a water pressure of 50 – 70 psi. Water from the hydrant is then directed through the lay flat fire hose to a nozzle, which is the directed to the seat of a fire. Figure 6.2.5.1.1: External fire hydrant is found at right outside of Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 6.2.5.1.2: Detail drawing of water hydrant fire-fighting system. Source: http://www.naffco.com/product.php?groups_id=305&prod_id=594
  • 103. 103 | P a g e 6.2.5.2 Fire Pump Room Figure 6.2.5.2.1: Fire Pump Room of Pinnacle Sunway is located at Basement 2. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 247(2) Water Storage Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances.
  • 104. 104 | P a g e Figure 6.2.5.2.2: Fire Pump Room in basement level 2 of Pinnacle Sunway which respects the UBBL law. Jockey Pump It works together with a fire-pump as part of the protection system. It is designed to maintain the pressure in the system elevated to a specific level when the system is elevated to a specific level when the system is not in use, so that the fire pump doesn’t go off randomly. It can also help prevent the system from damage when a fire happens and water rushes into the pipes. Duty Pump When pressure in pipe goes down, duty pump takes the lead and supply enough pressure of water to maintain the system in running order. However, if this pump fails to run due to some defaults, standby pump is activated automatically by the system. Duty pump can be switched off manually from the control panel in case of necessity. Standby Pump The standby pump acts as the same function of duty pump. It replaces the function of duty pump when the duty pump does not function as required or is under repair. Standby pump can be manually from the control panel switch off.
  • 105. 105 | P a g e Figure 6.2.5.2.3: Shows Jockey Pump in Fire Pump Room. Figure 6.2.5.2.4: Shows Duty Pump in Fire Pump Room. Figure 6.2.5.2.5: Shows Standby Pump in Fire Pump Room.
  • 106. 106 | P a g e 6.2.5.3 Sprinkler System A fire sprinkler system consists of a system water supply system, providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 228: Sprinkler Valves The distance between 2 sprinklers should be at a maximum distance of 4.6 meters. Distance between 2 sprinklers is about 3 meters. Hence, Pinnacle Sunway reaches the requirement of the protection fire according to UBBL law. Figure 6.2.5.3.1: shows the dimension between two sprinkler head is 4 m wide and 3 m high of sprinkler system in Pinnacle Sunway. Pinnacle Sunway is installed with a wet sprinkler system. The piping network of the sprinkler is constantly pressurized with water. When there is a fire and excess heat, the temperature rating of the affected sprinkler head silicon bulb will rupture and water will spray from the actuated sprinkler head. Pressure in the pipeline will drop and once the pressure drop below the preset value, the pressure switch will activate and pump set will run automatically. Fire control room will manually sound the alarm valve mechanical gong and affected zone flow switch. Fire alarm bells will activate. 4 m 4 m 3 m
  • 107. 107 | P a g e Pressure Switch Alarm pressure switch in Pinnacle Sunway is typically installed on top of the retard chamber into a one half inch tapped outlet. A time delay is not needed when using a pressure switch because the retard chamber will divert water flowing through the alarm line during pressure surges from the city water supply. A drip valve allows water to drain from the chamber. Alarm pressure switches are pre-set to alarm at 4 to 8 PSI on rising pressure. The pressure setting can be field adjusted to obtain a specific pressure alarm response between 4 and 20 PSI. Figure 6.2.5.3.2: Shows the sprinkler pump characteristic data of Pinnacle Sunway. Water supplied to these pump is stored in a reinforced concrete tank found next to the pumping station. The tank is connected to a 4-way breeching inlet to enable the fire brigade to pump water into the system in case of disruption in water supply.
  • 108. 108 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 226: Automatic System for Hazardous Occupancy Where hazardous processes, storage or occupancy are of such character as to require automatic system sprinklers or other such character as to require automatic system sprinklers or other automatic extinguishing system, it shall be of a type and standard appropriate to extinguish fire in the hazardous materials stored or handled or for the safety of the occupants. Figure 6.2.5.3.3: Shows the schematic diagram of sprinkler system in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 109. 109 | P a g e Figure 6.2.5.3.4: Shows the details of the sprinkler system in Pinnacle Sunway. Standard Sprinkler The sprinkler being used in Pinnacle Sunway is standard sprinkler. It is held in a closed state by the glass bulb. The bulb use pressure to hold the metal cap in place, which acts as a plug in the system. These links are designed to break at 68 degree Celsius. When heat from the fire rises to the temperature, the glass bulb will break. This releases the cap allowing water to be sprayed over the fire. The cap may be facing upwards or downwards depending on the location used. Figure 6.2.5.3.5: Close up of standard sprinkler
  • 110. 110 | P a g e In the deluge system, all sprinklers are open and normally there is no water in the piping. When fire occurs, a supplementary detection system senses the fire and automatically opens a water control valve. This allows water to flow through the pining system to all sprinklers. Figure 6.2.5.3.6: Typical Deluge System Source: http://www.incontrolfp.com Deluge Valves are diaphragm type valves designed for vertical or horizontal installation for fire protection system service. They are used as “automatic water control valves” in deluge, precaution and special types of fire protection systems such as foam-water systems. When properly trimmed, the DV-5 Valves provide actuation of fire alarms upon system operation. Figure 6.2.5.3.7: Deluge System in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 111. 111 | P a g e 6.2.5.4 Fire Hose Reel System Figure 6.2.5.4.1: Location of fire hose reel in typical floor plan for Pinnacle Sunway. Fire Hose Reel is located in recess along corridors and provided with up to 45m of reinforced rubber hose, so that all parts of a floor area not exceeding 800m2 are covered by one installation. Included in calculation can be an allowance of 6 m for the water jet. A minimum delivery of 24 l/min is recommended at the reel most distant from the source of water, when the two most remote reels are operating simultaneously. Figure 6.2.5.4.2: Fire hose reel on site.
  • 112. 112 | P a g e Figure 6.2.5.4.3: Shows the hose reel pump characteristic data of Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 6.2.5.4.4: Shows the detail drawings of hose reel pump system in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 113. 113 | P a g e Figure 6.2.5.4.5: Shows the schematic diagram of Hose Reel & Wet Riser system in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 114. 114 | P a g e 6.2.5.5 Wet Riser System Figure 6.2.5.5.1: Location of wet riser in typical floor plan for Pinnacle Sunway. Wet risers are a form of internal hydrant for the fireman to use and are always pressurized with water. Wet risers are only required for buildings where the topmost floor is higher than 30.5 meters above the fire appliance access level. In Pinnacle Sunway, the wet riser is located at the lift lobby and at the fire staircase exit of any floor. It supplies water from the water tank found in the fire pump room through wet riser pipes and is distributed to canvas hoses and hose reel at each floor. Jockey pump, duty pump and standby pump in the pump room channel the water from the water tank to the hoses.
  • 115. 115 | P a g e Figure 6.2.5.5.2: Shows Wet Riser in Pinnacle Sunway. Wet riser system comprises duty fire pump with standby pump discharging into a 150mm diameter riser pipe with landing valves at each floor and to which canvas hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire. A jockey pump is usually provided to maintain system pressure. For high-rise buildings, each stage of the wet riser should not exceed 70.15 meters. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 231: Installation and Testing of Wet Rising System A hose connection shall be provided in each firefighting access lobby. Wet risers shall be of minimum 152.4 mm diameter and shall be hydrostatically tested at a pressure 50 % above the working pressure required and not less than 14 bars for at least 24 hours. A wet riser outlet shall be provided in every staircase, which extends from the ground floor level to the roof and shall be equipped with a 3 way 63.5 mm outlet above the roof line. Under UBBL 1984 Section 248: Marketing on Wet Riser Wet riser, dry riser, sprinkle and other fire installation pipes and fittings shall be painted red. All cabinet and areas recessed in walls for location of fire installations and extinguisher shall be clearly identified to the satisfaction of Fire Authority or otherwise clearly identified.
  • 116. 116 | P a g e Figure 6.2.5.5.3: Shows the wet riser pump characteristic data of Pinnacle Sunway. Figure 6.2.5.5.4: Shows the detail drawings of wet riser pump system in Pinnacle Sunway.
  • 117. 117 | P a g e 6.2.5.6 Water Tank The firewater storage tank is located at the basement level 1 in the fire pump room. The wet riser system and water sprinkler system uses the same water. The volume of water contained into the tank in sufficient to supply water to the whole building. Figure 6.2.5.6.1: Shows the location of water tank in basement level 2 in Pinnacle Sunway. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 247: Water Storage 1) Water storage capacity and water flow rate for firefighting system and installation shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws. 2)Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for the hose reel system, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connection accessible to fire appliances. 3) Storage tanks for automatic sprinkle installation where full capacity is provided without the need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.
  • 118. 118 | P a g e 6.2.6 Non-water Based System 6.2.6.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fire Suppression System Carbon dioxide is the combination of carbon and oxygen that is colourless, odorless, electrically non-conductive gas and is also highly efficient as a fire suppression agent. The carbon dioxide fire suppression system is the system that is effective, reliable and fast-acting control panels to quickly sense a fire before it can causes damage to property. Carbon dioxide gas has a high rate of expansion that allows a carbon dioxide fire suppression system to work fast. In addition, Carbon dioxide gas is also acting as a heat sink that absorbs combustion energy. Carbon dioxide is stored in the cylinders as a liquid under great pressure. It does not conduct electricity and will not normally damage sensitive electronic equipment. Figure 6.2.6.1.1: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fire Suppression System in Pinnacle Sunway. Carbon dioxide fire suppression system in Pinnacle Sunway is installed at the fire control room, mechanical room and electrical room because the room consists of various electrical equipments which will be hazardous to the occupants in the building. Carbon dioxide must be used instead of water because the extinguishing effect is achieved by displacing oxygen from the fire, causing it to suffocate.
  • 119. 119 | P a g e Figure 6.2.6.1.2: Shows the main components of Carbon Dioxide Fire Suppression System Source: http://www.ersaray.com.tr/CO2-Sondurme-Sistemleri.html Figure 6.2.6.1.3: Shows the operation of Carbon Dioxide Fire Suppression System in Pinnacle Sunway when there is on fire.
  • 120. 120 | P a g e 6.2.6.2 Portable Fire Extinguishers A fire extinguisher is used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one, which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. For more, a fire extinguisher also consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent, which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. In Pinnacle Sunway, the portable fire extinguisher can be found at all the floors. Figure 6.2.6.2.1: Portable ABC fire extinguisher (dry powder extinguisher) is being used in Pinnacle Sunway. Analysis Under UBBL 1984, Section 227: Portable Extinguisher Portable fire extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent position on exit routes to be visible from all direction and similar extinguisher in a building shall be of the same method of operation.
  • 121. 121 | P a g e Operation of Fire Extinguisher Figure 6.2.6.2.2: shows the method to operate the fire extinguisher. Source: http://www.safetysign.com/products/p19427/fire-extinguisher-pass-sign Classification and Use A Class A fire extinguisher is used for ordinary combustibles, such as wood, paper, some plastics and textiles. Extinguisher should be identified by a triangle containing the letter “A” and triangle should be in green. A Class B fire extinguisher is used for flammable liquid and gas fires such as oil, gasoline, etc. Extinguishers that are suitable for Class B fires should be identified by a square containing the letter “B” and in red. A Class C fire extinguisher is used on fires that involve live electrical equipment which require the use of electrically non- conductive extinguishing agents. Extinguishers that are suitable for Class C fires should be identified by a circle containing the letter “C” and in blue. A Class D fire extinguisher is used on combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, sodium, etc. Class D fires should be identified by a five-point painted star containing the letter “D” and in yellow. A Class K fire extinguisher is used on fires involving cooking media (fats, grease and oils) in commercial cooking such as restaurants. These extinguishers are identified by the letter K.
  • 122. 122 | P a g e Placement OSHA requires that employers select and distribute fire extinguishers based on the classes of anticipated workplace fires and also on the size and degree of the hazard, which would affect their use. The following chart contains OSHA requirements for classes of fires and travel distance to an extinguisher. There is no distance requirement for Class K extinguishers. They are typically placed at the point of possible cooking fire ignition. Fire Class Travel Distance Class A 75 ft. (22.9m) or less Class B 50 ft. (15.2m) Class C Based on appropriate A or B Hazard Class D 75 ft. (22.9m)
  • 123. 123 | P a g e 6.3 Passive Fire Protection (PFP) Figure 6.3.0.1: Overall passive fire protection system of ground floor in the Pinnacle Sunway.  Staircase (Red)  Assembly point (Yellow)  Circulation path around building (Arrow) Above figure shows the location of passive fire protection systems present in the building through architectural practice, such as the position of the staircase, the doors and corridors. These not only act as aesthetic factors but also functions accordingly to UBBL 1984 requirements.
  • 124. 124 | P a g e Figure 6.3.0.2 show escape route (arrow) in typical floor. Dotted Line – Fire Protected Area Blue – Non- fire Rated Door Yellow – Fire Rated Door Green – Staircase Purple – Lift Car Method of fire escape in the fire is to allow the occupant to evacuate from the building to a safer area outside of the building, which is the assembly area. Escape Route is designed safe pathway to occupants, from an area of the building to a place, fire protected area such as fireproof staircase, where the occupants will be safe and capable of escaping from fire or smoke. Figure 6.3.0.3 shows the circulation path around the building and also the direction to fire protected area from fire escape staircase.
  • 125. 125 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 189: Enclosing means of escape in certain building. 1) Every staircase provided under these By-Laws in a building where the highest floor is more than 1200 milimeters above the ground level, or in any place of assembly, or in any school when such staircase is used as an alternative means of escape shall be enclosed throughout its length with fire resisting materials. 2) Any necessary openings, except openings in external walls which sahll not for this By-Laws include wall to air-wells, in the length of such staircase shall be provided with self-closing door constructed of fire resisting materials. Under UBBL 1984 Section 242: Fire Fighting Access Lobbies 1) Each lobby shall have a floor area of not less than 5.57 square metres and 2) the openable area of windows or area of permanent ventilation shall not be less than 25% of the floor area of the lobby and, if ventilation is by means of openable windows, additional permanent ventilation having a free opening of 464 square centimeters shall be provided except that mechanical pressurization may be provided as an alternative. Figure 6.0.3.4 shows the open area which allow occupants of the building to escape from the building to this safer area.
  • 126. 126 | P a g e 6.3.1 Fire Evacuation System and Escaper Route Figure 6.3.1.1 shows the direction which that lead occupants to fire protected area in typical floor Fire Evacuation system operates to create an alternative path which can lead occupants to outside the building. According to the above diagram, escape route of the Pinnacle Sunway Level 13 floor plan ,lead the occupants to the assembly point first, then using either the fire lift or the escape staircase, occupants are directed to the ground floor, which lead the occupants to the fire protected area, outside of the building. The exits door is located on the outermost area, to prevent it from immediate damage in case of a fire in the interior of building. The minimum and the maximum distance encountered during the event of a fire break down in the building know as Distance travelled. Based on the on floor plan in Pinnacle Sunway, we can notice that the width of the exit route is thoroughly constant, thus abiding and respect to the UBBL Law. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 178: Exists For Institutional and Other Places of Assembly In buildings classified as institutional or place assembly, exits to a street or large open space, together with staircases, corridors, and passages leading to such exits shall be located, separated or protected as to avoid any undue danger to the occupants of the place of assembly from fire originating in the other occupancy or smoke therefrom.
  • 127. 127 | P a g e Under UBBL 1984 Section 169: Exit Route No Exit route may reduce in width along its path to travel from the storey to the final exit. UBBL 1984 Section 188: Travel distance in place of assembly Exits in any place of assembly shall be arranged that the distance travelled from any point to reach an exit shall not exceed 45meters for unsprinkled building and 60meters for sprinkled building. 6.3.2 Emergency Exit Language Figure 6.3.2.1: the Typical (EXIT) signage found in front of the fire door. Figure 6.3.2.2: Typical KELUAR (EXIT) signage found in front of the fire door
  • 128. 128 | P a g e Exit emergency signage indicates the safety way to outdoor area or assembly point. With the effective guidance and directory, it could help occupant to reduce panic an confusion by providing a clear directional system. The letters are written in BLOCK LETTERS , sufficiently big in size and green on color to attract the attention. Meanwhile,in Malaysia, the exit language is commonly written in Malay word, “KELUAR” which literally mean “EXIT”. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 172: Emergency Exit Signs 1) Storey exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not obscured by any decorations, furnishings or other equipment. 2) A sign reading “KELAUR” with and arrow indicating the direction shall be placed in every location where the direction of the travel to reach the nearest exit is not immediately apparent. 3) Every exit sign shall have word “KELUAR” in plainly legible letter not less than 150 meter high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 18 milimeter wide. The lettering shall be in red against a black background. 4) All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy. 5) Illuminated signs be provided with two electric lamps of not less than fifteen watts each.
  • 129. 129 | P a g e 6.3.3 Fire Escape Door Figure 6.3.3.1: Shows the fire escape door in typical floor. The fire doors are located in the oft lobby and in front of the entrance to the fire staircase. Most of the fire escape in Malaysia used the standard fireproof doors that have a 1 inch resisting layer made of fire resistance material. Fire resisting, means it is designated as capable of resisting the passage of flame and smoke. Meanwhile, the escape doors of the Pinnacle Sunway utilize a hydraulic spring. Figure 6.3.3.2 shows fire escape door in Pinnacle Sunway. Material: Solid hardwood core with asbestos insulating board Dimension: Single leaf: 900mm x 2100mm x 38mm Double leaf: 1800mm x 2100mm x 38mm Fire rated: 1hour
  • 130. 130 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 162: Fire Doors in Compartment Walls and Separating Walls. 1) Fire doors of the appropriate FRP shall be provided. 2) Openings in compartment walls and separating walls shall be protected by a fire door having a FRP in accordance with the requirements for that wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By-laws. 3) Openings in protecting structures shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of not less than half the requirement for the surrounding wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By-laws but in no case less than half hour. 4) Openings in partitions enclosing a protected corridor or lobby shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of half hour. 5) Fire doors including frames sill be constructed to be specification which can be shown to meet the requirements for the relevant FRP when tested in accordance with section 3 of BS 476: 1951. Door Closer All the fire door’s door closer shall made out of aluminum. Overhead of door closer are typically surface mounted (Figure 6.3.3.3). Door closer ensure the doors are closed. Hence preventing escape of smoke if fire into protected areas and staircase sections and the slow down the spread of fire. Figure 6.3.3.3 showsmechanism of door closer which function to ensure the doors are closed when not in used.
  • 131. 131 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 164: Door Closers for Fire Doors. 1) All the fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the hydraulically spring operated type in the case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in the case of sliding doors. 2) Double doors with rabbeted meeting stiles shall be provided with coordinating device to ensure that leafs close in the proper sequence. 3) Fire doors may be held open provided the hold open device incorporates a heat actuated device to release the door. Heat actuated devices shall not be permitted on fire doors protecting openings to protected corridors or protected staircases. 6.3.4 Fire Escape Staircase Figure 6.3.4.1 shows the location of fire escape staircase for typical floor. Fire escape staircase allows the occupants of the building to escape from the building to safer area or assembly point when there is fire event or any emergency event happen. According to the law, the building should have at least two means of exits consists of separate exits or doors that leads to a corridor or other space giving access to separate exits in difference directions.
  • 132. 132 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 168: Staircases. 1) Except as provided for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of egress via at least two separate staircases. 2) Staircase shall be of such width that in the event of any one staircase not being available for escape purposes the remaining staircases shall accommodate the highest occupancy load of any one floor discharging into it calculated in accordance with provisions in the Seventh schedule to these By- Laws. 3) The required width of a staircase shall be the clear width between walls but handrails may be permitted to encroach on this width to a maximum of 75 millimeters. 4) The required width of a staircase shall be maintained throughout its length including at landings. 5)Doors giving access to staircases shall be so positioned that their swing shall at no point encroach on the required width of the staircase or landing. The width of staircase maintains same all over the way of staircase till the exit. It has total of 30 steps from one level to another. The width of staircase 1350mm allowing two occupants to be uses it at the same time. The height of riser 175mm and the tread is 290mm. Handrail is required for safety purpose of the occupants in the building. Figure 6.3.4.2 shows the dimension of staircase.
  • 133. 133 | P a g e Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 229 (4): Means of Access and Firefighting in Building over 18.3 meters high. A firefighting staircase shall be provided to give direct access to each firefighting access lobby and shall be directly accessible from outside the building at the fire appliances access level. Under UBBL 1984 Section 157: Protected Shafts consisting of Staircase. A protected staircase containing a staircase shall not contain any pipe conveying gas or oil or any ventilating duct other than a duct serving only that staircase. Railings are usually in dimension of 1m height x 0.04m in diameter. The railings have minor parallel railing in distance of 0.2m each to accommodate different height of occupants when escaping. The entire staircase is constructed with non- flammable materials. Landing is provided to allow occupants has enough circulation space in the stairs to avoid any injuries or accidents during an emergency.
  • 134. 134 | P a g e 6.3.5 Fire Resistance Material The walls located at and near the lift lobby are cladded with marble tiles. It has fire resistance up to 175 degree Celsius. Usage of marble will causes over budget estimated for construction but nevertheless, use of marble can ensures less damage in case of fire incidents. A normal reinforced concrete wall with covered with marble, approximating to a total thickness of 300mm, will have more fire resistance than that mentioned in the by-laws. Analysis Under UBBL 1984 Section 217: Fire Resistance of Structural Member Any structural member or overloading wall shall have fire resistance of not less than the minimum period required by these By-Laws for any element which it carries Figure 6.3.5.1 shows the lift located at lobby where the surface of wall are cladded with marble tiles not only for aesthetic purpose but also acts as fire resistance surface to slower the time of fire spreading.
  • 135. 135 | P a g e 6.4 Conclusion According to Universal Building By law (UBBL) obeyed by the Pinnacles Sunway, every element in fire protection system are place accordingly in space required and each components play significant roles. Therefore, we can conclude that the fundamental purpose of fire protection system within the building is aimed to saving human’s life and prevent the passage and prevent spread of smoke and fire from one area to another area of building. Moreover, its function is also to prevent and reduce the percentage of damage to the building structure or neighbouring structure, and above all, is to allow occupants have a safe escape of the building and reduce the risk of collapse for the emergency services and ensure the continuity of operation.
  • 136. 136 | P a g e REFERENCES Chudley, Roy. 1988. Building Finishes, Fittings and Domestic Services. 2nd Edition. Longman. Greeno, R. 2000. Building Services Equipment. 5th Edition. Longman. Hall, Frederick E. 1997. Building Services and Equipment. Volume 2. 2nd Edition. Hall, Frederick E. 1999. Building Services, Technology and Design. 3rd Edition. Longman. Stein, Benjamin & Reynolds, John S. 2000. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. New York, John Wiley. Greeno, R. 1997. Building Services, Technology and Design. Longman. Wise, A. F. E. & Swaffield, J. A. 2006. Water, Sanitary & Waste Services for Buildings. Fifth Edition. Mitchell Publishing Company.

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