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Table of Contents
Name Page No.
What is the Golden Ratio? 1
What is the idea behind the Golden Ratio? 2
What is the symbol for the Golden Ratio? 3
Who discovered the Golden Ratio? 4
What are five other names for the Golden Ratio? 5
Golden Ratio in Nature 6
Golden Ratio in works of Art 7
Golden Ratio in Architecture 8
Golden Ratio in Human Body 9
What is the Golden Ratio?
o The Golden Ratio is or equal to:
o The golden ratio is a special number approximately equal
o It appears many times in geometry, art, architecture and
o In the Golden ratio only the first few numbers will be
shown. For example: 1.618.
What is the idea behind the Golden Ratio?
The Idea behind the Golden Ratio is that:
o If you divide a line into two parts the longer part
divided by the smaller part is also equal to the
whole length divided by the longer part then you
will have the golden ratio.
What is the Symbol for the Golden Ratio?
The symbol for the Golden Ratio is:
Who discovered the Golden Ratio?
o A sculptor named Phideas was known to apply the
'golden ratio' prior to Pythagoras.
o Pythagoras was known to observe the
phenomenon of the golden ratio, which is in fact
an aesthetic proportion.
o Plato also observed it and applied it to his
philosophy, and certainly one senses it in his
ideas of perfection and the 'solids' which he
attempted to apply to the cosmos.
o Kepler tried to apply Plato's solids and ended up
creating his own solids and discovering the
What are five other names for the Golden Ratio?
Five other names for the Golden Ratio:
o golden mean
o golden number
o divine proportion
o divine section
o golden proportion
Golden Ratio in Nature
o The most common example is that of the Nautilus
o The shell is composed of concentric spirals, and in
this case, the ratio of each spirals' diameter to
the next smaller spiral is equal to phi.
Golden Ratio in works of Art
o The Dutch artist Mondrian explicitly used the
golden ratio in his paintings. He used horizontal and
vertical black lines that outlined blocks of colour
(in white, red, blue and yellow).
o The proportion of the golden ratio could be found
in many of the rectangles.
o As well, the area covered by certain colours
compared to others also respects the golden ratio.
Golden Ratio in Architecture
o When the basic phi relationships are used to
create a right triangle, it forms the dimensions of
the great pyramids of Egypt, with the geometry
shown below creating an angle of 51.83 degrees,
the cosine of which is phi, or 0.618.
Golden Ratio in Human Body
o 5 appendages to the torso, in the arms, leg and
o 5 appendages on each of these, in the fingers and
o 5 openings on the face.
o 5 senses in sight, sound, touch, taste and smell.