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BMSS_Sec4Exp_SS_Prelim_2010_Mark_Scheme.doc

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    Bmss sec4 exp_ss_prelim_2010_mark_scheme Bmss sec4 exp_ss_prelim_2010_mark_scheme Document Transcript

    • Bukit Merah Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2010 Secondary Four Express/5 Normal (A) Combined Humanities Paper 1 Social Studies 2192/01 Marking Scheme 1 (a) Study Source A. Why did the cartoonist draw this cartoon? Explain your answer. [6]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Answers based on provenance/describes the source 1 e.g. The cartoonist wants to show that the Sri Lankan army is murdering Tamil civilians. The cartoonist wants to show that the Tamils are appealing to the world to help them but to no avail. 2 Answer(s) based on inference, unsupported 2-3 Award 2m for 1 inference, unsupported Award 3m for more than 1 inference, unsupported e.g. The cartoonist wants to show that the Sri Lankan government/army is treating the Tamils in a cruel manner. e.g. The cartoonist wants to show that the Tamil civilians are suffering and are appealing for help but the rest of the world has ignored their plight. 3 Answer(s) based on inference, supported 3-4 Award 3m for 1inference, supported; Award 5 marks for another inference supported e.g. The cartoonist wants to show that the Sri Lankan army/government are killing innocent Tamil civilians. Source A shows a Sri Lankan soldier attacking an innocent Tamil woman. The Sri Lankan soldier represents the Sri Lankan army/government. 1
    • e.g. The cartoonist wants to show that the Tamil civilians who are being murdered and are suffering in the hands of the Sri Lankan army/government are appealing for help but the rest of the world has ignored their plight. This is shown in the cartoon where a Tamil woman is attacked by a Sri Lankan soldier and she is appealing for help but the man (the World) is sleeping soundly. 4 Answers based on purpose 5-6 L3 + Purpose (Award 5 marks if the answer falls short of the intended outcome and 6 marks if there is impact (intention), target audience and intended outcome) e.g. The cartoonist wants to persuade his readers to appeal to their political leaders to pressurise the Sri Lankan government to stop the killing of innocent Tamil civilians. (b) Study Sources B and C. How similar are these two sources? Explain your answer. [7]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Similarity in source type AND/OR provenance 1 Award 1 mark for similarity OR difference in source type AND/OR provenance. e.g. Source B is a comment made by the political head of the LTTE while Source C is a comment made by the Sri Lankan Prime Minister. 2 Answer based on content - similarity or difference, without 2 support Award 2 marks for 1 similarity or difference. e.g. Both sources are similar in showing that the international community wants a ceasefire. OR e.g. Both sources differ about the way to resolve the ethnic conflict. 2
    • 3 Similarity AND Difference in content, unsupported 3 Award 3 marks for 1 similarity OR difference surfaced and an additional mark for another similarity OR difference. e.g. Both sources are similar in showing that the international community wants a ceasefire. AND e.g. Both sources differ about the way to resolve the ethnic conflict.4 Similarity OR Difference in content, supported 4 Both sources are similar in showing that the international community wants a ceasefire. Source B says “… the calls for a ceasefire issued by the international community” and Source C says “Though pressure is exerted in various ways by the international countries the government will not stop the war on the Tigers…” In other words the international community want the government forces and the Tamil Tigers to agree to a ceasefire. OR e.g. Both sources differ about the way in resolving the ethnic conflict. Source B says “The LTTE desires that this effort for a ceasefire to grow further into peace talks to seek a political solution to the ethnic conflict.” However, Source C says “the government will not stop the war on the Tigers until they are defeated”. In other words the Sri Lankan government is going for a military solution to the conflict.5 Similarity AND Difference in content, supported 5 Both sources are similar in showing that the international community wants a ceasefire. Source B says “… the calls for a ceasefire issued by the international community” and Source C says “Though pressure is exerted in various ways by the international countries the government will not stop the war on the Tigers…” In other words the international community want the government forces and the Tamil Tigers to agree to a ceasefire. AND e.g. Both sources differ about the way in resolving the ethnic conflict. Source B says “The LTTE desires that this effort for a ceasefire to grow further into peace talks to seek a political solution to the ethnic conflict.” However, Source C says “the government will not stop the war on the Tigers until they are defeated”. In other words the Sri Lankan government is going for a military solution to the conflict. 3
    • 6 Answer based on purpose 6-7 Award 6 marks if the answer falls short of the intended outcome and 7 marks if there is impact(intention), target audience and intended outcome. e.g. Both sources differ in their purpose. Source B is trying the influence the people around the world that the Tamil Tigers is willing to go for a ceasefire and are ready for peaceful talks so that the people would support the LTTE and criticise the Sri Lankan government. On the other hand, Source C is reassuring the people in the world that the government forces are able to defeat the LTTE and there is no necessity for talks so that the people would support the government against a terrorist organisation. (c) Study Source D. How useful is Source D in what it says about the conflict in Sri Lanka? Explain your answer. [6]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Useful /Not Useful, Answers based on provenance 1 Award 1 mark for 1 detail. e.g. Yes, Source D is useful because it is a statement issued by the Sri Lankan Government official on the conflict in Sri Lanka. e.g. No, Source D is not useful because it is a statement issued by the Sri Lankan Government official on the conflict in Sri Lanka. I do not trust what the official says because as a government official he will say good things about the activities of the government. 2 Useful /Not Useful, Answers based on Source Content 2-3 Award 2 marks for 1 explanation. Award an additional mark for further explanation e.g. Yes, Source D is useful because it is a statement issued by the Sri Lankan Government official on the conflict in Sri Lanka. Source D says that the government wants to end the conflict by defeating the Tamil Tigers in the battle field. Source D says “the government is determined to deal with the terrorism of LTTE.” OR e.g. No, Source D is not useful because it says that 54% of the Tamils are living peacefully with the Sinhalese. It also says that the well-being of the Tamil civilians is of utmost importance to the Sri Lankan government. 4
    • 3 Both elements of L2 i.e. Useful AND Not Useful based on 3-4 Source Content, no cross-reference e.g. Yes, Source D is useful because it is a statement issued by the Sri Lankan Government official on the conflict in Sri Lanka. Source D says that the government wants to end the conflict by defeating the Tamil Tigers in the battle field. Source D says “the government is determined to deal with the terrorism of LTTE.” AND e.g. No, Source D is not useful because it says that 54% of the Tamils are living peacefully with the Sinhalese. It also says that the well-being of the Tamil civilians is of utmost importance to the Sri Lankan government.4 Useful OR Not Useful, supported by cross-reference. 4 Award 4 marks for an answer based on source content with Cross-reference to another Source or Background Information. OR Award 4 marks for a limitation of the source with Cross-reference to another Source or Background Information. e.g. Yes, Source D is useful because it is a statement issued by the Sri Lankan Government official on the conflict in Sri Lanka. Source D says that the government wants to end the conflict by defeating the Tamil Tigers in the battle field. Source D says “the government is determined to deal with the terrorism of LTTE.” Source C supports the view that the Sri Lankan government is determined to defeat the Tamil Tigers through an armed conflict. Source C says “the government will not stop the war on the Tigers until they are defeated.” OR e.g. No, Source D is not useful because it says that 54% of the Tamils are living peacefully with the Sinhalese. It also says that the well-being of the Tamil civilians is of utmost importance to the Sri Lankan government. Source A challenges this view. It says that Tamil civilians are murdered by the Sri Lankan government forces. In the cartoon, the Tamil woman (represents the Tamils) is attacked by a Sri Lankan soldier (represents Sri Lankan government). The government is not bothered about the well- being of the Tamils. Source E challenges what Source D says about caring for the Tamils. Source E says that the Sri Lankan is not bothered about the future of the Tamils. Source E says “The Sri Lankan government has initiated no political reforms to address the concerns of Tamils and other minorities.” 5
    • 5 Useful AND Not Useful, supported by cross-reference. 4-6 Award 5 marks for both elements and 6 marks for a further cross- reference to background information or other sources either side. e.g. Yes, Source D is useful because it is a statement issued by the Sri Lankan Government official on the conflict in Sri Lanka. Source D says that the government wants to end the conflict by defeating the Tamil Tigers in the battle field. Source D says “the government is determined to deal with the terrorism of LTTE.” Source C supports the view that the Sri Lankan government is determined to defeat the Tamil Tigers through an armed conflict. Source C says “the government will not stop the war on the Tigers until they are defeated.” OR e.g. No, Source D is not useful because it says that 54% of the Tamils are living peacefully with the Sinhalese. It also says that the well-being of the Tamil civilians is of utmost importance to the Sri Lankan government. Source A challenges this view. It says that Tamil civilians are murdered by the Sri Lankan government forces. In the cartoon, the Tamil woman (represents the Tamils) is attacked by a Sri Lankan soldier (represents Sri Lankan government). The government is not bothered about the well- being of the Tamils. Source E challenges what Source D says about caring for the Tamils. Source E says that the Sri Lankan is not bothered about the future of the Tamils. Source E says “The Sri Lankan government has initiated no political reforms to address the concerns of Tamils and other minorities.” (d) Study Source E. Do you believe what Source E says about life in Sri Lanka after the civil war? Explain your answer. [6]Leve Descriptors Marks l 1 Uncritical Acceptance based on provenance or source 1 Award 1 mark for 1 detail. e.g. Yes, I believe what Source E says about life in Sri Lanka after the civil war because it is from an international organisation. 2 Answers based on Provenance AND/OR Typicality 2-3 Award 2 marks for 1 explanation to a maximum of 3 marks e.g. No, I do not believe Source D as it is the viewpoint of an international organisation which is exaggerating conditions in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is not reliable. (i.e. biased) e.g. Yes, I believe what Source E says because it is from a neutral organization, the International Crisis Group, whose main task is to ensure that conflicts are kept to a minimum and that 6
    • resolutions are carried out to ensure peace. It has no affiliation to Sri Lanka hence the report would be fair and would state the actual goings-on in the country.3 Answer(s) based on the Source 3 Award 2 marks for one reference supported and another mark for another reference supported. Yes, I believe what Source E says as it reported that life for the Sri Lankan Tamils has not returned to normal. The Sri Lankan government was still ignoring the welfare and political rights of the minority groups. Moreover, the Tamils were still dissatisfied over the lack of justice for the civilians who were killed during the conflict. In addition, many of the Tamils were willing to take up arms again and resume violence in order to achieve their aims.4 Answers based on Source plus cross-reference to other 5-6 sources/Background Information to confirm OR challenge what Source E says Award 3 marks for finding support from one source and 4 marks for finding support from at least 2 sources and 5 marks for finding support from 3 sources and award another mark for bringing support from contextual knowledge to confirm or challenge what Source E says. Yes, I believe what Source E says as it reported that life for the Sri Lankan Tamils has not returned to normal. The Sri Lankan government was still ignoring the welfare and political rights of the minority groups. Source A supports what Source E says about the callous attitude of the Sri Lankan government towards the Tamil civilians. Source A points out that the civilians are still suffering in the hands of the Sri Lankan army. Source E also shows that the situation in Sri Lanka is still tense after the civil war. It shows the continued tension and resentment by the Tamils against the Sri Lankan government and the possibility of another uprising. Source E says, “Inside and outside Sri Lanka, many Tamils remain angry at the lack of accounting or justice for the thousands of civilians killed in the final months of the war. Most of the million-strong Tamils are still committed to a separate state and many would be willing to support renewed violence.” This view is supported by the Background Information which says “thousands of Sri Lankan Tamils are held as prisoners and live behind barbed-wired camps. They have no clean drinking water nor electricity. There have been allegations that the Sri Lankan government is moving Sinhalese to take over Tamil lands and homes. The Sri Lankan government has refused international organisations to inspect the Tamil areas.” 7
    • OR No, I do not believe Source E because the International Crisis Group may not be based in Sri Lanka and may therefore not be aware of the day-to-day happenings. They may not know whether there has been any political progress and social development as well as welfare improvements made. The observations that were made before the report was written may have changed after the conflict had ended. Thus if no follow-ups were subsequently made, the report would be outdated and hence, unreliable. This view is supported by Source C which shows that the leaders of the LTTE and the government were in the process of forming an agreement that would benefit everyone, resolve the differences and ensure that peace can be attained. Source D also says that the government will provide a conducive environment for Tamil civilians to live once the war against the LTTE was over. Source D says, “further space can be created for a peaceful political process to take place and which is aimed at healing the wounds caused by the conflict. The well being of civilians remains the foremost consideration of the Sri Lankan government and its armed forces.” Section B (Structured-Essay Questions) Answer one question.2 Governance in Singapore (a) How far do you agree that the Area Licensing Scheme(ALS) been successful in managing traffic flow in Singapore? Explain your answer. [12]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Writes about Area Licensing Scheme but without 1-2 Focus/reference to the question. Award 1 mark for writing in general about the ALS without answering the question. Award 1 additional mark for further details provided. E.g. The ALS made congestion outside the CBD worse as many motorist decided to take passengers just to avoid paying ERP. 2 Describes given factor or/ and Identifies/Describes other 3-4 factor(s). Award 3 marks for describing the given/other factor Award 1 additional mark for further details provided. 8
    • E.g. The ALS was designed to manage traffic flow by charging motorists a fee for using certain roads at certain times(usually peak hour) of the day. Most of these roads were located in the city areas. These roads were bounded within areas designated as Restricted Zones. E.g. In 1988, the Electronic Road Pricing(ERP) system replaced the ALS as there was room for improvement. As technology improved, there were more efficient ways of monitoring and regulating traffic made available. The use of up to date technology would enable the transport system to stay relevant with the times. E.g. The Vehicle Quota System(VQS) is a system imposed by the LTA to regulate the number of cars in Singapore. The LTA determines the number of new vehicles allowed for registration. It was decided that one of the ways to administer the VQS was through the COE system. Under the system, a specific number of cars are issued based on the quota set by LTA. The factors affecting the number of vehicles included the number of vehicles which were de-registered and the state of the economy. In this way, there is a limit of new cars that can be purchased. Car buyers must first bid for the COE before they can purchase a car.3 Explains given factor or other factor(s). 5-6 Award 4 marks for a weakly explained factor. Award 5 marks for a fairly well explained factor. Award 6 marks for a well-explained factor. E.g. The ALS was designed to manage traffic flow by charging motorists a fee for using certain roads at certain times(usually peak hour) of the day. Most of these roads were located in the city areas. These roads were bounded within areas designated as Restricted Zones. The Area Licensing Scheme was effective in managing traffic flow because when it was introduced, the number of cars entering the CBD dropped from 32,500 to 7,700 vehicles. This could be due to many motorists being deterred from entering the CBD due to its cost of entry. It could also be those motorists who did not really need to be in the CBD now decided not to enter the area. The ALS was supplemented by the Park and Ride Scheme where motorists were encouraged to park their vehicles in car parks located just outside the CBD boundary and entered the CBD via public transport. This would ensure that fewer cars would enter the CBD. E.g. In 1988, the Electronic Road Pricing(ERP) system replaced the ALS as there was room for improvement. As technology improved, there were more efficient ways of monitoring and regulating traffic made available. The use of up to date technology would enable the transport system to stay relevant with the times. The ERP helped reduce traffic flow because it extended the ‘reach’ of the ALS by erecting gantries on roads and highways(e.g. PIE) outside the CBD which experienced heavy 9
    • traffic. Thus the ERP was able to manage traffic flow more effectively than the ALS because it covered more traffic jam- prone areas. E.g. The Vehicle Quota System(VQS) is a system imposed by the LTA to regulate the number of cars in Singapore. The LTA determines the number of new vehicles allowed for registration. It was decided that one of the ways to administer the VQS was through the COE system. Under the system, a specific number of cars are issued based on the quota set by LTA. The factors affecting the number of vehicles included the number of vehicles which were de-registered and the state of the economy. In this way, there is a limit of new cars that can be purchased. Car buyers must first bid for the COE before they can purchase a car. Traffic flow is managed because the VQS/COE affects the number of cars on the road. With fewer cars on the road, there will be a lowered incidence of traffic jams. This happens because the VQS restricts car ownership by controlling supply and hence making it more expensive. Consequently, only motorists who really need to use cars or can afford it will purchase cars.4 Explains given factor and identifies/describes other factor(s). 7 Award 7 marks for explanation of given factor and identification of other factor(s). E.g. L3+ There are also alternative factors that can manage traffic flow such as the ERP and the VQS.5 Both Aspects of L3. 8-10 Award 8 marks for explanation of given factor and 1 other factor explained. Award 9 marks for explanation of given factor and 2 other factors explained. Award 1 additional mark for further details provided. 10
    • 6 L5+ Discusses the relative importance of the different 11-12 factors. Award 11 marks for weighing relative importance of given factor with one other factor. Award 12 marks for weighing relative importance of given factor with two other factors. E.g. The VQS is the most successful way in managing traffic flow because it controls the supply of cars in Singapore. The other factors (ALS/ERP) merely target car usage. Controlling car usage is less effective because than restricting car supply because many motorists might be able to pay the ERP charges. This reduces the effectiveness of such systems in controlling traffic flow. Furthermore, traffic jams could occur in areas not marked by the ALS/ERP. On the other hand, if the COE is priced high, then it would deter people from buying a car altogether and these people might switch to public transport, hence lading to a reduction in traffic flow.2 (b) Here are three strategies to help Singapore prepare for an ageing population: • community help • government support • individual responsibility Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your [13] answer.Level Descriptors Marks 1 Writes about topic without focus on the given factors 1-2 Award 1 mark for 1 each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks. e.g. Singapore’s population will age rapidly over the next 30 years, etc. 2 Describes the factor(s) but without explaining them 3-4 Award 3 marks for one factor and 4 marks for more than one factor described e.g. Community help is also an effective strategy to help Singapore prepare for an ageing population. The community plays an important role in giving social and moral support as well as providing health care and social services to the senior citizens. e.g. Government support is an effective strategy to help 11
    • Singapore prepare for an ageing population. As Singapore’s ageing population may cause a strain on the government’s resources to support them, the government has taken initiatives to implement policies or measures that can help Singaporeans cope with the problem of ageing population. e.g. Individual responsibility is also an effective strategy to help Singapore prepare for an ageing population. Due to the enormous resources needed to cater to the needs of the senior citizens as well as the strains these citizens pose to the state and its younger population, the individual has a great role to play in minimising the impact.3 Explains one factor 5-7 Award 5 marks for an explanation of one given factor, and additonal marks for supporting detail, to a maximum of 7 marks Community Help e.g. Community help is also an effective strategy to help Singapore prepare for an ageing population. The community plays an important role in giving social and moral support as well as providing health care and social services to the senior citizens. Voluntary welfare organisations, supported by government subsidies, provide community-based services for the senior citizens. An example is the Home Nursing Foundation for Elders. Most of the organizations involve members of the community such as housewives, students and retirees to help look after the needs of the senior citizens. Some community organizations also offer free health checks and organise recreational activities to help senior citizens remain physically, mentally and socially active. Hence the community plays an important role in helping to reduce the reliance on the government and relieve the government in its effort to take care of the senior citizens and ensuring that these senior citizens are well taken of. OR Government Support e.g. Government support is also an effective strategy to help Singapore prepare for an ageing population. As Singapore’s ageing population may cause a strain on the government’s resources to support them, the government has taken initiatives to implement policies or measures that can help Singaporeans cope with the problem of ageing population. The government set up Central Provident Fund which ensures that there are sufficient financial resources for the elderly to cope with life after retirement. The savings in the Special Account are for retirement, emergency and investment purposes. The money from the Medisave Account can be used for medical expenses. At the age of 55, the members can withdraw their savings from the Retirement Account and from the age of 62, they receive a monthly sum from their accounts. This helps to ensure that the 12
    • senior citizens will be self-reliant and they can be responsible for supporting themselves financially. Such policies also help to ensure that the ageing population does not become a burden to the government and reduces the need for the government to give heavy subsidies to take care of the ageing population. As a result, less resources and revenue need to be channelled to support the ageing population. The revenue could then be used for financing projects that enhance Singapore’s economic development. Hence, it helps Singapore to prepare for an ageing population better. OR Individual Responsibility e.g. Individual responsibility is also an effective strategy to help Singapore prepare for an ageing population. Due to the enormous resources needed to cater to the needs of the senior citizens as well as the strains these citizens pose to the state and its younger population, the individual has a great role to play in minimising the impact. By leading an active and healthy lifestyle and maintaining a proper diet, it minimises the risk of age-related illnesses or diseases. Also by encouraging individuals to be spent more time with family members and friends, it will lead to better support and more active social life. All these help to minimise the impact of ageing population. As individuals learn to be more responsible in looking after themselves, it means that the government can use the resources for other developments and help reduce the strain on the working Singaporeans who are the tax-payers.4 Explains two or more factors 8-11 Award 8 marks for two given factors explained, up to a maximum of 9 marks Award 10 marks for all three given factors explained, up to a maximum of 11 marks5 L4, plus reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative 12-13 significance of the factors 13
    • 3 Managing Peace and Security: Deterrence and Diplomacy (a) How far do you agree that the most important cause of international conflicts has been ideological differences? Explain your answer. [12]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Writes about conflict between countries but without focus on 1-2 the question Award 1 mark for one detail, to a maximum of 2 marks e.g. International conflicts occur when countries do not agree with one another on issues which might threaten their national interests. Conflicts can take many forms - a war of words where the countries involved criticize each other openly which may result in reduced trade between the two countries or armed conflict which can result in loss of lives and properties. 2 Describes the given reason OR/AND Identifies/Describes the 3-4 other reasons Award 3 marks for describing the given reason OR identifying/describing the other reasons. Award 4 marks for doing both. Conflict over different ideologies e.g. Countries pursuing different ideologies can come into conflict if they see that their ideological beliefs are threatened. The Korean War occurred because North Korea and South Korea believed in different ideologies – North Korea believed in communism while South Korea believed in democracy. OR Territorial disputes e.g. Conflicts may occur between countries when two or more countries try to extend their control by taking over territories which do not belong to them. A good example is the on-going border conflict between India and China. OR Competition for scarce resources e.g. The natural resources of the world such as land, water, oil and fish are unevenly distributed. Some countries have more of such resources while others have less. Countries with fewer resources might use force to gain more of these resources. An example is the conflict over fishing grounds between Iceland and Britain in the 1970s. 3 Explains the given reason OR other reason(s) 5-6 Award 5 marks for an explanation of given reason, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 6 marks 14
    • Conflict over different ideologiese.g. Countries pursuing different ideologies can come into conflictif they see that their ideological beliefs are threatened. North andSouth Korea fought a war because they believed in differentideologies - North Korea believed in Communism while SouthKorea believed in Democracy. After World War Two, Korea wasdivided into two separate countries - South Korea which wastemporary occupied by the USA and North Korea which wasoccupied by USSR. The UN called for an election in 1947 toestablish a single government to reunite Korea. USSR refusedthe election and installed a communist regime in the north. In1948, the independent Republic of Korea was formed with thesupport of USA. The governments of the two Koreas eachclaimed the right to rule the whole Korean peninsula. From1949-1950, frequent border clashes broke out between the twocountries. In June 1950, war broke out in Korea when NorthKorea invaded South Korea in an attempt to unite the Koreanpeninsula under communism. Fearing that North Korea wouldspread the communist ideology to South Korea, the USA, itsallies and UN defended South Korea. They defeated the NorthKoreans but instead of ending the war, the American President,with the approval of the UN, ordered an invasion of North Korea.When the UN troops reached the border between North Koreaand China, China, fearing that their national interest would bethreatened, joined the war and aided North Korea in pushing theUN troops back into South Korea. The UN troops counter-attacked and drove the Chinese army back into North Korea. Thewar resulted in the loss of many lives. Finally in 1953, anagreement to stop the fighting was signed by all parties and ademilitarized zone between North and South Korea was created.Up till today, the Korean peninsular remains divided.ORTerritorial disputese.g. Territorial disputes are the main reason for conflicts betweencountries. Sometimes countries try to extend their control overterritories which do not belong to them. Control over certaintracts of land may mean a lot to a country, especially if theland is important to its defence and national pride. Acquirednew territory means increased political power andsupremacy. The country’s territorial sphere of influence andair-space are now expanded. It may also mean more humanresources and new natural resources such as water, fish,forests, minerals. If the territory that is invaded is claimed bytwo countries or more, it can result in conflict among thesecountries. A good example is the on-going border conflictbetween India and China. In 1947 when India gainedindependence from Britain, it inherited the frontier drawn by theBritish. China, however, did not agree to the frontier. As it wasdifficult to draw a clear border between India and China as muchof their frontier lies in the inaccessible Himalayas, two borderregions of Aksai Chin plateau and the North East Frontier Agency(NEFA) became areas of constant conflict between the two 15
    • countries. Both countries refused to come to an agreement – India argued that China had violated territorial rights when China built a road on the Aksai Chin plateau, while China argued that the border had never been fixed in the first place. This led to the 1962 war between the two countries. Until today, the dispute is not resolved, and there have been a number of serious border incidents since the war. OR Competition for scarce resources e.g. Competition over scarce resources is a main reason for conflict between countries. The natural resources of the world such as land, water, oil and fish are unevenly distributed. Some countries have more of such resources while others have less. Countries with fewer resources might use force to gain more, especially when these resources are necessary for survival and economic growth. A shortage of resources can adversely affect a country’s economy. For example, in the 1970s, Iceland and Britain were in conflict over fishing grounds. Iceland has few natural resources and depends on its fishing industry for its survival. Iceland felt that its national interest was threatened when fishermen from Belgium, Germany and Britain were over-fishing around Iceland, resulting in a decrease in fish stocks around Iceland. Iceland suggested that the United Nations intervenes by requiring other countries to reduce their catches, by placing quotas on the tonnage of fish caught and by disallowing fishing in breeding grounds. However, most of the suggestions were ignored or accepted slowly. This frustrated Iceland and increased Iceland’s unhappiness with foreign fishermen. In 1975, Iceland extended its zone of control over fishing grounds from 50 to 200 nautical miles beyond its shores. As a result, no country would be able to fish within the boundary without Iceland’s permission. All countries complied with the new regulations, except Britain which refused to acknowledge the new boundary. This led to frequent clashes and collisions between British naval ships patrolling the waters where British trawlers operated and Iceland’s Coast Guard vessels inside the disputed area. Each side blamed the other for the collisions. Eventually Iceland cut its diplomatic ties with Britain in February 1976. Ties were restored only in June 1976 after an agreement was signed between the two countries.4 Explains the given reason AND identifies/describes other 7 reason(s)5 Explains the given reason, AND explains other reason(s) 8-10 Award 8 marks for an explanation of given reason and another reason, up to a maximum of 9 marks. Award 10 marks for more than one additional reason explained.6 L5 + Reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative 11-12 importance of the explained reasons Award 11 marks for answers which have an explanation on 16
    • why the given reason is more or less important compared to another reason. Award 12 marks for any further comparisons with an alternative reason. e.g. [As L5 plus] In conclusion, territorial disputes is the main reason for conflict between countries as land means a lot to a country’s defence and national pride. This type of conflict is one of the most difficult to resolve as very few countries are willing to give way. Acquired new territories means increased political power and supremacy. The country’s territorial sphere of influence and air-space are now expanded. It may also mean more human resources and new natural resources such as water, fish, forests, minerals. For the India-China dispute, the power of owning more territorial land was a major reason for the dispute because the land they fought over had no natural resources. Forty years after the war, China and India are still unable to resolve their territorial dispute as no one wants to give way or negotiate. Till today, there have been several border incidents. Similarly, the Iceland-Britain dispute was not just a conflict over scarce resources. The conflicts occurred only after Iceland tried to extend its territorial waters to preserve its fishing industry. But in this case, Britain gave way, hence the issue was resolved. Similarly, in the case of the Korean War, it was not just due to ideological differences but also to the desire for territorial gains and what they will bring for the country. When North Korea invaded South Korea, it intended to gain from all the rich resources that South Korea possessed. With these resources under its control, the North Korean government could channel them towards economic reconstruction of the country. Increased land means increased power and it was this reason that propelled the North Korean regime to launch the attack on the South. Of secondary importance were ideological differences. A country needs first to survive. If it could not even guarantee its economic survival, would ideology be of much use? Hence, it is most probable that North Korea used ideology as a pretext to invade South Korea to conceal the true reason. People of different ideologies can still exist in harmony but a new territory can bring new political influence and resources.3 (b) Here are three strategies to protect Singapore from threats: • Total Defence • a citizen armed force • military co-operation with other countries Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your [13] answer. 17
    • Level Descriptors Marks 1 Writes about topic without focus on the given factors 1-2 Award 1 mark for 1 each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks. e.g. To protect its national interests, all countries including Singapore has developed its own national security policy. As Singapore is a small state with limited resources, it adopts a national security policy of deterrence supported by diplomacy. 2 Describes the factor(s) but without explaining them 3-4 Award 3 marks for one factor and 4 marks for more than one factor described e.g. Total Defence was introduced in 1984 to involve everyone in the defence of the country. Total defence comprises five aspects: Military, Civil, Economic, Social and Psychological Defence. It provides a comprehensive and integrated response to any threats and challenges. e.g. Deterrence, in the form of military might and preparedness for conflict, is a better way to ensure Singapore’s national security. Every country should have a strong military that it can rely on in the event of war. Singapore’s national service policy helps build up its citizen army force while its related defence industry helps support its armed force by ensuring that the best weapons will always be made available for the military. e.g. To strengthen its military might, Singapore has military cooperation with other countries. Those countries that Singapore is cooperating with will not attack it but will be on its side instead. 3 Explains one factor 5-7 Award 5 marks for an explanation of one given factor, and additional marks for supporting detail, to a maximum of 7 marks. Total Defence e.g. Singapore’s Total Defence strategy, the cornerstone of its national security policy, calls for the deterrence of aggression through the maintenance of a small but well-trained and well- equipped military backed by a committed population proficient in civil defence and prepared for any potential conflict. Therefore in the event of a conflict, there are civilians who are trained in first aid and are able to assist the general public in obtaining food and water supplies. Through this strategy, potential aggressors will think twice about attacking Singapore if they know they will be facing the entire nation and not just the armed forces. OR A Citizen Armed Force e.g. Deterrence, in the form of military might and preparedness for conflict, is a better way to ensure Singapore’s national security. Every country should have a strong military it can rely on 18
    • in the event of war. A country’s military might will also make a potential enemy think twice before attacking it. The enemy knows that if it continues with the attacks, the other country will respond with all its military might. In the end, both sides will suffer great losses. Thus Singapore’s national service policy helps build up its citizen army force while its related defence industry helps support its armed force by ensuring that the best weapons will always be made available for the military. OR Military Co-operation with Other Countries e.g. To strengthen its military might, Singapore has military cooperation with other countries. Those countries that Singapore is cooperating with will not attack it but will be on its side instead. Military cooperation increases the number of allies that Singapore has in times of trouble. Countries that are potential threats to Singapore’s security will also think twice about attacking it. Thus deterrence will help to prevent to ensure Singapore’s national security. e.g. Military cooperation would also enable the transfer of military tactics, expertise. Military cooperation on bilateral and multilateral levels have indeed impacted on Singapore’s deterrence policy. For example, Australia offers vast areas of open land for the training of the RSAF. RSAF operates a Jet Flying Training School in Western Australia and Australia agreed to allow RSAF to train there for 15 years. Through bilateral ties, Singapore is able to train and hence strengthen the rigour and expertise of its armed forces by allowing them to train with foreign armies. Moreover, bilateral military cooperation also allows Singapore soldiers to have the necessary training overseas which makes up for the lack of training ground in Singapore. Military cooperation has also helped Singapore’s national security through the FPDA (Five Power Defence Arrangements). The five member nations of the FPDA hold joint military exercises. In the event of an external threat to Singapore or Malaysia, the members will consult one another on the appropriate measures to be taken. Multi-lateral ties would mean that peace would be indirectly promoted in the region due to defensive regional arrangements like the FDPA. Moreover, the thought of having to deal with Britain, Australia and NZ has deterred countries in the region from engaging in hostile activities. Military cooperation between Singapore and Malaysia has also led to both countries viewing military cooperation as an important factor to peace and stability in Southeast Asia.4 Explains two or more factors 8-11 Award 8 marks for two given factors explained, up to a maximum of 9 marks Award 10 marks for all three given factors explained, up to a maximum of 11 marks 19
    • 5 L4, plus reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative 12-13 significance of the factors4 Venice – A Great City-State of Its Time (a) How far do you agree that the most important factor for the eventual decline of Venice was due to foreign threats? Explain your answer. [12]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Writes about the eventual decline of Venice but without 1-2 focus on the question Award 1 mark for one detail, to a maximum of 2 marks e.g. Venice faced a gradual decline from the 15th century onwards. The Venetians prided themselves on their successes, they overlooked events and developments unfolding in the region, etc. 2 Describes the given factor OR/AND Identifies/ Describes the 3-4 other factors Award 3 marks for describing the given factor OR identifying /describing the other factors Award 4 marks for doing both Foreign Threats e.g. Foreign threats in the form of the emergence of new military rivals, involvement in the mainland and the Leagues of Cambrai led to the decline of Venice. OR Maritime Competition e.g. The discovery of a new trade route to the East as well as the rise of new trade rivals threatened the monopoly trade status of Venice in the region. Venice lost its monopoly status and the shortfall in revenue threatened its ability to defend itself against external rivals. OR Political Challenges e.g. As Venice prospered, corruption and incompetent leaders weakened the government in their ability to rule Venice objectively and fairly. OR Social Challenges e.g. As the Venetians prospered, the complacency of Venetian society led to its decline. The Venetians became less hard working and placed more emphasis on entertaining themselves. 20
    • 3 Explains the given factor or other factor(s) 5-6 Award 5 marks for an explanation of the given factor, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 6 marks Foreign Threats e.g. Foreign threats in the form of the emergence of new military rivals led to the decline of Venice. For example, as the Ottoman Empire expanded, the Venetians had to fight hard for their control of the Adriatic Sea. The Ottomans had acquired territories along the coast of the Adriatic Sea and launched attacks at Venetian territories from there. Venice had to use its galleys to fight off these attacks, thus disrupting the use of galleys for trading purposes. e.g. Besides the Ottoman Empire, Venice also had to face the League of Cambrai, a military alliance against Venice formed by the major powers of Europe like France and Spain. These states resented Venice’s influence in the region and aimed to reduce the power of Venice and divide its territories amongst them. The fighting of wars with these two formidable rivals drained and weakened Venice’s resources. OR Maritime Competition e.g. Another factor would be the rise in maritime competition. With the discovery of new maritime routes such as that around the Cape of Good Hope, Venice lost its monopoly of the lucrative spice trade and greatly reduced the large profits which Venetian traders had earned for centuries. The Portuguese could now buy their spices directly from India and this led to competition with the Venetians. e.g. The formation of huge trading companies like the Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company meant that Venice was now bypassed as these companies had better- designed ships that could sail directly to the East to get their supplies. Therefore, the rise of new trading rivals meant that Venice’s revenue declined drastically as it was no longer the only source of supplies from the East. The decline in revenue meant that Venice could not finance its defence against the new military rivals it faced. OR Political Challenges e.g. Internally, as Venice prospered, there was a weakening of the government. As older families died and a plague struck Venice in the 17th century, there was a decline in the population of the nobility. To retain their wealth and properties, noble families arranged marriages among themselves, causing wealth to be concentrated in the hands of a few families. With a small group of nobles dominating the government, corruption grew especially in the higher offices, causing policies to be made 21
    • to preserve the power, prestige and wealth of nobles rather than for the good of the city-state. e.g. Another factor that led to the weakening of the government was the appointment of nobles who were previously scholars to serve as naval commanders when they did not have adequate naval expertise or military experience. This caused Venice to sustain heavy losses in battles against the powerful Ottomans. Therefore, the weakening of the government meant that Venice could not implement good policies to cope with its new challenges and withstand the might of its powerful neighbours. OR Social Challenges e.g. As the Venetians prospered, the complacency of the Venetian society led to its decline. The Venetians became less hard working and placed more emphasis on entertaining themselves. The rich indulged in fine living by holding lavish parties. There were also countless parades and celebrations involving the whole city. There was a year-end party that lasted for weeks, when the whole city stopped functioning. Also, both the poor and the rich were involved in gambling. Thus they became less involved in important matters like administration and the development of Venice. Soon Venice became insignificant and lost out to other traders and this led to the decline of Venice.4 Explains the given factor AND identifies/ describes other 7 factor(s)5 Explains the given factor, AND explains other factor(s) 8-10 Award 8 marks for an explanation of given factor and another factor, up to a maximum of 9 marks. Award 10 marks for more than one additional factor explained.6 L5 + reaches a balanced conclusion based on a relative 11-12 importance of the explained factors Award 11 marks to answers which have an explanation of why the given factor is more or less important compared to another factor. Award 12 marks for any comparisons with another alternative factor. e.g. Venice’s decline is largely due to its inability to respond effectively to foreign threats. By the 15th century, many of the mainland states regarded Venice as their rivals and were unwilling to help Venice. Venice on its part refused to forge positive relations with rising nations such as Portugal but instead viewed them as competitors. Due to the lack of tactful diplomacy, Venetians also suffered on the economic front. Venice could not compete with the rising European powers following the discovery of the new seas routes. This affected their revenue which in turn weakened their military capability. Venice’s final collapse took place when its weakened government surrendered the city-state to France without a single shot being fired. 22
    • 4 (b) Here are three factors that contributed to the rise of Venice from the 9th to the 15th centuries: • capable leaders • practical economic strategies strategic geographical location Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your answer. [13]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Writes about the topic but without focus on the given factors 1-2 Award 1 mark for each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks e.g. Venice became very powerful politically and economically from the 9th to the 15th century, etc. 2 Describes the factor(s) but without explaining them 3-4 Award 3 marks for one factor and 4 marks for more than one factor described e.g. Capable leaders contributed to Venice’s rise. Some made outstanding contributions in the growth and development of Venice as they were far-sighted. e.g. Practical economic strategies led to the rise of Venice too. For example, by looking into ways to increase trading volume through various strategies. e.g. Strategic geographical location contributed to the rise of Venice. Venice’s strategic location allowed its traders to conduct trading with European states using goods sourced from the east. 3 Explains one factor 5-7 Award 5 marks for an explanation of one given factor, and additonal marks for supporting detail, to a maximum of 7 marks Capable leaders e.g. Capable leaders contributed to Venice’s rise. One example is Doge Enrico Dandolo whose leadership of the Fourth Crusade led to the capture of the Byzantine Empire’s capital Constantinople. This crusade allowed Venice to take over territories once controlled by the Byzantine Empire and increase its international status and recognition. Doge Enrico was being far-sighted when he captured Constantinople as with this conquest, he was able to get the best trading terms for Venice and also gained control of territories which were important for trade, leading to the rise of Venice. e.g. Other Doges increased Venice’s power by establishing trade 23
    • routes like Pietro Ziani and Pietro II Orseolo established diplomaticrelations and placated pirates to facilitate trade. By leading manymissions to conquer territories, these Doges were capableleaders who felt that peace in the region would boost Venicemaritime’s trade. Through this, it gave Venice peace andstability, allowing it to generate more revenue and wealth,leading to the rise of Venice. These leaders certainly lay thefoundations for the rise of the Venetian Empire.ORPractical economic strategiese.g. Practical economic strategies led to the rise of Venice too.One example was when the Venetians decided to pay the piratesso that they will not harass the trading ships stopping at Venice. Inthis way, nations trading with Venice felt safe and wereencouraged to trade with Venice. Venice hence prospered.e.g. Venice had skilled diplomats who could get favourable tradingterms such as lower tax rate which gave them competitive edgeover their competitors such as Genoa. Through lower tax rates,this meant that Venetian goods were relatively cheaper thanthose of their competitors, making them more attractive toforeign traders, leading to increased trade and revenue, thuscontributing to the rise of Venice.e.g. Innovations in maritime technology in the areas of navigationand weaponry used on ships also helped to ensure that Venicecould sail in the Mediterranean Sea throughout the year. Bymaking use of the advances to conduct voyages in the winter/in harsh weather conditions, this increased the frequency oftrade and brought Venice more profits, leading to the rise ofVenice. The Senate also came up with an efficient way ofmanaging voyages. It organised and monitored the schedule oftrade voyages as well as grouped and ordered them to travel inconvoys. With more traders travelling together in convoys, thismeant that trading could be done in greater quantities, hencemore profitable. The efficiency of the system also meant thatVenice was able to expand its trade into many regions. Withincreased trade, revenue also increased, leading to the rise ofVenice.ORStrategic geographical locatione.g. Strategic geographical location contributes to the rise ofVenice. With Venice strategically located at the northern tip of theAdriatic Sea, Central and Southern Europe relied on Venetians forgoods from the east such as spices, sugar and even diamonds.Using a combination of overland and sea routes, Venetian traders 24
    • went to Arabian ports such as Alexandria and Hormuz to buy and later sell these goods to other European states. By selling these goods at a very high price, Venetians traders were able to reap large profits. This made Venice’s economic standing in the region very strong, leading to the rise of Venice.4 Explains two or more factors 8-11 Award 8 marks for two given factors explained, up to a maximum of 9 marks Award 10 marks for all three given factors explained, up to a maximum of 11 marks5 L4, plus reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative 12-13 significance of the factors 25