Tecnologia 1


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Trabajo de tecnología:
Construction materials.

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Tecnologia 1

  2. 2. INDEX * Contruction materials. * Stone. * Cement * Mortar * Concrete *Plaster *Ceramics *Buildings construction.
  3. 3. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS From ancient times to the present day, builders have used a wide variety of materials for construction: wood,hay,mud,stone... Construction materials are used in large quantities, so that should come from cheap and abundant raw materials. Thus, most construction materials are made from widely available materials such as sand, clay or stone. It is also desirable that the required manufacturing processes consume little power and are not overly elaborate.
  4. 4. STONE Stone are generally classified by mineral and chemical composition, by the texture of the constituent particles and by the processes that formed them. These indicators separate stone into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
  5. 5. CEMENT Cement is a blinder, like glue. It is a dry grey powder that binds other materials together. We normally use cement to preoduce mortar and concrete. It is uncertain where it was first discovered that a combination of hydrated non-hydraulic lime and a pozzolan produces a hydraulic mixture (see also: Pozzolanic reaction), but concrete made from such mixtures was first used on a large scale by Roman engineers.
  6. 6. PRODUCTION OF CEMENT Of all the different cement mixtures is consideraded to be the standard mixture. Its namecomes from limestone quarry near Porlant ,where limestone was extracted for the production cement. Porlant cement contain: clay,chalk,gypsum, limestone,tricalcium, aluminate,calcium ferrites,metal oxides.
  7. 7. MORTAR Mortar is a mixture of cement , sand,water. It`s best to mix cement and the sand first because they mix more easily whitout the water. When we add water to the mixture it becomes a paste. When the cement and water come into contac they start a chemical reaction. MORTAR
  8. 8. CONCRETE Concrete is a composite construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravels or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures. -REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebars"), reinforcement grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. The term Ferro Concrete refers only to concrete that is reinforced with iron or steel. Other materials used to reinforce concrete can be organic and inorganic fibres as well as composites in different forms.
  9. 9. PLASTER Plaster may also be used to create complex detailing for use in room interiors. These may be geometric (simulating wood or stone) or naturalistic (simulating leaves, vines, and flowers) These are also often used to simulate wood or stone detailing found in more substantial buildings. -Advantages: *Plaster gives a smooth surface and has nice finish. *It is easy to work with. *It is a good sound and thermal insulator. *It is resistant to fire within a room , reducing, or eliminating structural damage. -Disadvantages: *It is weak. *It absorbs water.
  10. 10. CERAMICS A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous (e.g., a glass). Chinese porcelain vase
  11. 11. HISTORY OF CERAMICS. The history of ceramics dates back to about 10,000 BC. Way back then, difficulty in firing techniques did not result in the glaze and gloss now associated with the material. The products, for domestic and commercial purposes, were mold based and featured only simulated basket texture for surface decoration. The mixture of copper, water and soluble soda resulted in a technical oddity that was commonly referred to as 'high temperature ceramic' around 5000 BC.
  12. 12. WHAT IS CLAY? Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained minerals. Clay deposits are mostly composed of clay minerals, a subtype of phyllosilicate minerals, which impart plasticity and harden when fired or dried; they also may contain variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure by polar attraction.
  13. 13. HOW DO WE MANUFACTURE CERAMICS? 1- MOULDING: The first step is making ceramics is to give the clay the required shape , for example: a brick. 2- Drying: The absorbed water is what makes the clay wet. When it evaporates the clay becomes hard , but if water is added it becomes soft clay again. 3- FIRING: To remove the chemically bound water we need high temperatures. That is why the process is called “ banking” or “ firing” the clay.
  14. 14. USED OF BRICKS. The bricks are used in construction fences, walls and partitions. It is mainly used to build walls or partitions. Although bone can be placed, it is usually received with mortar. The arrangement of the bricks in the wall known as rigging, and there is great variety of them.
  15. 15. CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS In general, there are three types of construction: 1. Desining team. 2. Financial advisor. 3. Interaction of expertise. 4. Desing and building. Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct, and maintain the project.
  16. 16. DESINING TEAM In the modern industrialized world, construction usually involves the translation of designs into reality. A formal design team may be assembled to plan the physical proceedings, and to integrate those proceedings.
  17. 17. FINANCIAL ADVISORS. Many construction projects suffer from preventable financial problems. Underbids ask for too little money to complete the project. Cash flow problems exist when the present amount of funding cannot cover the current costs for labour and materials, and because they are a matter of having sufficient funds at a specific time, can arise even when the overall total is enough.
  18. 18. INTERACTION OF EXPERTISE Design, finance, and legal aspects overlap and interrelate. The design must be not only structurally sound and appropriate for the use and location, but must also be financially possible to build, and legal to use.
  19. 19. DESING AND BUILDING This approach has become more common in recent years and includes an entire completed package, including fixtures, fittings and equipment where necessary, to produce a completed fully functional building.