From ancient times to the present day, builders have
used a wide variety of materials for construction:
Construction materials are used in large quantities, so
that should come from cheap and abundant raw
materials. Thus, most construction materials are made
from widely available materials such as sand, clay or
It is also desirable that the required manufacturing
processes consume little power and are not overly
Stone are generally
classified by mineral and
chemical composition, by
the texture of the
constituent particles and
by the processes that
formed them. These
indicators separate stone
Cement is a
blinder, like glue.
It is a dry grey
powder that binds
We normally use
It is uncertain where it was first discovered that a
combination of hydrated non-hydraulic lime and a
pozzolan produces a hydraulic mixture (see also:
Pozzolanic reaction), but concrete made from such
mixtures was first used on a large scale by Roman
PRODUCTION OF CEMENT
Of all the different cement mixtures is
consideraded to be the standard mixture.
Its namecomes from limestone quarry near Porlant
,where limestone was extracted for the production
Porlant cement contain:
Mortar is a mixture of
cement , sand,water.
It`s best to mix
cement and the sand
first because they mix
more easily whitout
When we add water
to the mixture it
becomes a paste.
When the cement
and water come into
contac they start a
Concrete is a composite construction material
composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and
other cementitious materials such as fly ash and
slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate
made of gravels or crushed rocks such as limestone, or
granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and
Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars
("rebars"), reinforcement grids, plates or fibers have been
incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. The term
Ferro Concrete refers only to concrete that is reinforced with
iron or steel. Other materials used to reinforce concrete can
be organic and inorganic fibres as well as composites in
Plaster may also be used to create complex detailing for use in
room interiors. These may be geometric (simulating wood or
stone) or naturalistic (simulating leaves, vines, and flowers)
These are also often used to simulate wood or stone detailing
found in more substantial buildings.
*Plaster gives a smooth surface
and has nice finish.
*It is easy to work with.
*It is a good sound and thermal
*It is resistant to fire within a
room , reducing, or eliminating
*It is weak.
*It absorbs water.
A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic
solid prepared by the action of heat and
subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials
may have a crystalline or partly
crystalline structure, or may be
amorphous (e.g., a glass).
Chinese porcelain vase
HISTORY OF CERAMICS.
The history of ceramics dates back to about 10,000 BC.
Way back then, difficulty in firing techniques did not
result in the glaze and gloss now associated with the
material. The products, for domestic and commercial
purposes, were mold based and featured only simulated
basket texture for surface decoration. The mixture of
copper, water and soluble soda resulted in a technical
oddity that was commonly referred to as 'high
temperature ceramic' around 5000 BC.
WHAT IS CLAY?
Clay is a naturally occurring
material composed primarily of
fine-grained minerals. Clay
deposits are mostly composed
of clay minerals, a subtype of
phyllosilicate minerals, which
impart plasticity and harden
when fired or dried; they also
may contain variable amounts
of water trapped in the mineral
structure by polar attraction.
HOW DO WE MANUFACTURE
1- MOULDING: The first step is making ceramics
is to give the clay the required shape , for
example: a brick.
2- Drying: The absorbed water is what makes the
clay wet. When it evaporates the clay becomes
hard , but if water is added it becomes soft clay
3- FIRING: To remove the chemically bound water
we need high temperatures. That is why the
process is called “ banking” or “ firing” the clay.
USED OF BRICKS.
The bricks are used in construction fences, walls
and partitions. It is mainly used to build walls or
partitions. Although bone can be placed, it is
usually received with mortar. The arrangement
of the bricks in the wall known as rigging, and
there is great variety of them.
In general, there are three
types of construction:
1. Desining team.
2. Financial advisor.
3. Interaction of expertise.
4. Desing and building.
Each type of construction
project requires a unique
team to plan, design,
construct, and maintain the
In the modern
translation of designs
into reality. A formal
design team may be
assembled to plan
proceedings, and to
Many construction projects suffer
from preventable financial
problems. Underbids ask for too
little money to complete the
project. Cash flow problems exist
when the present amount of
funding cannot cover the current
costs for labour and materials,
and because they are a matter of
having sufficient funds at a
specific time, can arise even
when the overall total is enough.
INTERACTION OF EXPERTISE
Design, finance, and legal aspects overlap
and interrelate. The design must be not only
structurally sound and appropriate for the
use and location, but must also be
financially possible to build, and legal to use.
DESING AND BUILDING
This approach has
common in recent
years and includes
an entire completed
fixtures, fittings and