Paraphrasing tips summer 12

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Tips for paraphrasing another author's work in an ethical and accurate manner.

Tips for paraphrasing another author's work in an ethical and accurate manner.

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  • 1. ParaphrasingTips to avoid plagiarism
  • 2. Golden Rule in research:When you’ve completed writing the body of your research paper, no more than 1/3 of the words used should be someone else’s.In other words, 2/3 of the written words should be your words. You can accomplish this by directly quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing the work of other authors.
  • 3. ParaphrasingParaphrasing is an ethical way to use informationprovided in other’s work, by rephrasing orreiterating the information in your own words.Strategies:• Synonyms• Antonyms• Phrasal Verbs & General Verbs
  • 4. SynonymsA word meaning the same as another.Substitute some of the author’s words using synonyms.If the author writes:The hardest language to learn is Mandarin.Example of using a synonym:One of the most difficult languages to learn isMandarin.Better use of synonyms:Mandarin is a language considered one of the most difficult tomaster.*The reason the second example is better is because the statementwas changed in a number of different ways – not just one word.
  • 5. AntonymsA word that means the opposite of another.If the author writes:The peel of tangerine can be easily removed unlike theorange.Example of antonym use:The peel of a tangerine is not as hard to remove asthat of an orange.Example of better use of antonyms:There is no effort to removing the tangerine’s peel compared to that ofan orange.The second example is better because the statement was changed in a number of different ways - not just one or two words.
  • 6. Utilizing Phrases to Paraphrase• A phrase is a string of words that form a grammatical unit, usually within a clause or sentence.For instance:• To stay in shape for competition, athletes must exercise every day.• As the wind started blowing violently, the townspeople began to seek shelter.
  • 7. Phrasal Verbs• Verb combined with another wordFor instance, swapping out: “put up with” meaning to tolerate and “stand for” meaning “represent.”If the author writes:Many Canadians are bilingual.Phrasal verb use for bilingual:• Many Canadians speak two languages.Better use of phrasal verbs in research writing:• A majority of Canadian people can speak more than one language.
  • 8. General Verbs• Words indicating action or state• The organization quickly rose to the top of the expanding global market, outpacing their competition in fiscal year profits.• *Now it’s your turn – use general verbs to paraphrase this sentence.
  • 9. Helpful tips:• Synonym – word meaning the same as another• Antonym – words with opposite meanings• Phrasal verbs – verb combined with another word (“put up with” meaning to tolerate and “Stand for” meaning “represent”• General verbs – word indicating action or state• Phrases - a string of words that form a grammatical unit, usually within a clause or sentence.