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Zapatistas

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  • 1. Unit 8 Notes Zapatistas
  • 2. Who are the Zapatistas?
    • a group of Mexicans who support improved rights & living conditions for Mexico’s indigenous people
    • named after Emiliano Zapata, who lived in the early 20 th century & fought for the rights of native people in Mexico
    • In the late 1900s, the Zapatistas were known for harassment and sabotage against the government.
  • 3. Emiliano Zapata
    • 1880-1919
    • poor mestizo sharecropper
    • hero in the Mexican revolution of 1914-1915
    • demanded justice for the indigenous people of Mexico
  • 4. What is Guerrilla Warfare?
    • sudden, unexpected acts carried about by groups that fight using “hit and run” tactics
    • Many terrorist groups employ guerrilla warfare.
  • 5.  
  • 6. Chiapas
    • The uprising is focused in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
    • It’s a resource-rich state in southern Mexico:
      • produces over half of Mexico’s hydroelectric power
      • 2 nd largest petroleum producing state
      • Largest coffee exporting state
    • So what’s the big deal there?
  • 7.  
  • 8. What’s the Big Deal?
    • Chiapas has the worst rates of poverty in Mexico:
      • three-fourths of its people are malnourished, half live in dwellings with dirt floors
      • 19% of the population has no income
      • 39% earn less than minimum wage ($3/day)
    • Chiapas is a huge contributor to the global economy (water, oil, etc.), but is getting little in return.
      • huge division between rich & poor in the state
  • 9. NAFTA & the Zapatistas…
    • 1994—North American Free Trade Agreement came into effect & allowed free trade between US, Canada, & Mexico
    • Some people in Mexico did not like this plan:
      • thought that NAFTA would allow cheap farm goods to come into Mexico from the US
      • thought NAFTA benefitted the wealthy and hurt the poor Native American farmers by lowering prices of crops like coffee and corn
      • farmers in Mexico would not be able to compete with the cheaper food
  • 10. NAFTA & the Zapatistas…
    • On the day NAFTA took effect, the Zapatistas took over 7 towns in their part of Mexico (state of Chiapas).
    • The Mexican army was sent to remove the Zapatistas.
    • fighting lasted for several weeks, & a cease-fire eventually ended the fighting
    • Zapatistas did not go away
  • 11. Armed Takeover in Chiapas 01/01/94
  • 12. Zapatistas’ Concerns
    • agreements between the Zapatistas & the government have not solved the peoples’ problems
    • They argued that the indigenous people of Mexico needed more help to improve healthcare, housing education, & jobs.
  • 13. Latest Developments
    • Seven years after the 1 st revolt, on March 11, 2001, the Zapatistas marched to Mexico City and addressed Congress.
    • They encouraged the passage of an Indigenous Rights Bill.
      • Unfortunately, the bill was unsuccessful due to Congress radically changing it and denying indigenous people certain rights.
  • 14. Latest Developments
    • January 2003: Rose up again armed with machetes denouncing neoliberalism (free trade policies), ecotourism, foreign investment and plans for war with Iraq
    • have aggressively detained several foreigners in an effort to deter foreign investment