The History of Australia<br />Australia the Colony<br />The colony of Australia began with the establishment of Port Jackson, a settlement in New South Wales on January 26, 1788.<br />
The History of Australia<br />Founding of Port Jackson<br />
Prison Colonies<br />1787 – British ships called the “First Fleet” left England with convicts to establish a prison colony at Port Jackson – convicts settled in 1788.<br />
Convicts Take Over Australia<br />The British experienced overcrowding in their prison system and sought to solve the problem by sentencing their prisoners to “transportation” -- Australia. <br />Here they founded a system of labor in which people, whatever their crime, were employed according to their skills. <br />From 1810, convicts were seen as a source of labor to advance and develop the British colony. <br />Convict labor was used to develop the public facilities of the colonies - roads, bridges, courthouses, and hospitals. Convicts also worked for free settlers and small land holders. <br />
Port Arthur<br />Port Arthur was named after Van Diemen's Land lieutenant governor George Arthur. The settlement started as a timber station in 1830, but it is best known for being a penal colony.<br />From 1833, until the 1850s, it was the destination for the hardest of convicted British and Irish criminals, those who were secondary offenders having re-offended after their arrival in Australia. Rebellious personalities from other convict stations were also sent here.<br />In addition, Port Arthur had some of the strictest security measures of the British penal system.<br />
The History of Australia<br />Port Arthur Prison<br />
The History of Australia<br />Convict-built chapel at <br />Port Arthur Prison<br />
Port Arthur<br />Some tales suggest that prisoners committed murder (an offence punishable by death) just to escape the desolation of life at the camp.<br />The Island of the Dead was the destination for all who died inside the prison camps.<br />
Aborigines vs. British<br />British settlers brought disease and guns to Australia.<br />The Aborigines had no immunity against European diseases.<br />In the 19th & 20th centuries, conflict worsened.<br />Surviving Aborigines were forced onto reservations in the interior.<br />
Australia Grows Up! <br />1851- Gold was discovered in New South Wales and Victoria, attracting a large population.<br />Australia’s population quadrupled!!<br />Independence became an issue.<br />
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