Summaries from NorthouseDr. GreenTRAIT APPROACHDescription• One of the oldest approaches• Great person theories• What traits differentiate leaders?• Stogdill’s 1948 survey• Stogdill’s 1974 survey• Research in the 1990sMajor Leadership Traits• Intelligence• Self-confidence• Determination• Integrity• SociabilityHow This Approach Works• Focuses on the leader• Find the “right” people• Personality type assessmentsStrengths• Intuitively appealing.• Backed by century of research.• Focuses on leader.• Provides benchmarks.Criticisms• Could not delimit a definitive list of traits.• Failed to take situations into account.
STYLE APPROACHDescription• Very different from trait approach• Two major kinds of behaviors: task, relationship• Blending task and relationship is criticalThe Ohio State Studies• Based on results of research using the LBDQ• Initiating structure and considerationThe University of Michigan Studies• Employee orientation and production orientation• Can one person do both?Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Leadership Grid• Concern for people and concern for production• Seven grid stylesHowThis Approach Works• Leaders have an impact on others through tasks they perform as well as inrelationships they create.• To balance task and process behaviors.
SITUATIONAL APPROACHDescription• Extensively used in training and development• Focuses on the situation• Leader analyzes situation and adapts style to followers.SLH Model• Leadership styles—S1: High directive and Low supportive “Directing”—S2: High directive and High supportive “Coaching”—S3: Low directive and High supportive “Supporting”—S4: Low directive and Low supportive “Delegating”• Development level: Measure of degree to whichsubordinates have competence and commitment.—D1: Low competence and High commitment—D2: Some competence and Low commitment—D3: Moderate competence and Low commitment—D4: High competence and High commitmentHow This Approach Works• Leaders diagnose where followers are on the development continuum for a particulartask and adapt their leadership style accordingly.• Leaders cannot use the same style in all situations.• Flexibility is important.Strengths• Widely used in training and development.• Practical, easy to understand, and applicable across contexts.• High in prescriptive value.• Unique in stressing leader flexibility.Criticisms• Not substantiated with published research findings.• Unclear conceptualization of development levels in the SLII model.• Unclear conceptualization of commitment.• Prescriptions of model not fully substantiated.• Does not address issue of one-to-one and one-to-many
CONTINGENCY THEORYDescription• Contingency because effective leadership depends on thematch between the leader’s style and the demands of thesituation.• Based on the analysis of thousands of leaders in the military.• By studying which leaders were effective, Fiedler created amodel which matches styles to situations.Contingency Model• Leadership styles: Based on scores from the Least PreferredCo-worker (LPC) scale—Low LPCs are task-oriented and are concerned primarily with reaching a goal.—High LPCs are relationship-oriented and get their primaryneeds satisfied by first establishing good interpersonalrelationships and then attending to tasks.• Situation variables - three factors—Leader-member relations. A good atmosphere wheresubordinates feel trust.—Task structure. A task is structured when the requirementsare clear, there are few alternatives, completion is measurable,and the number of correct ways to do it is limited.—Position power. A leader has power when he/she can hire andfire, and reward and punish subordinates.How the Approach Works• The theory posits that certain styles will be effective in certain situations.• Low LPCs will be effective in extremes (very favorable and very unfavorable situations) andhighs will be effective in moderate situations.• The model in Figure 5.1 illustrates which type of LPC is effectivein which type of situation.Strengths• Supported by a great deal of empirical research.• Stresses the link between style of leader and situation.• Has predictive power.• Does not require that we be effective in all situations.• Provides useful data for developing leadership profiles.
Criticisms• The “black box” problem.• LPC scale has validity and workability problems.• The theory is cumbersome for ongoing organizations.
PATH-GOAL THEORYDescription• Path-goal theory is based on the tenets of expectancy theory,which suggests that subordinates will be motivated if theybelieve that—they are capable of performing their work.—their efforts will result in a certain outcomes.—the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile.• Leaders help subordinates define their goals and clarify their work.• They remove obstacles and provide support.• Leaders need to select a style of leadership that is best suited totheir subordinates.Leader Behaviors• Directive leadership• Supportive leadership• Participative leadership• Achievement-oriented leadershipSubordinate Characteristics• Affiliation• Desire for structure• Desire for control• Task abilityTask Ability• Task design• Authority system• Primary work groupRemoving Obstacles
How the Approach Works• It is theoretical and pragmatic.• The leader’s job is to help subordinates reach their goals bydirecting, guiding, and coaching them along the way.• Based on the task and subordinates’ characteristics, it suggestswhich style is most appropriate for leaders.Strengths• Links leadership style with task and subordinate characteristics.• Is grounded in the principles of expectancy theory.• Is very practical.Criticisms• Is difficult to utilize fully.• Has only limited support from research findings.• Fails to explain adequately the link between leadership styles and motivation.• Suggests a one-way impact from leader to follower that couldpromote dependency.
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORYDescription• LMX theory places the dyadic relationship of leaders andfollowers at the focal point of leadership.• First appeared 25 years ago as Vertical Dyad Linkage theory.• Stresses the leader’s relationship with each of her/hissubordinates.Early Studies• Vertical dyads could be described as falling into two groups:in-groups and out-groups.• Linkages (or relationships) based on expanded and negotiatedrole responsibilities produced in-groups.• Linkages based on formal employment roles resulted inout-groups.• Personality and other personal characteristics were related tobecoming a member of the in-group.• Being in the in-group has benefits and costs for leaders andtheir subordinates.Later Studies• The shift toward addressing outcomes of effective dyads.• High-quality relationships are related to less turnover, more commitment, better attitudes,etc.Leadership Making• A prescriptive approach that emphasizes that a leader shouldbuild effective relationships with each subordinate rather thanjust a few.• Three Phases: Stranger - Acquaintance - PartnerHow the Approach Works• It describes and prescribes leadership.• Working with an in-group allows a leader to accomplish morethan if s/he were working alone.• In-group members do more and help to advance theorganization’s goals.• By creating high-quality relationships with the entire work group
and others throughout the organization, the leader helpshim/herself and the organization.Strengths• Makes intuitive sense.• Accurate describes real organizations.• Unique in making the leader-subordinate dyad central toleadership.• Directs attention to the importance of communication foreffective leadership.• Supported by research linking leadership to positive outcomes.Criticisms• Runs counter to the basic human value of fairness(discriminates).• Not a fully developed model.• Lacks explanatory theorems.• Lacks strong measurement of leader-member exchanges.
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIPDescription• A contemporary approach stressing that a leader needs to be concerned with values,ethics, standards, and long-term goals.• The leader needs to assess followers’ needs and help them reach their full potential.• Vision setting and charisma play an important role in transactional leadership.Transformational Leadership Defined• McGregor, Burns work on Leadership (1978)• Related to but different from transactional leadership.• Creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leaderand the follower (e.g., Gandhi, Mandela).Transformational Leadership and CharismaHouse’s charismatic theoryA Model of Transformational Leadership• Factor 1 – Idealized influence• Factor 2 – Inspirational motivation• Factor 3 – Intellectual stimulation• Factor 4 – Individualized consideration• Factor 5 – Contingent reward• Factor 6 – Management-by-exception• Factor 7 – Laissez-faire
Other Perspectives• Bennis and Nanus: Vision, social architects, trust, and self• Tichy and DeVanna: Three-act process (change, vision, structure)How the Approach Works• Leaders become role models who set the vision for an organization.• They act as change agents who implement new directions.• They become social architects who are out front ininterpreting and shaping new meanings for an organization.Strengths• Widely researched and current leadership approach.• Is intuitively appealing.• Treats leadership as a process that includes leaders and followers.• Emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and morals.Criticisms• Lacks conceptual clarity.• Interpreted as “either-or” rather than a matter of degree.• Treats leadership as a personality trait.• Gives an anti-democratic impression of leadership.• Based on qualitative data.• Has potential to be abused.
WOMEN AND LEADERSHIPConcepts and TermsSexGenderMasculinityFemininityBipolar categoryCompetitive advantageMeta-analysisGlass ceilingPipeline theoryCorporate climateHomophilyReverse discriminationBacklashInformal networksMentor relationshipPolitical savvyNonwork obligationsPolitical naiveteDefinitions• Sex refers to biological differences.• Gender refers to the way meaning and evaluations are associated with sex.• Problems with two-category distinctions.• “Gendered” workplaces.Overview of Research Trends• Can women be leaders?—Imbalance in proportion of women in leader roles continues.—Women comprise 60% of workforce.—Only a handful of Fortune 500 companies have femaleCEOs.• When women are underutilized it hurts organizations.• Do female and male leaders differ in their behavior andeffectiveness?—Meta-analyses show women tend to be more participative
and less autocratic.—Gender does not influence overall effectiveness.—Range of appropriate behaviors for women is more limited.—Female leaders may be evaluated differently.—Women are seen as more effective in middle management.• Why do so few women leaders reach the top?—“Pipeline theory” not supported by data—Insufficient experience in line positions—Not suited for leadership (not supported)—Glass ceiling barriers—Organizational barriers (Table 1)—Interpersonal barriers—Personal barriersHow Can More Women Leaders Reach the Top?• Transcend political naivete.• Build credibility.• Refine a style.• Shoulder responsibility.Strengths• Shows a greater understanding of subtle organizational exclusion.• Emphasizes the need for effective career development.• Provides insights about other leadership theories.Criticisms• Identifying people as male/female has created a simplistic, adversarial approach.• Little research exists about women leaders of color.
LEADERSHIP ETHICSConcepts and TermsEthosConductCharacterConsequencesDutyRulesTeleologicalEthical egoismUtilitarianismAltruismDeontologicalVirtue-basedInfluenceRespect for personsHolding environmentEthic of caringBeneficenceAttending to othersDistributive justiceCivic virtueEthics Defined• The kind of values and morals a community finds desirable• A set of principles• About virtuousnessEthical Theories• Theories about leaders’ conduct• Teleological theories: outcome driven—Ethical egoism—Utilitarianism• Deontological: duty driven, e.g., ethical responsibility to be honest• Theories about leaders’ character—Virtue-based theories focus on who people are as people.—Rather than tell people what to do—tell people what to be.—Courage, honesty, fairness, justice, integrity, humility.
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership• Power differences create enormous ethical responsibility.• Leaders and followers work to reach goals.• Respect for persons.• Leaders are role models for organizational values.Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership• Leaders use authority in assisting followers in doing adaptive work.• Provide holding environments.Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership• Raises level of morality in both leader and follower.• Places ethics and morals at the pivotal point in discussions ofleadership.Greenleaf’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership• A paradoxical approach: leading through serving• The story of Herman Hesse and the Journey to the EastPrinciples of Ethical Leadership• Respect, Service, Justice, Honesty, and CommunityStrengths• Provides body of timely/salient research.• Gives direction.• Reminds us that leadership is a moral process; ethics is a dimension of leadership.• Provides principles for developing real-world ethical leadership.Criticisms• Lacks a strong body of research findings; still in early stage of development.• Has been primarily descriptive and anecdotal; is weak in traditional empiricalsupport.