Bonheur au travail ilios kotsou
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Bonheur au travail ilios kotsou Bonheur au travail ilios kotsou Document Transcript

  • 4/04/13 Le bonheur au travail Notre menu1) Le bonheur2) Mesurer le bonheur3) Etre heureux, pourquoi?5) Le chemin 1
  • 4/04/131) Le bonheur? 2
  • 4/04/132) Mesurer le bonheur Le bonheur:un bien-être dont nous prenons conscience 3
  • 4/04/13Urry & al. Making a life worth living: neural correlates of well-being.Psychological Science 2004, 15 : 367-372. 3) Etre heureux, pourquoi ? Le bonheur, « Le souverain bien » 4
  • 4/04/13 Le bonheur:conséquence ou cause? Créativité… 5
  • 4/04/13Le cœur… 6
  • 4/04/13Elargir & Construire (B. Fredrickson) 7
  • 4/04/13 3bis) Les piègesLe bonheur c’est de penser « positivement » Ne pensez pas à… 8
  • 4/04/13 P SY CH OL OG I C AL S CIE N CE Research Article Positive Self-Statements Power for Some, Peril for Others Joanne V. Wood,1 W.Q. Elaine Perunovic,2 and John W. Lee1 1 University of Waterloo and 2University of New Brunswick ABSTRACT—Positive self-statements are widely believed to (b) in studies in which confounds, such as therapist attention or boost mood and self-esteem, yet their effectiveness has not demand characteristics, seem highly plausible but were not been demonstrated. We examined the contrary prediction controlled. The true impact of positive self-statements, then, is that positive self-statements can be ineffective or even unknown. harmful. A survey study confirmed that people often use We propose that, contrary to popular belief, positive self- positive self-statements and believe them to be effective. statements can be useless for some people, even though they Two experiments showed that among participants with low may benefit others. They may even backfire, making some self-esteem, those who repeated a positive self-statement people feel worse rather than better. We base our predictions on (‘‘I’m a lovable person’’) or who focused on how that research involving attitude change, self-comparison, and self- statement was true felt worse than those who did not repeat verification. According to the ‘‘latitudes of acceptance’’ idea the statement or who focused on how it was both true and (Sherif & Hovland, 1961), messages that espouse a position not true. Among participants with high self-esteem, those close to one’s own attitude are more persuasive than messages who repeated the statement or focused on how it was true that espouse a position far from one’s own (Eagly & Chaiken, felt better than those who did not, but to a limited degree. 1993). Messages that fall outside one’s latitude of acceptance Repeating positive self-statements may benefit certain are thought to meet resistance, and even to have the potential to people, but backfire for the very people who ‘‘need’’ them backfire, leading one to hold one’s original position even more the most. strongly (Zanna, 1993). Positive self-statements can be con- strued as messages that attempt to change attitudes—in this At this moment, thousands of people across North America are case, attitudes about the self. Thus, if positive self-statements probably silently repeating positive statements to themselves. carry messages that fall outside one’s latitude of acceptance, one Students facing exams, cancer patients, speakers approaching may reject them. For example, if people who believe that they lecterns, and individuals trying to lift their low self-esteem are are unlovable repeat, ‘‘I’m a lovable person,’’ they may dismiss repeating phrases such as, ‘‘I am a lovable person’’ (Johnson, this statement and perhaps even reinforce their conviction that 1991, p. 31). From at least as far back as Norman Vincent Peale’s they are unlovable. (1952) The Power of Positive Thinking, the media have advo- Self-comparison theory applies similar ideas to the context of cated saying favorable things to oneself. For example, Self receiving self-relevant feedback from other people. People are magazine advises, ‘‘Try chanting, ‘I’m powerful, I’m strong, and thought to automatically compare feedback that they receive nothing in this world can stop me’ ’’ (Gordon, 2001), and nu- with their preexisting self-conceptions, and to accept the feed- merous self-help books encourage ‘‘affirmations,’’ such as ‘‘Ev- back only when it fits reasonably well with those self-concep- ery day I admit my errors, failures and weaknesses but feel no tions (e.g., Eisenstadt & Leippe, 1994). Positive self-statements guilt, blame, or self-criticism’’ (McQuaig, 1986, p. 56). may operate similarly. Although they are self-generated rather Are positive self-statements effective? To our knowledge, they than provided by others, one may compare self-statements with have been examined only (a) in the context of comprehensive one’s self-view, and reject them if they contradict it. treatments with experienced clinicians, along with techniques Like attitude researchers, self-comparison researchers pro- such as relaxation training (e.g., Treadwell & Kendall, 1996), or pose that feedback highly discrepant with one’s self-view may even boomerang. Eisenstadt and Leippe (1994) asked partici- pants to identify a trait they would like to possess but believed Address correspondence to Joanne Wood, Department of Psychol- ogy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., Waterloo, Ontario, they lacked. When Eisenstadt and Leippe later told participants Canada N2L 3G1, e-mail: that they actually did possess that ideal trait, participants felt 860 Copyright r 2009 Association for Psychological Science Volume 20—Number 7Positive self-statements 4) Le chemin 9
  • 4/04/13Le regard que nous portons sur les choses Changer de « regard » 10
  • 4/04/13 Voyager dans le temps… L’effet pygmalion L’effet pygmalion  Notes attribuées aléatoirement  20% des élèves « plus intelligents » 11
  • 4/04/13 Les stéréotypesChanger de regard 12
  • 4/04/13A quoi sommes nous attentifs?Reconnaître ce qui va GRATITUDE 13
  • 4/04/13 Aujourd’hui, je me sens reconnaissant(e) pour…1)2)3) Etre présents Les liens sociaux 14
  • 4/04/13 L’amitié au travail-  Une amitié très proche au travail =-  7X fois plus de chance d’être motivées-  Plus productives,-  Meilleur rapport avec la clientèle-  Plus innovantes-  La satisfaction augmente de 50%Rath, T. (2006). Vital Friends: The People You Can’t Afford To Live Without. Gallup Press. Job, carrière ou passion? 15
  • 4/04/13 Renforcer le positifQue voulez-vous pour votreorganisation ? Sur quelles forces prenez-vous appui ? Que voulez-vous accomplir ? Comment allez-vous y parvenir ? Les forces 16
  • 4/04/13 Créer des contextes positifs   Equité   Confiance   Sens   Compétence/ réalisation   Autonomie   Relations Elneo Ratio de Losada: 2,9Losada, M., & Heaphy, E. (2004). The Role of positivity and connectivity in the performance of business teams: A nonlinear dynamics model. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 740-65.  17
  • 4/04/13 Performance des équipes 5,6 1.9 0.36Losada, M., & Heaphy, E. (2004). The Role of positivity and connectivity in the performance of business teams: A nonlinear dynamics model. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 740-65.  La contagion du positif Le sourire 18
  • 4/04/13« Nous ne pouvons résoudre des problèmes en utilisant le même mode de pensée que celui qui les a créés. » Albert Einstein 19