Education of Afghanistan

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Education of Afghanistan

  1. 1. Tan Jun Yi Education of 3P2 (29) Afghanistan
  2. 2. Introduction on Education in Afganistan • Education in Afghanistan includes kindergarten (4-6 years old), primary school (7-12 years old), secondary school (13-18 years old) and higher education. • There are two different education ministries: ministry of education and ministry of higher education.
  3. 3. Introduction on Education in Afganistan • Afghanistan is going through a nationwide rebuilding process, and despite setbacks, institutions are established all across the country. • By 2013 there were 10.5 million students attending schools in Afghanistan, a country which has around 27.5 million people living in it.
  4. 4. The History • The government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan stressed education for both sexes, and widespread literacy programmes were set up. • By 1988, women made up 40 percent of the doctors and 60 percent of the teachers at Kabul University
  5. 5. The History • 440,000 female students were also enrolled in different educational institutions and 80,000 more in literacy programs.
  6. 6. Wars • Despite improvements, 90% of the population remained illiterate in 1979. • this was because the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and other successive wars virtually destroyed the nation's education system.
  7. 7. Wars • Most teachers fled during the wars to neighbouring countries. In the middle of the 1990s, about 650 schools were functioning throughout the country.
  8. 8. The Taliban’s involvement • In 1996 the Taliban regime restricted education for females, and the Madrassa (mosque school) became the main source of primary and secondary education. • About 1.2 million students were enrolled in schools during the Taliban, with less than 50,000 of them girls.
  9. 9. The Taliban’s involvement • In 1996 the Taliban regime restricted education for females, and the Madrassa (mosque school) became the main source of primary and secondary education. • About 1.2 million students were enrolled in schools during the Taliban, with less than 50,000 of them girls.
  10. 10. The Taliban’s involvement • In 1996 the Taliban regime restricted education for females, and the Madrassa (mosque school) became the main source of primary and secondary education. • About 1.2 million students were enrolled in schools during the Taliban regime, with less than 50,000 of them girls.
  11. 11. Aftermath of the Taliban’s rule • After the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001, the government received substantial international aid to restore the education system.
  12. 12. Aftermath of the Taliban’s rule • Around 7,000 schools were operating in 20 of the 32 provinces by the end of 2003, with 27,000 teachers teaching 4.2 million children (including 1.2 million girls).
  13. 13. Aftermath of the Taliban’s rule • Of that number, about 3.9 million were in primary schools. An estimated 57 percent of men and 86 percent of women were reported to be illiterate, and the lack of skilled and educated workers was a major economic disadvantage.
  14. 14. Aftermath of the Taliban’s rule • When Kabul University reopened in 2002, some 24,000 male and female students enrolled for higher education. five other universities were also being rehabilitated in different parts of the country.
  15. 15. Leaps and bounds • By 2006, over 4 million male and female students were enrolled in schools throughout Afghanistan. • At the same time, school facilities and institutions were also being refurbished or improved, with more modern-style schools being built each year.
  16. 16. Leaps and bounds • Between 2001 and 2010, primary school enrolment rose from around 1 million to nearly 7 million (a sevenfold increase in eight years) and the proportion of girls from virtually zero to 37%.
  17. 17. Leaps and bounds • The number of teachers in general education has risen sevenfold, but their qualifications are low. About 31% are women. • Since 2003, over 5,000 school buildings have been rehabilitated or newly constructed.
  18. 18. Falls • Enrollment is still low. The average is 1,983 students per institution, while three institutions have less than 200 students. • Furthermore, there is a deficiency of qualified faculty members: only 4.7 % (166 of total 3,522) of the teaching staff held a Ph.D.
  19. 19. Falls • In 2007, 60% of students were studying in tents or other unprotected structures. • A lack of women teachers was another issue that concerned some parents, especially in more conservative areas. • Both meant some parents did not send their daughters to school.
  20. 20. Falls • In 2012, there were insufficient schools. Around 4,500 schools are being built according to a recent government report. 40 percent of schools were conducted in permanent buildings. The rest held classes in the UNICEF shelters or were "desert schools" with students and teachers gathering in the desert near a village.
  21. 21. Falls • In 2013, Afghanistan was the 13th lowest in the Human Development index. • There were still 3 millions children being deprived of education and it was requested that $3 billion be given to construct 8,000 additional schools over next two years.
  22. 22. Challenges faced • One of them was a lack of funding. Planning curricula and school programs is difficult for the Ministry of Education because a significant amount of the budget for education comes from varying external donors each year, making it difficult to predict what the annual budget would be.
  23. 23. Challenges faced • In 2009, another concern was the destruction of schools by the Taliban, especially schools for females. Following the destruction of over 150 schools in a year, many parents had doubts about the government's ability to protect them.
  24. 24. Challenges faced • There were also 670 incidents of attacks on education in 2008. • Violence on students have prevented close to 5 million afghan children from attending school in the year 2010. • In terms of death rates, Afghanistan had 439 teachers, education employees and students killed in 2006-9, one of the highest in the world.
  25. 25. Challenges faced • Since the Taliban regime was toppled in 2001, up to 6 million girls and boys started attending school. In 2012, the supply of students far exceeded the pool of qualified teachers.
  26. 26. Challenges faced • According to statistics provided by the Ministry of Education, 80 percent of the country’s 165,000 teachers did not complete their post-secondary studies.
  27. 27. Challenges faced • after the Taliban regime, the curriculum has been changed from extremist Islamic teachings to one relatively better with new books and better training. Yet, there still remains no standard curriculum for secondary school textbooks and high school textbooks remain inadequate in number and content.
  28. 28. Challenges faced • In 2007, more that half of the population of Afghanistan was under the age of 18. UNICEF estimates that close to a quarter of Afghan children between the ages of seven and fourteen were working. This disrupts children's education and possibly prevents them from schooling completely.
  29. 29. Singaporeans are fortunate • Unlike afghan schools, there are virtually no attacks on schools. • Children can thus go to school without being afraid or scared. • There are also virtually no reports of child labour in Singapore.
  30. 30. Singaporeans are fortunate • There are also no problems in the curriculum, and also number of teachers. • Singapore schools are also relatively better equipped due to adequate funding. • Teachers generally also have better training and qualifications.
  31. 31. Singaporeans are fortunate • The curriculum is fixed, thus reducing confusion. • Poorer families also get subsidies from the government, giving everyone a chance for education. • Most importantly, girls in Singapore have equal chances as boys in education.
  32. 32. The End

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