UNDP experiences in the region on linking ICT with Human Development

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UNDP experiences in the region on linking ICT with Human Development

  1. 1. ICT and Human Development Dejan Mincic – UNDP Moldovawww.undp.md
  2. 2. Contents Deciphering the Human Development Agenda Digital Divide – a concept of the past? Lessons Learned from ICT for Development Role of the Governments and Private Sector Moldova and the CIS – ICT Development Index vs. Human Development Index The way forwardwww.undp.md 2
  3. 3. Human Development is about… Enlarging human choices Building human capabilities and using them fully Ensuring equity and productivity A participative and empowering process, relevant across the Board, but especially in the developing countries UNDP is a development arm of the United Nations. Supporting countries in accelerating the progress on Human Development is at the core of its mandate Activities in 166 countries, 27 of which in the Europe and CIS regionwww.undp.md 3
  4. 4. Elements of Human Development EQUITY PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY PARTICIPATION AND EMPOWERMENT SUSTAINABILITY POLICY AND PLANNINGwww.undp.md 4
  5. 5. “Digital Divide” Digital divide is a reflection of existing socio-economic and political “divides” “Traditional divides” persist in most developing countries Need to address them with innovative tools and integrated solutions New ICTs as one such tool (not the only one, not a panacea!)www.undp.md 5
  6. 6. Linking ICT to Developmentwww.undp.md 6
  7. 7. ICT for Development (Evolution)Four phases since 1990: Infrastructure, connectivity and access - 1991 Local capacity building - 1997 Applications (e-government, e-commerce etc.) – 2000 Web 2.0 (bottom-up collaboration, etc.) 2005 -Each phase emerges from and builds upon the previous one
  8. 8. Lessons Learned ICT ALONE IS INSUFFICIENT FOR SIGNIFICANT BENEFITS TO EMERGE ICT WILL NOT TRANSFORM BAD DEVELOPMENT INTO GOOD DEVELOPMENT, BUT IT CAN MAKE GOOD DEVELOPMENT EVEN BETTER EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF ICT COMPRISES BOTH TECHNOLOGICAL AND INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES DIGITAL DIVIDE IS A SYMPTOM. DIVIDE IS TRADITIONAL AND IMPACTS THE DIGITAL ASPECTS. ICT PROVIDES OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT, BUT DESIRABLE OUTCOMES ALWAYS ARISE FROM THE ACTIONS OF PEOPLE ICT, IN ABSENCE OF A DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY TO MAKE EFFECTIVE USE OF THEM RESULTS IN SUB-OPTIMAL OUTCOMESwww.undp.md 8
  9. 9. Lessons Learned (cont’d) Traditional e-government is not delivering! In 2008, over 80 billion USD were invested on e-government In developing countries, over 65% of e-government projects failed (35% being “total” failures) Characterized by: => uncoordinated, sectorial interventions => technology focused (usually high-end) => supply driven => do not reach citizens/stakeholderswww.undp.md 9
  10. 10. E-governance Framework Policy and regulation National e-administration e-services Access State to Information e-participation Democratic Governance Enhanced Local Infrastructure 10www.undp.md
  11. 11. Role of the Governments and Private Sector DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIS TAILORED TO THE LOCAL CONTEXT, AND CATERED TO A WIDER REGIONAL AND GLOBAL REALITIES PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS ENABLED AND GROOMED GOVERNMENTS SHOULD LEAD BY EXAMPLE EFFECTIVE REGULATORY AUTHORITY IS PARAMOUNT IN ENSURING INTERESTS OF THE POPULATION POLICIES (ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY, REGULATION OF ICT SERVICES COSTS, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, PROMOTING EMPOWERMENT AND PARTICIPATION) MARKET LIBERALIZATION AND COMPETITION CORPORATE AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ENSURING SUSTAINABILITYwww.undp.md 11
  12. 12. ICT Development Index Source: ITU (Measuring the Information Society 2009) • High: Economies included in this group have high level of ICT access and use and high ICT skills. The 33 ICT DELEVOPMENT ICT Development Index economies accounted for 15 per cent of the world’s INDEX RANK (IDI) population in 2007 and included twenty-one European countries, ten Asia & Pacific economies, as well as Canada, and the United States. • Upper: Economies included in this category are those Out of 154 Countries that have achieved an elevated level of access to andCountry Analyzed by ITU Group Rank use of ICTs, and ICT skills, for a majority of theirAlbania 85 MEDIUM inhabitants. In total, they accounted for almost 780Armenia 72 MEDIUM million people. The economies included in both thisAzerbaijan 86 MEDIUM group and in the “high” group accounted for more than 27Belarus 54 UPPER per cent of the total population in 2007. • Medium: This group includes economies that account forBosnia-Herzegovina 58 UPPER more than one-third of the total population (37 per cent orBulgaria 45 UPPER 2.4 billion inhabitants).Croatia 43 UPPER • Low: The remaining one-third of the world’s inhabitantsCyprus 37 UPPER can be found in this group (36 per cent or 2.3 billionGeorgia 80 MEDIUM people). Except for two countries from Latin America andKazakhstan 69 MEDIUM the Caribbean (Nicaragua and Haiti), most of theKyrgyzstan 93 MEDIUM Southern-Asian countries are classified under this groupLatvia 36 UPPER along with most of the Sub-Saharan African countries.Lithuania 33 HIGH This group reflects countries with low level of ICTMacedonia 65 UPPER access, usage and skills.Moldova 68 MEDIUMMontenegro N.I. ICT access indicators (Source: ITU) Fixed telephone line penetrationRomania 46 UPPER Mobile cellular penetrationRussia 50 UPPER International Internet bandwidth per Internet userSerbia N.I. Proportion of households with computer Proportion of households with InternetSlovakia 38 UPPER ICT use indicatorsTajikistan 106 MEDIUM Internet user per 100 inhabitantsTurkey 59 UPPER Fixed broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants Mobile broad subscriptions per 100 inhabitantsTurkmenistan 104 MEDIUM ICT skills indicators Adult literacy rateUkraine 51 UPPER Secondary gross enrolment ratioUzbekistan 110 MEDIUM Tertiary gross enrolment ratio
  13. 13. Correlations (a coincidence?) Broadban Broadban Human Development % of d ICT d Sub- Index and Illiteracy Populatio Subscrib DELEVOP ICT Basket (% Rate IDI and HDI n ers MENT Developm of GNI Broadban UNDPs UNDPs (penetrati INDEX ent Index per d Cost Connecti Connecti on rate) RANK (IDI) capita) USD vity vity2 There is a notable correlation between the ICT Adult Development Index and Human Development Out of illiteracy Index. Four bottom Countries (Kyrgyzstan, (users 154 Rank (out HDI rate (% of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are per 100 Per 100 Countries of 150 RANK population ranked low in both IDI and HDI terms. Their inhabitan Analyzed Group countries Speed (out of aged 15Country ts) inhab. by ITU Rank ) USA = 1 USA = 15 Type (Down) 182) and above) Internet penetration rate is consistently low, costAlbania 13% 1.27 85 MEDIUM 82 31.4 DSN 512 70 1 is high relative to the GNI %, and even UN inArmenia 7% 0.06 72 MEDIUM 96 39.2 T1/T3 > 4096 84 0.5 those countries is so far dependent on the VSATAzerbaijan 18% 0.69 86 MEDIUM 110 84.5 Wireless 2048 86 0.5 technologies for Internet access. Small,Belarus 29% 4.94 54 UPPER n.i. n.i. T1/T3 > 4096 68 0.3 28% 4.99 76 3.3 scattered ISPs are available in the market, butBosnia- LeasedHerzegovina 58 UPPER 55 14.8 line 1024 data security, confidentiality and privacy issuesBulgaria 37% 10.82 45 UPPER 52 15.6 ISDN 1024 61 1.7 are insufficiently regulated.Croatia 50% 11.86 43 UPPER 39 20.9 ISDN 4096 45 1.3Cyprus 42% 15.66 37 UPPER 7 16.5 ISDN 2048 32 2.3 The literacy rate and digital divideGeorgia 22% 2.23 80 MEDIUM 104 47.6 T1/T3 512 40 0Kazakhstan 15% 4.26 69 MEDIUM n.i. n.i. ISDN 4096 89 0.4Kyrgystan 16% 0.05 93 MEDIUM n.i. n.i. VSAT 1024 120 0.7 Adult literacy rate is already covered by the IDI.Latvia 56% 6.44 36 UPPER 44 26 ISDN > 4096 48 0.2 However, even though some of the bottom-Lithuania 50% 17.77 33 HIGH 36 15.9 DSN 2048 46 0.3 ranked countries have relatively low literacy rateMacedonia 42% 8.77 65 UPPER 59 14.7 T1/T3 2048 72 3 compared to the others, they are facing theMoldova 18% 3.17 68 MEDIUM 99 23.2 T1/T3 4096 117 0.8 danger of computer illiteracy, digital divide andMontenegro 43% 4.16 N.I. 58 21.3 T1/T3 1024 65 3.6Romania 28% 11.75 46 UPPER 53 22.7 T1/T3 4096 63 2.4 loss of competitive skills in the future.Russia 32% 6.56 50 UPPER 37 13.9 T1/T3 2048 71 0.5Serbia 29% 4.59 N.I. 38 9 ISDN 2048 67 3.6 These correlations are no coincidence.Slovakia 51% 11.46 38 UPPER 42 28.5 T1/T3 4096 42 ..Tajikistan 8% - 106 MEDIUM n.i. n.i. VSAT 2048 127 0.4 OECD estimates that Broadband penetrationTurkey 32% 7.78 59 UPPER n.i. n.i. T1/T3 2048 79 11.3 2% ... 109 0.5 and use may be one of the main drivers of theTurkmenistan 104 MEDIUM n.i. n.i. VSAT 1024 knowledge-based economies and internetUkraine 23% 3.48 51 UPPER 79 20.8 T1/T3 > 4096 85 0.3 societies in the future. Looking at the IDI andUzbekistan 9% 0.24 110 MEDIUM n.i. n.i. VSAT 1024 119 3.1 HDI rankings, the low-ranked societies are facing a complex challenge in the changingTOTALEurope CIS 28% world economy.WORLDTOTAL 23.80%
  14. 14. The Way Forward Development-based policies European Integration Agenda (EU2020 and Digital Agenda) Broadband Security and Infrastructure Digital TV and information services E-Governancewww.undp.md 14
  15. 15. Thank You! Dejan Mincic UNDP Moldova dejan.mincic@undp.org www.undp.mdwww.undp.md 15

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