From Knowledge Economy to Inclusive Information Society. Experiences from Indian Journey


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From Knowledge Economy to Inclusive Information Society. Experiences from Indian Journey

  1. 1. From Knowledge economy to Inclusive Information Society …Experiences from Indian journeyVikas Kanungo,Chairman – The Society for Promotion of e-Governance, Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  2. 2. India – A brief snap ShotICT Sector Facts 787.23 million Mobile Subscribers 2,40,000 Local Diverse Languages, at the end of Dec. 2010, more than Govt. Cultures, Institutions Religions 800 million today. The overall Tele- density in India reached 66.16 Urban tele-density at 147.88 and rural at 33% at December 2010. 610 Districts 1.2 billion 35 States, UTs people 18.69 million Internet subscribers at the end of Dec-10. Top 10 ISPs 6000 Blocks together hold 95% of the total Internet subscriber base. 638,000 Villages  10.99 million broadband subscribers at the end of Dec-10 (Source: 2 Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  3. 3. Getting the basics right…….  Democracy – Government under people, not over them  Mission of e-Government projects – empowering the citizens , not controlling them  Use of Information technologies and new media - to enable participation in policy making (e-participation), not for converting monolithic government services to electronic format ( From big state to enabling state)  Partnership Models – MSP not PPP© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  4. 4. Government/e-Government ? Major Policy Goals for Government / e-Government 1. The search for savings: dynamic, productivity-driven and value for money concept and set of institutions (‘more for less’) Citizen as a Tax Payer 2. The search for quality services: inter-active, user-centred, individualisable, inclusive services, maximising fulfilment and security Citizen as a consumer of services 3. The search for good governance: open, transparent, accountable, flexible, democratic Citizen as a voter© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  5. 5. e-Government Actors Cost-efficiency and effectiveness Governments Private sector Public Service Citizens Unions CSOs NGOs organisations Providers Intermediaries & Mediators Creation of knowledge The public: based Businesses Citizen and consumer public value Reduce transaction cost Diversity of needs Competitiveness Empowerment Final users© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  6. 6. Major Strategic Areas in e-Government  Government process re-engineering  Meeting user needs and expectations  Managing change and human resources  Technology Deployment  Socio-economic drivers of change  Service delivery  Access for all  Institutional and legal structures  e-Governance and e-Democracy© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  7. 7. National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) – An Overview Diverse 2,40,000Vision Local Govt. Languages, Cultures, Institutions Religions“Make all Government services accessible tothe common man in his locality, throughcommon service delivery outlets and ensure 610 Districts 1.2 billion 35 States,efficiency, transparency & reliability of such UTs peopleservices at affordable costs to realise the 6000 Blocksbasic needs of the common man.” 638,000 Villages Strategy to Realize NeGP Vision  Centralized Initiative, Decentralized Implementation  Focus on Services & Service levels  Ownership and Central Role of Line Ministries/State Governments  Emphasis on Public Private Partnerships (PPP)© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  8. 8. National e-Governance Plan – Key Mission ModeProjects (MMPs Core & Infra Projects (27) Projects Integrated Central(9) State (11) SDC SWAN ( 7) •Income Tax • e-BIZ • Agriculture CSC SSDG • Central Excise • EDI • Land Records - I & II • Passports/Visa • India Portal (NLRMP) • Immigration • Transport • Common • MCA 21 • Treasuries Service Centres • Unique ID (UID) • Commercial Taxes • NSDG • Pensions • Gram Panchayat • e-Office • e-Courts • Municipalities Industry Initiative • e-Procurement • Police • Banking • Employment Exchange • Insurance • e-District Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  9. 9. Issues for E Government Projects Traditional Contracting has challenges  Low Accountability & Commitment of Contractor  Huge Risk for Government  No Incentive for improvement Technological intensiveness and obsolescence Strategic control of Government Interoperability of solutions Change management and Business Process Re-engineering Sustainability of the solution Exit management Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  10. 10. PPP Models Passive Passive Public Private Investment Investment Joint Ventures Equity, Debt Govt Co-ownership Guarantees Bonds Co-responsibility Fully Grants PrivateFully Public Sector Sector For-profit Non-profit Building Traditional Service Build, Public Agreeing awareness Contract Operate and framework Contracting Operate and Invest Design Build Regulatory maintain BOT Dialogue Lease Concession Convenants Public Investment Responsibility Private Provider Government Role Enabler & Regulator Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  11. 11. Types of PPPs Management Contracts  Management Contract  Management Contract (with rehabilitation/ expansion ) Lease Contracts  Lease  Build Lease Transfer (BLT) or Build-Own-Lease-Transfer (BOLT)  Build-Transfer-Lease (BTL) Concessions Build-Operate-Transfer Contracts  Design-build-operate (DBO)  Build-operate-transfer (BOT)/ Design-Build-Finance-Operate-Transfer (DBFOT)  Build-operate-transfer (BOT) Annuity Build-own-operate Transfer (BOOT) Contracts  Build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) or DBOOT  Build-own-operate (BOO) Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  12. 12. Case Study – e Procurement
  13. 13. Public Procurement in an Indian state -Background Procurement worth $ 2 billion per year in AP “Of government projects that fail, more than 50 per Discrimination and delays in tenders cent of those failures are ensured during the Cartels to suppress competition procurement process and leadership need to Physical threats to suppliers recognize they can and must do something about Tampering of bids the problem.” Human touch points throughout the cycle John Kost, Managing Vice President, Lack of transparency Gartner Research Delays in Tender evaluation and contract award Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  14. 14. Case Studye Procurement E Procurement Project Objectives  Economies of scale through consolidated purchases  Reduced cost of doing business for Government  Level playing field and “fair” competitive platform for the suppliers  Curtail the Procurement Life Cycle for increased Transparency  Suppliers only need to maintain “Single Point of Contact with multiple Buyers”  Availability of sufficient Data to carry out micro-level spending analysis  Efficient Monitoring and controlling of end to end Procurement Cycle Self-sustaining initiative … not necessarily a profit making business Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  15. 15. Case Studye Procurement Financial Model  The PPP model is of the Built Owned and Operate (BOO) type.  The private operator invested on Solution, Technology and Infrastructure.  Government shared the tender fees collected from the bidders with the operator.  Incentives for Usage Pilot Phase : Cost to government with ‘No Cost’ to Bidders Rollout Phase : Cost to Bidders with ‘No Cost’ to government departments Ensured easy acceptance from Bidders in the early stage Speedy roll out across government departments in the later stage Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  16. 16. Case Studye Procurement Benefits Realized  Within 30 months, users included  8 Government departments  13 Public sector Units  51 Municipalities  5 Universities  Reduction in Tender Cycle Time  From 90-135 days to 35 days  Instant access to all tenders  Increased Transparency  Cost Savings Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  17. 17. Case Studye Procurement Critical Success Factors  Presence of strong Political and Bureaucratic Leadership  Effective Training and Change Management plan  Training of users was very effective  Nurturing CIOs as Change Agents and Project Champions helped  Public Private Partnership was helpful in  Scaling up the transactions during roll out  Private partner had resources to meet the challenge.  Sound Business Model for Pilot and Rollout Phases  Dedicated project teams from both the service provider and the Government  24X7 help desk, strong security features and MIS Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  18. 18. Case Study: MP Online Project Objective Project Highlights To provide one-stop shop services to all the citizens of MP, any service, anywhere, and •A Joint Venture of GoMP (11%) & TCS any time (89%) •No investment in infrastructure •No IT trained manpower deployed by Govt •No cost to any Govt Department Current Status •Reduction in number of interfaceds( G2C) 1. Project is in operation mode •Integration with CSCs 2. MP Online Kiosk Network – 7113 3. More than 5.8 million transactions Achievement from the initiatives Challenges and Issues faced 1. 24 x 7 service availability 2. Increased transparency 1. Connectivity in Rural Areas 3. Reduction in costs incurred by the 2. Change Management of the ecosystem departments Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  19. 19. MP OnlinePAYMENT OPTIONSSERVICES ACCESSED DIRECTLY BY THE CITIZEN SERVICES ACCESSED VIA A KIOSK• Using a Credit Card – Visa or Master card • Using Cash• Using a Debit Card – Visa Debit or Maestro Card• Using Net banking – State Bank of India, FOR KIOSK TOP-UPS Axis Bank, State Bank of Indore • Using Cash• Using pay-in slips – Axis Bank, State Bank of India • Self top-up – State Bank of India, State bank of Indore, Axis Bank, Union Bank of India Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  20. 20. PPP PPP – The LessonsSnapshot PPP – The Fundamentals PPPs are concerned with Services, not assets The government does not need to own infrastructure to deliver services PPPs are a procurement option, not a novel method of developing public infrastructure PPP policy sits alongside other procurement methods – i.e. conventional, outsourcing, leasing etc. Suitable to some public projects, not all projects PPPs are not “new money” Service outputs must be paid for, whether directly (e.g. service usage) or by appropriation Must therefore be affordable – either to users (service users) or to the Budget Unlike privatization, PPPs usually involve the provision of new infrastructure Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  21. 21. PPP – The LessonsSharing of risk Private party bears significant financial, technical and operating risk Promise of a sustained serviceCapital investment and capacity building Significant private capital deployed for citizen services or use of already developed capabilities Building capacities for servicing at a faster paceJoint ownership Well defined roles and responsibilities Clarity in ownerships and other terms Full control by Government over Key dataStrategic Control of Government Can not be outsourced Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  22. 22. Implementing e-Government in Moldova – keypointers from Indian Experiences  There needs to be a transformation of government to prioritise the production and distribution of public goods (‘content’) rather than public administration (‘control’), with a re-vitalised public service ethic and high skill, high value staff  Down-sizing and centralisation of the back office (control), even up to national and international levels:  Open technical platforms, interoperability, standardisation, comprehensive security systems, integrated processes, shared databases, economies of scale and scope, based on KM principles, CRM -- middle office, shared service centres  Up-sizing and de-centralisation of the front office (content) to provide high quality, simple, localised, personalised, services:  grounded in local situations, responding to the large variety of individual needs of both users and government, and respecting and promoting democracy at all  (R)e-balancing -- freeing up and redeploying resources Let the technology do what it does best -- let people do what they do best….© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  23. 23. Moving Forward – Foresight for next generation Public Services  Focus on what citizens and business really want, rather than the machinations of existing government structures and systems  Focus on using new technology as a tool to support services and governance, i.e. enable people to do what they do best (e.g. provide “warm” human services) and enable technology to do what it does best (e.g. provide effective and efficient data, information and communication systems)  Develop and re-vitalise the existing public service ethic into one suitable for the information society and knowledge economy. This would include recognising that government can learn from business, and vice versa, but that there is a unique Indian way to e-government which combines both economic efficiency as well as social cohesion and access for all.  What we think of as e-government today will become (just) government within ten years – i.e. all of government will use and become “e”.  In the same way that “e-business” is migrating to “k-business”, so “e-government” will migrate to “k-government” in the sense that the technology will become unremarkably ubiquitous (the norm) and intelligent services will be provided by intelligent government  Develop “me”-government, i.e. personalised, intelligent government, based on knowledge management, artificial intelligence and ubiquitous, ambient technology. Anytime, anywhere, any service, on the user’s own terms.© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  24. 24. Transformation through e-Government – A roadmap for Moldova Process re-engineering Mindset & cultural re-engineering Networked, learning government Based on appropriate Bureaucratic government ‘Best practice’ government balance between top-down and bottom-up Based on benchmarks, * networked and local No measurement of results. measurement, comparison * ‘joined-up’ Rewards based on other against the ideal: * ‘learning practice’ factors: * ROI * knowledge management * longevity * league tables * flexible and responsive * size of budget * do more with less * focus on public value * level of authority * lean government * focus on supporting social * who you know * business models and economic development * focus on intelligent content Employees protect their jobs Employees subject to efficiency (rather than control) and empires pursuing larger and ‘transparency’ initiatives, * personalised budgets, more staff and greater performance measurement, etc. Employees most valuable power. asset, supported by ICT and Immediate Focus over next 5 knowledge tools. years?? Foresight for Vision 2020???© Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011
  25. 25. – Global Observatory and knowledge portal on MobileGovernance Thank You . © Vikas Kanungo, 2011, All Rights Reserved Moldova ICT Summit, 2011