Tbi overview

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Tbi overview

  1. 1. Successful completion of this training meets one hour of the four hour annual training requirement for Personal Attendant Services direct care staff as provided through the TBI Waiver Program
  2. 2. • • 2013 Information included in this presentation was current at the time it was developed. Presentation materials are reviewed on an annual basis. West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 2
  3. 3. Christopher J George, MSW, LGSW, CBIS Kaylynn Shepherd, LICSW, CBIS Jeanette Motsch, MS, CBIS Amanda M Wilson, M.A. Ashley Young, CBIS Traumatic Brain Injury Services at the Center for Excellence in Disabilities Contact information: www.cedwvu.org/programs/tbi Toll Free: 1-877-724-8244 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 3
  4. 4. Upon completion of this training participants will be able to: • Define Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) • Describe the basic anatomy of the brain • Identify three impairments as a result of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 4
  5. 5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is an insult to the brain not of a degenerative or congenital nature caused by an external physical force, that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness resulting in an impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning. It can also result in the disturbance of behavioral or emotional functioning, may be temporary or permanent and cause partial or total functional disability or psychosocial maladjustment National Head Injury Foundation (now the Brain Injury Association of America) 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 5
  6. 6. A non-degenerative, non-congenital insult to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total or partial functional disability and/or psychosocial impairment WV TBI Waiver Manual 512.7.2.C. page 19 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 6
  7. 7. • • Every 23 seconds, one person in the United States sustains a traumatic brain injury Each year, an estimated 1.7 million people sustain a TBI Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 7
  8. 8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 8
  9. 9. The following estimated averages are based annually for the United States from 2002-2006: • 1.7 million people will sustain a TBI • 52,000 people will die resulting from a TBI • 80,000 people annually experience the onset of long-term disabilities following TBI • 1.365 million (80%) are treated and released from emergency departments 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 9
  10. 10. • TBI by Age • Adults aged 75 years and older have the highest rates of TBI-related hospitalization and death • TBI by Gender • In every age group, TBI rates are higher for males than for females • Males aged 0 to 4 years have the highest rates of TBIrelated emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 10
  11. 11. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is often referred to as some of the following: • The “Silent Epidemic” • The “Signature Wound” of returning veterans • Having your bell rung 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 11
  12. 12. Watch the following video “Relearning Everything” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DXKS9uCIc0 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 12
  13. 13. The following are some injuries that may occur at the time of traumatic injury: • Axonal Shearing (diffuse axonal injury): damage to individual nerve cells (neurons) o • Contusion: bruising of the brain tissue o • Often caused by small blood vessel leaks as a result from a fall or car accident Coup-Contrecoup: shaking of the brain back and forth within the confines of the skull o • Often seen in car accidents as a result from the brain bouncing against the wall of the skull Often caused when the head slams into a dashboard then jerked back hitting the headrest during a car accident Skull Fracture: break in one or more of the bones that make up the skull 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 13
  14. 14. 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 14
  15. 15. 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 15
  16. 16. 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 16
  17. 17. The following are some injuries that may occur after the trauma: • Hematomas: Accumulation of blood or a collection of blood trapped in the tissue of the brain. • Increased Intracranial Pressure: Pressure inside the skull that builds as the brain swells. • Seizure Disorder: Disorderly discharge or electrical activity in the nerve cells of the brain. 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 17
  18. 18. • The Brain is comprised of nerve cells o Consistency similar to spaghetti • The Brain fits tightly within the skull o Surrounded by fluid called cerebrospinal • The Brain is divided into four lobes o Frontal o Occipital o Parietal o Temporal 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 18
  19. 19. The following link will explain the four lobes of the brain and their functions Please take a minute and review each lobe provided on the link below Brain Basics - 3D Model of Brain Injury | BrainLine.org 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 19
  20. 20. • Frontal o o o o o • Impaired social behavior Decrease in problem solving abilities Difficulty controlling emotions Decision making: Often can not see long-term consequences of actions Memory Occipital o o Double Vision Vision field cut -Part of what a person may see might be cut off Example: When looking at a flower a person may only see the bottom half of the flower 20113 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 20
  21. 21. • Parietal o o o o • Impaired body sensation on affected body parts Decreased awareness of a person’s own body parts Problems judging distances and depth Trouble controlling eye movements Temporal o o o Impaired sensory information -Hearing Can cause problems with communication, comprehension, and memory Difficulty with speech 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 21
  22. 22. The Brain Stem is located deep inside the brain and leads to the Spinal Cord 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 22
  23. 23. The Brain Stem controls many arousal and basic life functions like the following: • Respiratory and Cardiac Centers o o o • Breathing Heart Rate Swallowing Autonomic Nervous System o o o o Sweating Blood Pressure Digestion Body Temperature • Reflexes to Seeing and Hearing • Ability to Sleep 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 23
  24. 24. When someone has experienced damage to the brain stem they may experience some of the following: • Dizziness and Nausea o May also be known as Vertigo • Insomnia • Difficulty swallowing o • May also be known as Dysphagia Difficulty with organization/perception of the environment 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 24
  25. 25. Located towards the back of the brain, underneath the occipital and temporal lobes 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 25
  26. 26. The Cerebellum is also known as “little brain” because it controls many of the following: • Movement o o o o Direction Rate Force Steadiness • Muscle Tone • Posture • Hand/Eye Movement 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 26
  27. 27. When someone has experienced damage to the cerebellum they may experience trouble with some of the following: • Walking o May appear “drunk” when walking • Balance • Fine Motor Movement • Coordination 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 27
  28. 28. • Learning to work with those who have a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) takes time • Recovery time will vary from person to person • Change and improvement can continue for many years • Continued communication and consistency will assist with the recovery process 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 28
  29. 29. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/ Brain Injury Association of America: The Essential Brain Injury Guide 4.0. Academy of Certified Brain Injury Specialist (2009) BrainLine http://www.brainline.org 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 29
  30. 30. Here are some additional resources that you may want to explore: • • • TBI Survivors View Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: TBI Center for Excellence in Disabilities at West Virginia University CDC Injury and Violence Prevention and Control http://www.cdc.gov/injury/index.html Shepherd Center Learning Connections http://myvitalconnections.org/webmanuals.nsf/3478d43e5c5c8dcb 85256ae60061f897/1B910B089562F1EB85257164006D34A7 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 30
  31. 31. • • • To receive your certificate of successful completion you must first pass the test and complete an online evaluation A score of 80% or higher is required Once you have successfully completed this training module you will receive an email with your certificate of completion 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 31
  32. 32. • Please scroll down and take the test below. • Your thoughts and comments are very important to us. You may submit by clicking the survey link below. Thank You! 2013 West Virginia TBI Waiver Program direct care staff annual training 32

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