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Scott coats presentation

  1. 3. The Effect of Environmental Changes on Ethnic Minority Peoples in the Mekong Sub-Region & the MMF Response
  2. 4. Introduction
  3. 5. Overview “ Environmental issues in the context of community ”
  4. 6. Mekong Sub-Region MMF Work Area
  5. 7. Mekong Sub-Region MMF Work Area
  6. 8. Mekong Sub-Region MMF Work Area AKHA HMONG LISU MIEN LAHU KAREN
  7. 9. <ul><li>Other Ethnic Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Lue </li></ul><ul><li>Shan </li></ul><ul><li>Wa </li></ul><ul><li>Khamu </li></ul><ul><li>Phu Noi </li></ul><ul><li>Lawa </li></ul><ul><li>Lua </li></ul><ul><li>Paluang </li></ul>
  8. 10. Traditional Hill Tribe Life
  9. 11. <ul><li>Traditional Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe Life </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in forests </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting cultiva- tion </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary dwelling places </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Traditional Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe Life </li></ul><ul><li>No roads, no electricity and no easy access to health care or education </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship papers were unheard of & land ownership was non-existent. </li></ul><ul><li>Life was related to spirits and governed by the spirit world </li></ul>
  11. 13. Thai Local People
  12. 14. Thai Local People
  13. 15. Changes that have affected Hill Tribe peoples Political Economic Religious
  14. 16. <ul><li>Political Changes </li></ul><ul><li>1945+ Colonial influence reduced after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>1948 Governmental changes in China and Burma </li></ul><ul><li>1950s French lost Indochina </li></ul><ul><li>1960s Regime change in Burma </li></ul><ul><li>1960-1970s US involvement in Vietnam and Laos </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Consequences of political changes for Hill tribe people </li></ul><ul><li>Mass migration of ethnic and religious minority peoples from China </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of opium cultivation on a large scale </li></ul><ul><li>1970s Hill tribe people involved in the cultivation and trade of drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Highlanders affected by issues of drug addiction, poverty, selling of children and trafficking. </li></ul><ul><li>1980s+ government sought eradication of drugs trade </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Economic Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Economic & infrastructural growth </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of roads associated with increasing influence of Thai culture on hill tribe culture </li></ul><ul><li>Greater access to education & health care </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resource exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>1980s+ Thai governments and departments blame hill tribe people for environmental degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted access to forest & reduction in amount of land available for cultivation. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Economic Changes & Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Laos </li></ul><ul><li>1980s-1990s less invasive infrastructure development than Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Similar issues to Thailand, 30 years later. </li></ul><ul><li>Myanmar </li></ul><ul><li>Very controlled & oppressive </li></ul><ul><li>Forced production of certain crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Forced relocation </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Religious Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Missions & Christian Faith </li></ul><ul><li>Animism to Christianity due to missionaries since 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Less fear of forests </li></ul><ul><li>More willingness to stay & cultivate paddy </li></ul><ul><li>Improved health care  reduced infant mortality, less disease, increased population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of agricultural development & crops e.g. coffee in Northern Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in methods of cultivation </li></ul>
  19. 21. Environmental degradation has been ongoing for the last 50-100 years; it is not just a recent issue for hill tribe people.
  20. 22. <ul><li>Issues that hill </li></ul><ul><li>tribe people </li></ul><ul><li>face today </li></ul><ul><li>Forest depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Limited land for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Use </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Water </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Polution </li></ul>
  21. 23. Issues that hill tribe people face today
  22. 24. <ul><li>Issues that hill </li></ul><ul><li>tribe people </li></ul><ul><li>face today </li></ul><ul><li>Forest depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Limited land for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Use </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Water </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Polution </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Priority of needs from ethnic people’s (in Thailand) </li></ul><ul><li>perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Access to land ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Education for children </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul>
  24. 26. Mekong Minority Foundation “ MMF envisions ethnic minority communities that demonstrate the love of Christ in their relationships with each other as they help each other to live in a way that is sustainable for the years ahead.”
  25. 27. MMF’s approach 1. Community Empowerment of Youth & Leaders.
  26. 28. Leaders `
  27. 29. Community Land Titles `
  28. 30. <ul><li>Emerging Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Offsetting our carbon print </li></ul>
  29. 31. Conclusion Environmental issues are a part of an interconnected range of issues faced by ethnic minority people groups in the hills of the Mekong sub-region that require a participatory response.
  30. 32. A Word from the Bible