Gender Disparity in Cambodia


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「貧窮的大半邊天」研討會 (2009年1月19日)第2節

Gender Disparity in Cambodia - Emelita Santos Goddard博士(柬埔寨Hagar機構婦女項目主管)



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Gender Disparity in Cambodia

  1. 1. Gender Disparity in Cambodia By Emelita Santos Goddard
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Glimpse of the challenges of being a woman in Cambodia and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Participants to reflect on the difference in Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Participants to remember Cambodia in prayers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gender Disparity in Cambodia <ul><li>Use of the Problem Tree and Solution Tree Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Hagar Case Study – Women in Gender Based Violence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Root Cause <ul><li>Historical or legendary beliefs shaping gender inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional beliefs - ` Chbap Srey’ (Moral Code of Conduct for Women) </li></ul><ul><li>Socio – Political Past of Cambodia (Effect of a Post Conflict Society) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gender Disparity <ul><li>Population has more women (52%) than men (48%), </li></ul><ul><li>More women in active labor force (53%) than men, </li></ul><ul><li>More women-headed households (30%) due to death from civil war, increased male migration, and increasing divorce, </li></ul><ul><li>Greater number of female workers in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, wholesale and retail trade and manufacturing than men. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Values Shaped by Beliefs <ul><li>Men perceived to have more values in Cambodian society than women or men are considered superior than women. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination of Women: </li></ul><ul><li>Women earn on the average 30-40% less than men (if the same job is considered, a man will get a salary of 38$ but women will get 23US$) </li></ul><ul><li>More men receive higher education than women (Literacy rate women: 64% men: 85%) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Discrimination of women Cont… <ul><li>Access to school by 15 years old: more boys go to school than girls (male enrollment is 50% more than female) </li></ul><ul><li>Time allocated to education or leisure for economically productive group is less for women than men </li></ul>
  8. 8. Discrimination of women Cont… <ul><li>Women spent a total of 8 working hours vs. 7 total working hours for men </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal and infant mortality rates are high (one of the highest rates of mothers dying of child birth in Asia) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of men currently with HIV has been declining since 1997 but the number of women with HIV continues to increase. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Discrimination of women Cont… <ul><li>There were fewer women than men in decision making positions in 2004. No women state governors in 24 provinces. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Behaviors Shaped by Values <ul><li>Men Abuse Women (Domestic Violence and Rape) </li></ul><ul><li>64% of baseline survey know of husbands who have been physically violent toward his wife. </li></ul><ul><li>20% of women missed their daily work due to violence </li></ul><ul><li>A quarter of the people know someone who had been raped, higher among the poor people (42%) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 11% of the victims sought help for domestic violence or rape </li></ul>
  11. 11. Various forms of violence found acceptable by wives from their husbands <ul><li>30% of men and 26% of women found extreme violence (such as burning, choking or shooting) sometime acceptable </li></ul>
  12. 12. Survey conducted by the Evangelical Fellowship of Cambodia Women’s Commission of over 200 women leaders in the national church (EFCWC General Assembly, July 2008)
  13. 13. Behaviors Shaped by Values <ul><li>Women seen as sexual objects </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitution is accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Government is tolerant of sex industries </li></ul><ul><li>Women and children (mostly girls) are sold or trafficked for commercial sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia was ranked in 2006 as one of the worst countries in the world for human trafficking (source, destination and transit) </li></ul><ul><li>2007 stat: Around 800 women and children are trafficked into Thailand, half of whom are deported back by Thai authorities. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Behaviors Shaped by Values <ul><li>Male promiscuity or unfaithfulness of husbands </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodian saying ` Men are gold, women are white cloth’ shows double standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange marriage at young age (even if he is her own rapist) </li></ul><ul><li>Great pressure to remain married despite domestic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce is considered a `shameful’ act specially if wife initiates it </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to get legally divorced – expensive and corrupt justice system does not give fair trials. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Results of Behaviors <ul><li>Broken marriages lead to children being raised without good support and models in life </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of re-marrying (mostly for economic reason) put step children at risk, specially girls (most perpetrators of rape in Hagar’s cases are step fathers) </li></ul><ul><li>Children not being cared for or abandoned ended up running away and living on the streets, being involved in gangs and drugs. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Results of Behaviors <ul><li>Male promiscuities contribute to high rate of HIV/AIDS spread in Cambodia. (high spread of husband to wife, then wife to children) </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of rape, domestic violence and trafficking face significant scars, shame and trauma that they have to deal with for the rest of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Social and moral decay for the country. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Problem Tree Men superior than women Socio-Political Traditional beliefs Historical belief Men abuse women Trafficking of women and children Rape Broken marriages Male promiscuity unfaithfulness Spread of HIV / AIDS Domestic violence Children at risk Street children addiction to drugs Women seen as sexual objects only
  18. 18. How do we address these problems in Cambodia? <ul><li>Most relief organizations address the `fruits’ </li></ul><ul><li>Most humanitarian organizations address the `branches’ or behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Most Christian NGOs address the `trunk’ or the values system </li></ul><ul><li>Who address the ` root causes’ ? (Challenge for the Cambodian Church) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Solution Tree etc Women complete and complement men Women and girls rights not violated Reduce HIV /AIDS Happy family nonviolence One flesh union love Serve one another Children safe and secure Stable Marriage Partnership in marriage Faithfulness in marriage God created men and women in his own image (Equality) Gen 2:27 Biblical belief Gen 2:27
  20. 20. <ul><li>We are passionate about the recovery and restoration of exploited, destitute and rejected women and children into life in all its fullness. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>We are best at enabling women and children to reach their full potential through personalized and long term holistic care in a nurturing Christian environment. </li></ul>