Howard Gardner’s theory
• Howard Gardner defines intelligence as "the
capacity to solve problems or to fashion products
that are valued in one or more cultural setting"
(Gardner & Hatch, 1989
Using biological as well as cultural research,
he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This
new outlook on intelligence differs greatly
from the traditional view that usually
recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and
Who is Howard Gardner?
• Howard Gardner is a psychologist and Professor
at Harvard University's Graduate School of
• Based on his study of many people, Gardner
developed the theory of multiple intelligences.
• Gardner defines intelligence as “ability to
solve problems or to create products
which are valued in one or more cultural
• According to Gardner, 8 different types
of intelligence are displayed by
consists of the ability to:
• detect patterns
• reason deductively
• think logically
• This intelligence is most often associated
with scientific and mathematical thinking.
Famous examples: Albert Einstein, John Dewey.
• involves having a mastery ofa mastery of
• This intelligence includes thethe
ability to effectively manipulateability to effectively manipulate
languagelanguage to express oneself
rhetorically or poetically.
• It also allows one to use languagelanguage
as a means to rememberas a means to remember information.
• Famous examples: Charles Dickens, Abraham Lincoln, T.S.
Eliot, Sir Winston Churchill.
• gives one the ability to
manipulate and create mental
images in order to solve
• This intelligence is not limited
to visual domains--Gardner
notes that spatial intelligence
is also formed in blind
encompasses the capability to recognize and
compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms.
(Auditory functions are required for a person to
develop this intelligence in relation to pitch
and tone, but these functions would not be
needed for the knowledge of rhythm.)
Famous examples: Mozart, Leonard Bernstein, Ray Charles.
• It is the ability to use one's mental abilities to coordinate one's
own bodily movements. This intelligence challenges the popular
belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated.
• The ability to use your body skillfully to solve problems, create
products or present ideas and emotions.
• The ability to work effectively with otherswork effectively with others
• to relate to other peoplerelate to other people
• display empathyempathy and understandingunderstanding
• notice their motivations and goals.motivations and goals.
• This is a vital human intelligence displayed by goodgood
teachers, facilitators, therapists,teachers, facilitators, therapists,
politicians, religious leaders and salespoliticians, religious leaders and sales
• Famous examples: Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, Mother Teresa,
The ability for self-analysis and reflection–to be able to:
• quietly contemplate and assess one's
• review one's behavior and innermost feelings
• make plans and set goals
• know oneself
• Philosophers, counselors, and many peak performers
in all fields of endeavor have this form of intelligence.
Famous examples: Freud, Eleanor Roosevelt, Plato.
•designates the human ability to discriminate among living thingsdesignates the human ability to discriminate among living things
(plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the(plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the
natural world (clouds, rock configurations).natural world (clouds, rock configurations).
• to make distinctions in the natural world and to use this
ability productively–for example in hunting, farming, or
•Farmers, botanists, conservationists, biologists, environmentalistsFarmers, botanists, conservationists, biologists, environmentalists
would all display aspects of the intelligence.would all display aspects of the intelligence.
• Famous examples: Charles Darwin, Rachel Carson.
Can we be more than one?Can we be more than one?
• Although the intelligences are anatomically separated from each other,
Gardner claims that the eight intelligences very rarely operate
• Rather, the intelligences are used concurrently and typically complement
each other as individuals develop skills or solve problems.
For example, a dancer can excel in his art only if he/she has For example, a dancer can excel in his art only if he/she has
• strong musical intelligence to understand the rhythm and variations of the
• bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to provide him with the agility and
coordination to complete the movements successfully
• interpersonal intelligence to understand how he can inspire or emotionally
move his audience through his movements