Grammar Book<br />Ceci DeLuke<br />
Table of Contents<br />1 Introduction<br />2 Table of Contents<br />3 – 10 Preterite<br />4 – Charts<br />5 – Trigger Word...
Preterite<br />
Regular Preterite<br />é		amos aste	asteis ó		aron<br />í 		imos iste 	isteis ió		ieron <br />
Trigger Words<br />anoche	last night<br />ayer	yesterday <br />esta tarde	this afternoon<br />el otro día	the other day<br...
-car, -gar, -zar <br />Verbs that end in -car change c to quyo busqué<br />Verb that end in –zar change z to c<br />yo alm...
SER/IR<br />fui<br />fui<br />di<br />DAR/VER<br />fuiste<br />diste<br />fuiste<br />Spock<br />fue<br />vi<br />dio<br /...
Snake<br />e  i<br />venir, servir, pedir<br />o  u<br />dormir, morir<br />Irregular preterite that changes in the thir...
Snake-y<br />o  y<br />oir<br />e  y<br />leer, creer<br />Irregular preterite that changes in the third person buy addi...
Cucaracha<br />andar		anduve<br />estar		estuve<br />poder		pude<br />poner		puse<br />querer		quise<br />saber		supe<br /...
Imperfect<br />
Regular Imperfect<br />aba	 	ábamos abas	abaisaba		aban<br />ía íamosías íais ías ían<br />
Trigger Words<br />nunca	never	<br />todo el tiempo	all the time<br />a veces	sometimes<br />siempre	always<br />frecuente...
Irregulars<br />SER<br />IR<br />VER<br />
Preterite vs. Imperfect<br /><ul><li>Actions viewed by the speaker as completed
Expresses the beginning or end of a past action
Narrate a series of past actions
Used for specific events
A snap shot of the past
Ongoing past actions that have no definite ending or beginning
Expresses habitual past actions and events
Used for background information such as time, weather, location
Like a movie clip</li></li></ul><li>Ser<br />D – description<br />O – origin<br />C – characteristics<br />T – time<br />O...
Estar<br />estoy	estamosestásestáisestá	están<br />H – health<br />E– emotions<br />L– location<br />P– present condition<...
Verbs like Gustar<br />importar<br />aburrir<br />fascinar<br />disgustar<br />encantar<br />quedar<br />interesar<br />fa...
Comparatives<br />más + adjective + que (more ____ than)<br />menos + adjective + que (less ____ than)<br />Superlatives<b...
Transition Words<br />pero    but<br />mientras	    while<br />también	also<br />por lo tanto    therefore<br />a pesar de...
Future<br />
Regular Future<br />infinitive + é 	    infinitive + emos <br />infinitive + ás	    infinitive + és<br />infinitive + ás	 ...
Irregulars<br />tener	      tendr-<br />hacer	        har-<br />venir	vendr-<br />decir	dir-<br />poner	pondr-<br />valer	...
Trigger Words<br />el proximo ______<br />- día, año, semana, etc.<br />mañana<br />en (tres, cuarto, …)<br />- días, años...
Por<br />passing through<br />the cause of something<br />general rather than specific location<br />how long something la...
Para<br />to express the idea of a deadline <br />to express an opinion<br />for whom something is done<br />destination<b...
Conditional <br />Tense<br />
When to Use<br />Possibility<br />Probability<br />Wonder<br />“Would, could, must have or probably”<br />
Regular Conditional<br />ía		íamos<br />ías		íais<br />ía		ían<br />
Irregulars<br />tener	      tendr-<br />hacer	        har-<br />venir	vendr-<br />decir	dir-<br />poner	pondr-<br />valer	...
Perfect<br />Tense<br />
Present Perfect<br />When to Use<br /><ul><li> To tell what you have or have not done
 To indicate an action was completed recently
 When speaking about an action that was true in the past and still true in the present</li></li></ul><li>Regular Present P...
Present Perfect Irregulars<br />cubrir              cubierto<br />abrir	      abierto<br />hacer	           hecho<br />esc...
Past Perfect<br />Haber<br />había	habíamos<br />habías	habéis<br />había 	habían<br />
Subjunctive Perfect<br />The present perfect subjunctive is used when the dependent clause is in the past.<br />Haber<br /...
Tan y Tanto<br />tan + adjective (adverb) + como<br />- example: Diana es tan bonita como Lily.<br />tanto (-a, -os, -as) ...
Impersonal“Se”<br />Used to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.<br />When using the “se”, the v...
Conocer vs. Saber<br />to know people, places, or literature<br />to know facts and information<br />sé		sabemos<br />sabe...
Mandatos<br />
Formal Usted(es)<br />Present yo form of the verb<br />Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite ending<br />         - ar ‘e’<br...
Formal Usted(es) Irregular<br />Tener – tengo – tenga(n)<br />Venir – vengo – venga(n)<br />Dar/Decir – dé(en)/diga(n)<br ...
Affirmative Tú<br />Conjugate the verb into the tú form and drop the ‘s’<br />Examples:<br />         hablar --- habla<br ...
Affirmative Tú Irregular<br />Decir – di<br />Hacer – haz<br />Ir – ve<br />Poner – pon<br />Salir – sal<br />Tener – ten<...
Negative Tú<br />Present yo form of the verb<br />Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite tú ending<br />Examples<br />         ...
Negative Tú Irregular<br />Tener – tengas<br />Venir – vengas<br />Decir – digas<br />Ir – vayas<br />Ser – sayas<br />Hac...
DOP and IOP Placement<br />The object pronouns are attached to the end of the command<br />Example:<br />         cómprelo...
DOP and IOP Placement<br />In negative commands, the object pronouns come before the command<br />Example:<br />         N...
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Grammar Book

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />Ceci DeLuke<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />1 Introduction<br />2 Table of Contents<br />3 – 10 Preterite<br />4 – Charts<br />5 – Trigger Words<br />6 – -car, -gar, -zar<br />7 – Spock<br />8 – Snake<br />9 – Snake-y<br />10 – Cucaracha<br />11 – 14 Imperfect<br />12 – Charts<br />13 – Trigger Words<br />14 – Irregulars<br />15 Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />16 Ser<br />17 Estar<br />18 Verbs like Gustar<br />19 Comparatives and Superlatives<br />20 Transition Words<br />21 – 24 Future<br />22 – Charts<br />23 – Irregulars<br />24 – Trigger Words<br />25 Por<br />26 Para<br />27 – 30 Conditional Tense<br />28 – When to use<br />29 – Charts<br />30 – Irregulars<br />31 – 35 Perfect Tense<br />32 – Present<br />33 – Present Chart<br />33 – Present Irregulars<br />34 – Past<br />35 – Subjunctive Perfect<br />36 Tan y Tanto<br />37 Impersonal “Se”<br />38 Saber vs. Conocer<br />39 – 49 Commands<br />50 - 56 Subjunctive<br />51 Subjunctive and Irregulars<br />52 Trigger Phrases<br />53 Impersonal Expressions<br />54 Expressions of Emotions<br />55 – 56 Conjunctions of Time<br />57 Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />
  3. 3. Preterite<br />
  4. 4. Regular Preterite<br />é amos aste asteis ó aron<br />í imos iste isteis ió ieron <br />
  5. 5. Trigger Words<br />anoche last night<br />ayer yesterday <br />esta tarde this afternoon<br />el otro día the other day<br />el mes pasado last month<br />
  6. 6. -car, -gar, -zar <br />Verbs that end in -car change c to quyo busqué<br />Verb that end in –zar change z to c<br />yo almorcé<br />Verbs that end in –gar change g to gu<br />yo jugué<br />
  7. 7. SER/IR<br />fui<br />fui<br />di<br />DAR/VER<br />fuiste<br />diste<br />fuiste<br />Spock<br />fue<br />vi<br />dio<br />fue<br />viste<br />dimos<br />fuimos<br />fuimos<br />vio<br />dieron<br />fueron<br />fueron<br />vimos<br />vieron<br />HACER<br />hice<br />hiciste<br />hizo<br />hicimos<br />hicieron<br />
  8. 8. Snake<br />e  i<br />venir, servir, pedir<br />o  u<br />dormir, morir<br />Irregular preterite that changes in the third person<br />
  9. 9. Snake-y<br />o  y<br />oir<br />e  y<br />leer, creer<br />Irregular preterite that changes in the third person buy adding a ‘y’<br />
  10. 10. Cucaracha<br />andar anduve<br />estar estuve<br />poder pude<br />poner puse<br />querer quise<br />saber supe<br />tener tuve<br />-e-iste-o-imos-isteis-ieron<br />venir vine<br />
  11. 11. Imperfect<br />
  12. 12. Regular Imperfect<br />aba ábamos abas abaisaba aban<br />ía íamosías íais ías ían<br />
  13. 13. Trigger Words<br />nunca never <br />todo el tiempo all the time<br />a veces sometimes<br />siempre always<br />frecuentemente frequently<br />
  14. 14. Irregulars<br />SER<br />IR<br />VER<br />
  15. 15. Preterite vs. Imperfect<br /><ul><li>Actions viewed by the speaker as completed
  16. 16. Expresses the beginning or end of a past action
  17. 17. Narrate a series of past actions
  18. 18. Used for specific events
  19. 19. A snap shot of the past
  20. 20. Ongoing past actions that have no definite ending or beginning
  21. 21. Expresses habitual past actions and events
  22. 22. Used for background information such as time, weather, location
  23. 23. Like a movie clip</li></li></ul><li>Ser<br />D – description<br />O – origin<br />C – characteristics<br />T – time<br />O – occupation<br />R – relationship<br />P – possessions<br />E – events<br />D - dates<br />soy somos eres soises son<br />
  24. 24. Estar<br />estoy estamosestásestáisestá están<br />H – health<br />E– emotions<br />L– location<br />P– present condition<br />“ING” – -ar = ando<br /> -er = iendo<br />
  25. 25. Verbs like Gustar<br />importar<br />aburrir<br />fascinar<br />disgustar<br />encantar<br />quedar<br />interesar<br />faltar<br />me nos<br />te os<br />le les<br />doler<br />molestar<br />
  26. 26. Comparatives<br />más + adjective + que (more ____ than)<br />menos + adjective + que (less ____ than)<br />Superlatives<br />el/la más + adjective + de ( the more ____ of)<br />el/la menos + adjective + de (the least ____ of)<br />
  27. 27. Transition Words<br />pero but<br />mientras while<br />también also<br />por lo tanto therefore<br />a pesar de in spite of<br />anuqueeven though<br />sin embargo/no obstante nevertheless<br />
  28. 28. Future<br />
  29. 29. Regular Future<br />infinitive + é infinitive + emos <br />infinitive + ás infinitive + és<br />infinitive + ás infinitive + án<br />
  30. 30. Irregulars<br />tener tendr-<br />hacer har-<br />venir vendr-<br />decir dir-<br />poner pondr-<br />valer valdr-<br />salir saldr-<br />haber habr-<br />caber cabr-<br />poder podr-<br />querer querr-<br />saber sabr-<br />
  31. 31. Trigger Words<br />el proximo ______<br />- día, año, semana, etc.<br />mañana<br />en (tres, cuarto, …)<br />- días, años, semanas, etc.<br />
  32. 32. Por<br />passing through<br />the cause of something<br />general rather than specific location<br />how long something last<br />a means of transportation<br />an exchange<br />time and number<br />doing something in place of or instead of someone else<br />
  33. 33. Para<br />to express the idea of a deadline <br />to express an opinion<br />for whom something is done<br />destination<br />to contrast or compare<br />the purpose for which something is done<br />
  34. 34. Conditional <br />Tense<br />
  35. 35. When to Use<br />Possibility<br />Probability<br />Wonder<br />“Would, could, must have or probably”<br />
  36. 36. Regular Conditional<br />ía íamos<br />ías íais<br />ía ían<br />
  37. 37. Irregulars<br />tener tendr-<br />hacer har-<br />venir vendr-<br />decir dir-<br />poner pondr-<br />valer valdr-<br />salir saldr-<br />haber habr-<br />caber cabr-<br />poder podr-<br />querer querr-<br />saber sabr-<br />
  38. 38. Perfect<br />Tense<br />
  39. 39. Present Perfect<br />When to Use<br /><ul><li> To tell what you have or have not done
  40. 40. To indicate an action was completed recently
  41. 41. When speaking about an action that was true in the past and still true in the present</li></li></ul><li>Regular Present Perfect<br />Haber<br />Endings<br />he hemoes<br />has habéis<br />ha han<br />-ar ado<br />-er ido<br />-ir ido<br />
  42. 42. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />cubrir cubierto<br />abrir abierto<br />hacer hecho<br />escribir escrito<br />ir ido<br />decir dicho<br />volver vuelto<br />ver visto<br />morir muerto<br />poner puesto<br />resolver resuelto<br />romper roto<br />
  43. 43. Past Perfect<br />Haber<br />había habíamos<br />habías habéis<br />había habían<br />
  44. 44. Subjunctive Perfect<br />The present perfect subjunctive is used when the dependent clause is in the past.<br />Haber<br />haya hayamos<br />hayas hayáis<br />haya hayan<br />
  45. 45. Tan y Tanto<br />tan + adjective (adverb) + como<br />- example: Diana es tan bonita como Lily.<br />tanto (-a, -os, -as) + noun + como<br />- example: Tengo tanto dinero como Bella.<br />
  46. 46. Impersonal“Se”<br />Used to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.<br />When using the “se”, the verb is always in the usted and ustedes.<br />The “se” can be used in all tenses.<br />
  47. 47. Conocer vs. Saber<br />to know people, places, or literature<br />to know facts and information<br />sé sabemos<br />sabes sabéis<br />sabe saben<br />conozco conocemos<br />conoces conocéis<br />conoce conocen<br />
  48. 48. Mandatos<br />
  49. 49. Formal Usted(es)<br />Present yo form of the verb<br />Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite ending<br /> - ar ‘e’<br /> - er/ir  ‘a’<br />If it is plural, add an ‘n’<br />Example:<br /> hablar --- hable(n)<br /> comer --- coma(n)<br />
  50. 50. Formal Usted(es) Irregular<br />Tener – tengo – tenga(n)<br />Venir – vengo – venga(n)<br />Dar/Decir – dé(en)/diga(n)<br />Ir – voy – vaya(n)<br />Ser – sea(n)<br />Hacer – hago– haga(n)<br />Estar – estoy – esté(n)<br />Saber –sepa(n)<br />
  51. 51. Affirmative Tú<br />Conjugate the verb into the tú form and drop the ‘s’<br />Examples:<br /> hablar --- habla<br /> comer --- come <br />
  52. 52. Affirmative Tú Irregular<br />Decir – di<br />Hacer – haz<br />Ir – ve<br />Poner – pon<br />Salir – sal<br />Tener – ten<br />Venir –ven<br />
  53. 53. Negative Tú<br />Present yo form of the verb<br />Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite tú ending<br />Examples<br /> hablar --- no hables<br /> comer --- no comas<br />
  54. 54. Negative Tú Irregular<br />Tener – tengas<br />Venir – vengas<br />Decir – digas<br />Ir – vayas<br />Ser – sayas<br />Hacer – hagas<br />Estoy – estes<br />Saber –sepas<br />
  55. 55. DOP and IOP Placement<br />The object pronouns are attached to the end of the command<br />Example:<br /> cómprelo<br />If there is a direct object and an indirect object, the indirect object comes before the direct object.<br />Example:<br /> cómpremelo<br />
  56. 56. DOP and IOP Placement<br />In negative commands, the object pronouns come before the command<br />Example:<br /> No lo coma.<br />If there is a direct object and an indirect object, the indirect object comes before the direct object.<br />Example:<br /> No me lo compre.<br />
  57. 57. Nosotros <br />Present yo form of the verb<br />Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite nosotros ending<br />Example:<br /> hablar --- hablemos<br /> comer --- comamos<br />With reflexive verbs, you drop the final ‘s’ of the command and add the reflexive pronoun<br />Example:<br /> levantemos --- nos levantemonos<br />
  58. 58. Subjunctive<br />
  59. 59. Present Subjunctive<br />Attitudes, Uncertain, and Hypothetical<br />Tener – tenga(n)<br />Venir – venga(n)<br />Dar – dé(en)<br />Decir – diga(n)<br />Ir – vaya(n)<br />Ser – sea(n)<br />Hacer – haga(n)<br />Estar – esté(n)<br />Saber –sepa(n)<br />Present yo form of the verb<br />Drop the ‘o’<br />Change to opposite vowel<br />Example:<br /> Dudo que tenga un millón de dólares<br />
  60. 60. Trigger Phrases<br />esperar que<br />insistir en que<br />querer que<br />mandar que<br />es aconsejable que<br />pedir que<br />prohibir que<br />preferir que<br />recomendar que<br />rogar que<br />sugerir que<br />
  61. 61. Impersonal Expressions<br />Es bueno que…<br />Es necesario que…<br />Es malo que…<br />Es mejor que…<br />Es importante que…<br />Es fácil que…<br />
  62. 62. Expressions of Emotions<br />Main Clause<br /><ul><li> hope
  63. 63. fear
  64. 64. joy
  65. 65. pity
  66. 66. surprise</li></ul>Subordinate Clause<br />- subjunctive<br />When there is not a change of subject, use the infinitive<br />alegarse<br />sentir<br />esperar<br />es triste<br />temer<br />soprender<br />ojalá que<br />
  67. 67. Conjunctions of Time<br />take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. the subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future.<br />despues de que<br />luego que<br />hasta que<br />así que<br />cuando<br />en cuanto<br />tan pronto como<br />
  68. 68. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />Singular<br />MaleFemale<br />este esta (this)<br />ese esa (that)<br />aquel aquella (that one over there)<br />Plural<br />MaleFemale<br />estos estas (these)<br />esos esas (those)<br />aquellos aquellas (that one over there)<br />

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