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Grammar Book Grammar Book Presentation Transcript

  • Grammar Book
    Ceci DeLuke
  • Table of Contents
    1 Introduction
    2 Table of Contents
    3 – 10 Preterite
    4 – Charts
    5 – Trigger Words
    6 – -car, -gar, -zar
    7 – Spock
    8 – Snake
    9 – Snake-y
    10 – Cucaracha
    11 – 14 Imperfect
    12 – Charts
    13 – Trigger Words
    14 – Irregulars
    15 Preterite vs. Imperfect
    16 Ser
    17 Estar
    18 Verbs like Gustar
    19 Comparatives and Superlatives
    20 Transition Words
    21 – 24 Future
    22 – Charts
    23 – Irregulars
    24 – Trigger Words
    25 Por
    26 Para
    27 – 30 Conditional Tense
    28 – When to use
    29 – Charts
    30 – Irregulars
    31 – 35 Perfect Tense
    32 – Present
    33 – Present Chart
    33 – Present Irregulars
    34 – Past
    35 – Subjunctive Perfect
    36 Tan y Tanto
    37 Impersonal “Se”
    38 Saber vs. Conocer
    39 – 49 Commands
    50 - 56 Subjunctive
    51 Subjunctive and Irregulars
    52 Trigger Phrases
    53 Impersonal Expressions
    54 Expressions of Emotions
    55 – 56 Conjunctions of Time
    57 Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
  • Preterite
  • Regular Preterite
    é amos aste asteis ó aron
    í imos iste isteis ió ieron
  • Trigger Words
    anoche last night
    ayer yesterday
    esta tarde this afternoon
    el otro día the other day
    el mes pasado last month
  • -car, -gar, -zar
    Verbs that end in -car change c to quyo busqué
    Verb that end in –zar change z to c
    yo almorcé
    Verbs that end in –gar change g to gu
    yo jugué
  • SER/IR
    fui
    fui
    di
    DAR/VER
    fuiste
    diste
    fuiste
    Spock
    fue
    vi
    dio
    fue
    viste
    dimos
    fuimos
    fuimos
    vio
    dieron
    fueron
    fueron
    vimos
    vieron
    HACER
    hice
    hiciste
    hizo
    hicimos
    hicieron
  • Snake
    e  i
    venir, servir, pedir
    o  u
    dormir, morir
    Irregular preterite that changes in the third person
  • Snake-y
    o  y
    oir
    e  y
    leer, creer
    Irregular preterite that changes in the third person buy adding a ‘y’
  • Cucaracha
    andar anduve
    estar estuve
    poder pude
    poner puse
    querer quise
    saber supe
    tener tuve
    -e-iste-o-imos-isteis-ieron
    venir vine
  • Imperfect
  • Regular Imperfect
    aba ábamos abas abaisaba aban
    ía íamosías íais ías ían
  • Trigger Words
    nunca never
    todo el tiempo all the time
    a veces sometimes
    siempre always
    frecuentemente frequently
  • Irregulars
    SER
    IR
    VER
  • Preterite vs. Imperfect
    • Actions viewed by the speaker as completed
    • Expresses the beginning or end of a past action
    • Narrate a series of past actions
    • Used for specific events
    • A snap shot of the past
    • Ongoing past actions that have no definite ending or beginning
    • Expresses habitual past actions and events
    • Used for background information such as time, weather, location
    • Like a movie clip
  • Ser
    D – description
    O – origin
    C – characteristics
    T – time
    O – occupation
    R – relationship
    P – possessions
    E – events
    D - dates
    soy somos eres soises son
  • Estar
    estoy estamosestásestáisestá están
    H – health
    E– emotions
    L– location
    P– present condition
    “ING” – -ar = ando
    -er = iendo
  • Verbs like Gustar
    importar
    aburrir
    fascinar
    disgustar
    encantar
    quedar
    interesar
    faltar
    me nos
    te os
    le les
    doler
    molestar
  • Comparatives
    más + adjective + que (more ____ than)
    menos + adjective + que (less ____ than)
    Superlatives
    el/la más + adjective + de ( the more ____ of)
    el/la menos + adjective + de (the least ____ of)
  • Transition Words
    pero but
    mientras while
    también also
    por lo tanto therefore
    a pesar de in spite of
    anuqueeven though
    sin embargo/no obstante nevertheless
  • Future
  • Regular Future
    infinitive + é infinitive + emos
    infinitive + ás infinitive + és
    infinitive + ás infinitive + án
  • Irregulars
    tener tendr-
    hacer har-
    venir vendr-
    decir dir-
    poner pondr-
    valer valdr-
    salir saldr-
    haber habr-
    caber cabr-
    poder podr-
    querer querr-
    saber sabr-
  • Trigger Words
    el proximo ______
    - día, año, semana, etc.
    mañana
    en (tres, cuarto, …)
    - días, años, semanas, etc.
  • Por
    passing through
    the cause of something
    general rather than specific location
    how long something last
    a means of transportation
    an exchange
    time and number
    doing something in place of or instead of someone else
  • Para
    to express the idea of a deadline
    to express an opinion
    for whom something is done
    destination
    to contrast or compare
    the purpose for which something is done
  • Conditional
    Tense
  • When to Use
    Possibility
    Probability
    Wonder
    “Would, could, must have or probably”
  • Regular Conditional
    ía íamos
    ías íais
    ía ían
  • Irregulars
    tener tendr-
    hacer har-
    venir vendr-
    decir dir-
    poner pondr-
    valer valdr-
    salir saldr-
    haber habr-
    caber cabr-
    poder podr-
    querer querr-
    saber sabr-
  • Perfect
    Tense
  • Present Perfect
    When to Use
    • To tell what you have or have not done
    • To indicate an action was completed recently
    • When speaking about an action that was true in the past and still true in the present
  • Regular Present Perfect
    Haber
    Endings
    he hemoes
    has habéis
    ha han
    -ar ado
    -er ido
    -ir ido
  • Present Perfect Irregulars
    cubrir cubierto
    abrir abierto
    hacer hecho
    escribir escrito
    ir ido
    decir dicho
    volver vuelto
    ver visto
    morir muerto
    poner puesto
    resolver resuelto
    romper roto
  • Past Perfect
    Haber
    había habíamos
    habías habéis
    había habían
  • Subjunctive Perfect
    The present perfect subjunctive is used when the dependent clause is in the past.
    Haber
    haya hayamos
    hayas hayáis
    haya hayan
  • Tan y Tanto
    tan + adjective (adverb) + como
    - example: Diana es tan bonita como Lily.
    tanto (-a, -os, -as) + noun + como
    - example: Tengo tanto dinero como Bella.
  • Impersonal“Se”
    Used to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.
    When using the “se”, the verb is always in the usted and ustedes.
    The “se” can be used in all tenses.
  • Conocer vs. Saber
    to know people, places, or literature
    to know facts and information
    sé sabemos
    sabes sabéis
    sabe saben
    conozco conocemos
    conoces conocéis
    conoce conocen
  • Mandatos
  • Formal Usted(es)
    Present yo form of the verb
    Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite ending
    - ar ‘e’
    - er/ir  ‘a’
    If it is plural, add an ‘n’
    Example:
    hablar --- hable(n)
    comer --- coma(n)
  • Formal Usted(es) Irregular
    Tener – tengo – tenga(n)
    Venir – vengo – venga(n)
    Dar/Decir – dé(en)/diga(n)
    Ir – voy – vaya(n)
    Ser – sea(n)
    Hacer – hago– haga(n)
    Estar – estoy – esté(n)
    Saber –sepa(n)
  • Affirmative Tú
    Conjugate the verb into the tú form and drop the ‘s’
    Examples:
    hablar --- habla
    comer --- come
  • Affirmative Tú Irregular
    Decir – di
    Hacer – haz
    Ir – ve
    Poner – pon
    Salir – sal
    Tener – ten
    Venir –ven
  • Negative Tú
    Present yo form of the verb
    Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite tú ending
    Examples
    hablar --- no hables
    comer --- no comas
  • Negative Tú Irregular
    Tener – tengas
    Venir – vengas
    Decir – digas
    Ir – vayas
    Ser – sayas
    Hacer – hagas
    Estoy – estes
    Saber –sepas
  • DOP and IOP Placement
    The object pronouns are attached to the end of the command
    Example:
    cómprelo
    If there is a direct object and an indirect object, the indirect object comes before the direct object.
    Example:
    cómpremelo
  • DOP and IOP Placement
    In negative commands, the object pronouns come before the command
    Example:
    No lo coma.
    If there is a direct object and an indirect object, the indirect object comes before the direct object.
    Example:
    No me lo compre.
  • Nosotros
    Present yo form of the verb
    Drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite nosotros ending
    Example:
    hablar --- hablemos
    comer --- comamos
    With reflexive verbs, you drop the final ‘s’ of the command and add the reflexive pronoun
    Example:
    levantemos --- nos levantemonos
  • Subjunctive
  • Present Subjunctive
    Attitudes, Uncertain, and Hypothetical
    Tener – tenga(n)
    Venir – venga(n)
    Dar – dé(en)
    Decir – diga(n)
    Ir – vaya(n)
    Ser – sea(n)
    Hacer – haga(n)
    Estar – esté(n)
    Saber –sepa(n)
    Present yo form of the verb
    Drop the ‘o’
    Change to opposite vowel
    Example:
    Dudo que tenga un millón de dólares
  • Trigger Phrases
    esperar que
    insistir en que
    querer que
    mandar que
    es aconsejable que
    pedir que
    prohibir que
    preferir que
    recomendar que
    rogar que
    sugerir que
  • Impersonal Expressions
    Es bueno que…
    Es necesario que…
    Es malo que…
    Es mejor que…
    Es importante que…
    Es fácil que…
  • Expressions of Emotions
    Main Clause
    • hope
    • fear
    • joy
    • pity
    • surprise
    Subordinate Clause
    - subjunctive
    When there is not a change of subject, use the infinitive
    alegarse
    sentir
    esperar
    es triste
    temer
    soprender
    ojalá que
  • Conjunctions of Time
    take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. the subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future.
    despues de que
    luego que
    hasta que
    así que
    cuando
    en cuanto
    tan pronto como
  • Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
    Singular
    MaleFemale
    este esta (this)
    ese esa (that)
    aquel aquella (that one over there)
    Plural
    MaleFemale
    estos estas (these)
    esos esas (those)
    aquellos aquellas (that one over there)