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Learning Notes World Water Week Seminar: "Micro-irrigation for food security: the untold stories of forgotten stakeholders", Cecilia Ruebrto

Learning Notes World Water Week Seminar: "Micro-irrigation for food security: the untold stories of forgotten stakeholders", Cecilia Ruebrto



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Scampis learning notes Scampis learning notes Document Transcript

  • Page 1 SCAMPIS Learning Notes
  • ©Cecilia Ruberto Page 2 SCAMPIS Learning Notes
  • ContentWhy the Learning Notes? ................................................................................................................ 5Introduction to the articles ................................................................................................................ 61. Strengthening women and youth through improved nutrition, health and hygiene inGuatemala ........................................................................................................................................... 81. Strategy adaptation of the project: introducing micro-irrigation systems in school gardensin Guatemala ..................................................................................................................................... 182. Scaling up integrated strategies for micro-irrigation through coffee producers ...................... 303. “The first experience lasts forever”: Bijaya Kumar experience as Scampis promoter.............. 384. Role of promotion strategy for introducing the MIS innovation .............................................. 435. Scaling up of micro-irrigation systems – Integrating MIS in Indian National Programme forLivelihood improvement: complexity and opportunities.................................................................. 546. Micro-enterprise for MIS – the born and the consolidation of Innovagri................................ 627. Breaking the small farmers vicious cycle of debts through micro-irrigation systems .............. 678. Scaling up micro-irrigation systems in Madagascar: opportunities and constraints ................ 729. Measuring the Scampis project change dimension .................................................................. 78 3 SCAMPIS Learning NotesGuatemala Story ............................................................................................................................... 85India Story ......................................................................................................................................... 90 Page View slide
  • About the Seminar “Micro-irrigation for food security: the untold stories of forgottenstakeholders”Untold stories of forgotten stakeholders and project implementers from India, Guatemala andMadagascar will highlight the importance of dimension change in pro poor developmentthrough the introduction of micro-irrigation systems (MIS).MIS are effective tools for addressing rural poverty and improving the lives of smallholderfarmers. The Scampis project (2009-2012) has changed the lives of 30.000 vulnerable farmerswhich have adopted low-cost, user-friendly MIS technologies.This innovative technology has seen farmers embrace other strategies such as organicfertilization, natural pesticides, appropriate agricultural practices (longer growing seasons,lower application of agro-chemicals and (re)introducing native species and different crops)andchanged knowledge and behaviour on nutrition and health.Women and youth have formed strong livelihood groups to explore the manifold impacts.Scampis put in motion an holistic development chain from the manufacturer through theretailer shop to the farmer and sales of exceeds in local markets.Sustainability is a matter of affordability of choice–hence use of subsidies, accessibility ofextension and rural finance services, as well as availability of marketing linkages.Together with policy dialogue they lead to scaling-up in the 3 countries. 4 SCAMPIS Learning NotesScampis Website: PageSpecial thankSCooperninc; IFAD; All Scampis staff; IFAD Countries offices; friends and families that haveconstantly supported us. View slide
  • Why the Learning Notes? August, 2012The Scampis project has been a very special project. What made the experience so “special”has been the incredible dynamic attitude of all the people involved, the staff and the samebeneficiaries. The project piloted innovative strategies to introduce micro-irrigation systems(MIS) in India, Guatemala and Madagascar. In this 3 countries, organizations that for variousreasons get in contact with the project showed interest for it and developed their ownstrategies to integrate MIS in their activities.Among the various project achievements, the learning has been very important. The learninghappened constantly at the field level, at the organizational and at the cross-countries/international level.This publication wants to collect some informal contribution of actors that have been key inthe project development. Clearly there are many more people that play a central role in thisstory, we hope that photos and future learning notes will give them voice & justice.Dear reader, go through this publication with the spirit of a story reader, with morecuriosity than scientific expectations, be aware that our objective is to share experiences andlet raise questions to reinforce a continuous “learning” process and to facilitate directinteractions with our authors.The “Scampis Learning Notes” is an informal collection of home-made-working-papers & 5 SCAMPIS Learning Notesstories about real life experiences. This experiences and much more will be shared during theWorld Water Week seminar: “Micro-irrigation for food security: the untold stories of forgottenstakeholders”. PageEnjoy your reading!
  • Introduction to the articlesNow, more than before, we can say that the micro-irrigation technology is an extremelypowerful tool for improving livelihood condition in rural areas, especially if appropriatelylinked to integrated strategies for rural development. The micro-irrigation can offer satisfyingresults in relative short time (Measuring the Scampis project change dimension, CeciliaRuberto).During the last 3 years of the Scampis project implementation different strategies have beendeveloped and many challenges faced, this Learning Notes wants to give insights on someaspects that should be kept in consideration when we think using micro-irrigation in ourstrategies. The learning and the social dimension are important aspects ( Strengtheningwomen and youth through the correct nutrition, health and hygiene in Guatemala, MagalíÁvila; Strategy adaptation of the Scampis Project through School Gardens in Guatemala,Santiago Girón) as well as the technical and market dimension (Development of localmanufacturing chain for micro-irrigation technologies: born and the consolidation of the micro-enterprise Innovagri, Randriambelo Lova; Role Of Promotion Strategy For Introducing The MISInnovation, Tapan Kumar Pattanayak ). When an innovation is introduced, sufficient timeshould be allocated to consolidate the cultural, habits and to perceive economical andenvironmental improvements, for this reason the scaling up of MIS into larger programmesfor livelihood enhancement is very important (Scaling up of micro-irrigation systems in 6 SCAMPIS Learning NotesMadagascar : opportunities and challenges, Christin Ramaroson; Integrating micro-irrigationinto the National Programme for Livelihood improvement in India : opportunities andchallenges, Susanta Nanda; Overall scaling up of integrated strategies for micro-irrigation andscaling up with coffee producers, Mynor Maldonado). Finally, to develop effective and efficientstrategy, nothing is more important than listen at real experience of field staff andbeneficiaries (My experience as Scampis promoter, Bijaya Kumar Rout; Breaking the smallfarmers vicious cycle of debts through micro-irrigation systems, Fenomanantsoa PageAndriamanalina, Most Significant change stories from Guatemala and India).All the articles are “home-made – working papers” pulled together in this informal publicationto “immortalize” important experiences, feelings and to create opportunities for furtherdiscussions.
  • The Scampis Project Scaling up micro irrigation in India, Guatemala and Madagascar Country India Guatemala Madagascar Impleme IDE-I (International Development Funcafé (Fundación de la Caficultura para el AVSF (Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans nting Enterprises – India) Desarrollo Rural) Frontières) NGO  10.000 beneficiaries expected by  10.000 beneficiaries expected by the end of  10.000 beneficiaries expected by the the end of the project the project end of the project Benefici  15.107 households achieved  13715 households achieved and 128  4670 beneficiaries directly achieved; aries among them 9.108 use natural school gardens established 4618 with partners fertilization  Developed equipment markets  Developed new school gardens using MIS  Developed equipment markets: from where none previously existed in and natural fertilizers Worked through manufacturing to distribution and Koraput and Gajapati groups of farmers and coffee producer promotion at village level districts,Orissa region cooperatives  Proposed client-specific subsidies policy  Worked with self-help, village  Complemented micro-irrigation practice  Strategic innovations Created new job opportunities in based micro-finance group of 10- with capacity building in nutrition manufacturing, promotion and 30 women (nutritious recipes and more diet diversity), profitable farming 7 SCAMPIS Learning Notes  Implemented promotional health and hygiene  Worked with groups of farmers, strategy from district to village  Connected local retailers to national independent farmers and agro- level providers of low-cost micro-irrigation cooperatives  Collaborated with regional rural technologies  Brought together a wide range of development programmes: Orissa stakeholders and clients to ensure Tribal Empowerment and sustainability Livelihood Programme and  Linked to a number of projects to scale Integrated Tribal Development up micro-irrigation (Capfida; PPRR; EU; Agency AROPA; FAFAFI; PROSPERER; AD2M)  Locally produced 100 m2 and 20  Downsized the commercially available 600  Adapted design and local m2 MIS: farmers find it extremely m2 MIS to 100 m2 and 50 m2 MIS for manufacturing of 100 m2 and 50 m2Technical innovations easy to use and to maintain vulnerable smallholders MIS    Page Surface treadle pump to lift water Introduced natural fertilizers (vermiwash Designed and locally manufactured Introduced from a stream or well: farmers and vermicompost) to maintain soil fertility pedal pumps using recycled plastic are less dependent on rainfed and increase production material (registered innovation) farming  Introduced natural pesticides to reduce  Built capacity for sustainable extension  Natural fertilizers (vermiwash and crop losses at little cost • Provided filters services in intensive cultivation, crop vermicompost) maintain soil for drinking water to ensure water quality diversification and synergies between fertility and increase production  Introduced practices for intensive crops  Introduced natural pesticides to cultivation, crop diversification and reduce crop losses at little cost synergies between crops
  • 1. Strengthening women and youth through improved nutrition, health and hygiene in GuatemalaMagalí Ávila, Nutrition & Health Technician, Funcafé, Guatemala. Mail: choscomagali@gmail.comSummaryThe working experience with SCAMPIS Guatemala from 2010 to 2012 has been a learning process,carried out with families, women and youth.The methodology that was used was learning by doing; the micro-irrigation system (MIS) hasbeen a tool to show how to produce and prepare their own food, in a more nutritious way and lowcosts compared to what they were used to do before the arrival of Scampis in that rural area: theeast side of Guatemala, covering 6 regions and 12 municipalities.Funcafé has within its strategic plan to continue working on three main areas: Education, Healthand Feeding and Nutritional Security; this work shares the United Nations millenniumdevelopment goals.In the Education area identified the objective to contribute with the raising of competitions inorder to have a productive and competitive life, the actions were considered from pre-school,elementary school, middle school, and high school, applying innovating methodologies, withefficacy and efficiency, relevance and pertinence.In the Health area it was worked with prevention and protection levels; recovery to improvehealth conditions in order to have a pleasant and extended life. 8 SCAMPIS Learning NotesIn Feeding andNutritional Security In 1981 the Government created instances of the Inter-the goal was the American Women Commission-National Women Officeimprovement of nutritional (ONAM) in August 1982 it was ratified by the Convention ofconditions of people in the rural area, the United Nations the elimination of all discrimination ways against women. All the plans, programs and projects werethere were set out actions to improve: developed in order to contribute to the strengthening of Pageavailability, access, consumption and women and youth and as consequence improve the future ofuse of biological food. the families of the rural area of the east side of Guatemala.
  • Women and Youth in Guatemala th According to the 5 National Enquiry on Maternal-Enfant Health women with higher fertility are the ones who are part of the groups of ages from 15 and 19 years old and 45 to 49 years old, although fertility is higher in women from the rural area. In the same enquiry it is noticed that fertility increases when women have less education. The difference in the fertility observed in the enquiry and the one wished by women is always higher in women from the rural area, in those who belong to an indigenous group and also in those who belong to a lower level of education. Women in fertility age who do not wish to procreate are still exposed to the ‘risk’ of being pregnant because they do not have a family 1 planning method, reproductive guidance and also due to cultural aspects and low education. Historically women in our Guatemala have been unlucky, mainly, women from the rural area and especially indigenous women. Male chauvinism, lack of education and the few participation spaces set them in a disadvantage place. In 1981 the Government created instances of the Inter- American Women Commission-National Office of Women (ONAM) and in August 1982 was ratified by the United Nations Convention on the elimination of all of discrimination ways against women. Through presidential programs and different departments, the Guatemalan Government also began with a series of programs designated to women. International Organisms have appeared to alleviate the poor and marginal condition in both areas for women and their families. The process which ended with the signature of the Peace Agreement allowed the creation of spaces for social and political participation by the Guatemalan Government in the compliance of the agreements, pacts and conventions have been signed and/or ratified in order to respect women human rights.How did SCAMPIS execution began? 9 SCAMPIS Learning NotesThe hired working team for the execution of tasks in the field get in contact and met the differentinstitutions and authorities present in the areas where they would have worked to introducethemselves and the project.It began by making a diagnosis of the communities based on health, education and feeding andnutritional security. With this information FUNCAFE diagnosed the different needs that womenand youth had in the area covered by SCAMPIS. PageThe project was presented at the town level in the meetings with the City Hall DevelopmentCouncil (COMUDE), Municipal Commission of Feeding and Nutritional Security (COMUSAN) and
  • Communitarian Development Council (COCODE). This allowed having the support from thecommunity leaders in the identification process of the priority groups and communityorganization.Considering the participation statistics of women in Guatemala we decided to be part of the dailyliving of the families for the strengthening of women and youngsters in the working process withSCAMPIS.The organization was a fundamental part of the objective achievements; women were part ofthese strengths for being housewives, mothers of children and also for being the ones who spendmore time with them, for this reason it was considered to include women in the user groups ofSCAMPIS Project. Most women were the ones who at the moment of learning about SCAMPISProject showed more interest in participating to learn and improve their living conditions.When FUNCAFE arrived at the communities did not find community organization, there was a lowcredibility on governmental projects. This situation represented an initial challenge for theintroduction of SCAMPIS and it took a while to introduce the practices and approaching strategiesthat were going to be implemented in a community level, this made also more difficult that thetechnical team earned the confidence of community members.By looking at the interest that women showed, it was considered that it was going to be possibleto have better achievements working with this age group, it was then organized five women orfive men but each of them represented a family and they were organized by similarity. 10 SCAMPIS Learning NotesAnother point of view that was considered was that the land in which they were going to work hadto be close to the homes so the vegetables were close to the homes too and they could control ina better way the team in which they were assigned.Another requirement was that the families had a 100 square meters land. Each group wasorganized and each group representative was the owner of the land. The groups signed a Pagecommitment letter with their 4 family participants. This was done in order to take thecommitment of working and also to use in proper way the micro irrigation system equipment that
  • was given to them as initial capital. Additionally to this the families were committed to give theproper maintenance and correct use to the micro irrigation system and also to participate in theeducational and technical sessions.This action allowed consolidating the organization in family, neighbor and community level whichis so needed in rural areas, because the Communitarian Development Council (COCODE) does nothave a wide knowledge of its functions due to the same level of education and lack of training inits functions. Having the support of COCODE allowed to have bigger capacity of announcementand inclusion of the project within the communitarian activities.The micro irrigation system –SMR- came as a tool that was introduced in working experiences. Itwas proceed to the implementation of family horticulture with the support of irrigationtechnology, identifying that team work made easier the practices and cultural tasks in thehorticulture land and also made easier the initial tasks of preparation of the land. While the cropswere growing, women actively participated in the trainings that the educators in health andnutrition gave to them in subjects such as feeding and nutritional security, hygiene and sexual andreproductive health.These subjects were given in order according to the sequence of the work that the communitiescarried out such as: hygiene, cleaning and self-esteem.Why did it begin with these subjects?Many of the participating women were historically abused and the opportunity to participate in 11 SCAMPIS Learning Notesthe training process was limited. Being aware of this reality the educators of the project began touse participating methodologies and even to improve self-esteem, and also increased theirleadership and strengthening. These educational talks achieved increase in the participation andacceptance of the project.Why is it important to train about Self-Esteem?In Guatemala there exists a war history, 36 years of intern armed conflict caused deep structural Pagepoverty, discrimination and violence which mostly affected women, children and indigenoustowns.
  • This is the reason why we find some cases where women have never even experienced how tocolor a drawing, look at themselves in the mirror, jump to catch a balloon, such small things butbefore the project they did not have the opportunity to do so. These practices of improving theirself-esteem widely contributed with the disposition of women toward more sensible socialsubjects to be discussed and which also approached real life situations within the homes, also incommunities where talking about sexual and reproductive health is still a taboo, self-esteemsubjects and leadership were also essential.Culturally speaking families have grown in a vicious circle of poverty and for them life is still thesame with or without opportunities, because for their way of thinking, there is no difference inhaving or not opportunities to have a better life. There exists a high level of conformism towardpoverty derived from low self-esteem that years of limitation have marked. These families livewith a lot of conformism, because probably to the majority of them maybe during their childhoodhad to face malnutrition problems and now being adults it is difficult for them to learn andunderstand what they need to change in this poverty circle.When it was the time to train on subjects like cleaning and hygiene; it was done with due care inorder not to hurt them, mainly with women in the Chortí area who belong to families with limitedresources, because they live in poverty situation and extreme poverty. The workshops were givenwith the correct context tools, lifestyle and available resources in the communities. 12 SCAMPIS Learning NotesWhen we were teaching them how to wash their hands properly and also how to maintain dailypersonal hygiene conditions, at their homes and with their food they felt it was a little hard toachieve in the beginning. During the process there were observed meaningful changes that theybegan to achieve for example: cleaning their homes everyday, recognizing that they need betterareas to prepare their food, introducing bags, cardboard boxes or any other thing to put the trash,not only in their homes but also in their community stores; it was also showed to them that it isimportant to recognize that hygiene is part of the health of all the members in the family and inthe community, among others. Page
  • To educate women through trainings while they were harvesting their food became veryimportant to them, because while they were waiting for the harvest to be ready to learn how toprepare new recipes with the food, it was also taught to them subjects like the importance ofhorticulture production and fruit in order to improve family feeding.These were the subjects given during the training process:  Feeding and Nutritional Security  Sexual and Reproductive Health  Hygiene and Cleaning  Gender and Self-Esteem  Nutritional Food Content  Leadership  Family Diet Diversification  Reproductive Risk  Nutritious Meals  Responsible Fatherhood and  Feeding for 2 year-old children Motherhood  Food Conservation Methods  Family Planning Methods  Safe Water  Brest-Feeding Importance  Other subjects that they required Now we are able to tell you the experience with the Feeding and Nutritional Security and Sexual and Reproduction Health Subjects!In the Feeding and Nutritional Security Subject families are now aware of the lack of hygiene thatthey personally had before the project, they know of better methods to prepare their food.Knowing that each vegetable, fruit and herb has a very important nutritional content, which isessential for the good health of the family. During the approach of the subjects on Feeding and 13 SCAMPIS Learning NotesNutritional Security it was noticed that women did not know the nutritional content of vegetables.After SCAMPIS, female beneficiaries of the project now talk about the importance of theconsumption of their own herbs, fruit and vegetables and it is even more important that now theyhave all of them near home and together with the micro irrigation system which allows them toproduce during the scarcity water season.The preparation of diverse recipes was easy because we used everything that they had in theircommunity, later it was quantified the production costs for each recipe and they realized how Pagelittle money they invested and how healthier they were eating.
  • Now women tell how their children ask them to cook vegetables, herbs and fruit that they did noteat before, because they used to cook them only with water and salt; they now have color andflavor and that is very interesting for all the family at the moment of food consumption. During theprocess we realized of the importance of the consumption of safe water. There were donebacteriological studies of water and we realized that they did not have safe water for humanconsumption.FUNCAFE by considering the need of complementing the subject of Feeding and NutritionalSecurity –SAN-, introduced the project of water purification filters for the same families that wereworking with horticulture production through micro irrigation system. The families were trainedon the installation of the filters and their use and hygiene, in order to reduce stomach problemsmainly diarrhea in children and adults. It was identified that when a woman was sick she did notparticipate and did not feel the desire to work. For the process of the project it was important theactive participation of everybody involved, for this reason it was taught to the women to visit thehealth assistance centers closest to them to have their reproductive control.The filter was a novelty especially for women because they did not need to buy chlorine to purifythe water, they were also environmentally improving because they stopped using wood to boil thewater and it is easier for them to fill the filters at night and the next day they have safe water todrink for all the family without the need of using more time being able to use it for other chores inthe house. 14 SCAMPIS Learning NotesNow we can listen to many women stating: “my children no longer drink water from the faucet,they are used to go to school and drink water from the filter” now they do not like any other typeof water, there are families who have taken the filter as one more member for them because theyeven dress it up (they use a cover and it looks like a dress, they protect it from the animals and thekitchen smoke with a blanket).Sexual and Reproductive Health Subjects PageCulturally talking it is not really well seen that women talk about this subject within the family andit is even worse to have a conversation like this with the husband. For men in the community the
  • woman must have as many children as God allows her to, women say that men state that awoman who does not have many children is not a good wife. When they were educated theybegan to know this reality more and more, it was implemented the education on sexual andreproductive health. Besides it is recognized that sexual and reproductive health has a highimportance level because it contributes to the reduction of maternal and neonatal death.Family Planning (PF) Family planning in Guatemala During the years from 1950 to 2000 Guatemala presented a demographical growth in a 385% above all the regions in the world during the same period. Yearly, there are added about 354,000 new children to the Guatemalan population. In the rural area women are having an average of 1.5 more children that the ones they really want. ENSMI 2008. Several studies reveal that exists a relationship between the fertility rate and poverty, and for Guatemala this relationship is very well marked, where 60% of a wealthier population plan their family with a fertility rate of 1.9 compared to the rural poor population, where the fertility rate is 7.6. As consequence, family planning must be considered a priority in the creation of development plans. These actions were integrated as fundamental part by FUNCAFE.In order to introduce the subject on family planning, mainly about the methods, it was needed tomake a clarification that there were only to be shown the ones that there exist and how they areused as well as the importance of using them, because it was very important to talk about thesubject and the connection that they have with feeding and nutritional security. 15 SCAMPIS Learning NotesThe capacity-building began with concrete examples: the differences between five-member-family compared to a ten-member-family: how they are fed, dressed, how they buy their shoesand how their health is, comparing the costs and consequences. The community members weresensitive on the importance of the use of methods and they agreed that they contribute and helpthe families. Another subject which is considered a taboo is fatherhood and motherhoodresponsibility because for the parents it is very difficult to approach this subject with theirchildren, derived from the lack of training and education that they have about it. At the moment Pageof approaching the subject on fatherhood and motherhood responsibility with the parents it wasinteresting to them because it allows them to educate their children in an easier way.
  • This subject gave women a lot of ideas and new knowledge, mainly because mothers are the mainadvisors for their daughters; although these pieces of advice are limited to the experiences thatthe mothers have lived and that unfortunately have not found the best solutions. Now mothershave a wider knowledge in order to advise their daughters and by this way they would be the oneswho have the opportunity to make positive changes in this ignorance circle on the sexual andreproductive health subject which exists due to the same lack of education on thesetranscendental life subjects as well as the development of the families and communities.Women with better knowledge on the feeding and nutritional subject and sexual and reproductivehealth subject are now able to discuss and to take certain decisions and they also have morecriterion on deciding on some issues and doubts that were inside their minds but that was difficultfor them to express and practice them.How is the youth involved and strengthen in this experience?Development of competition for LifeWhen we talk about competitions it is referred to the group of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, andvalues that allow people to know how to be, how to do something and how to live within a societywhich is more and more complex, demanding and competitive every single day. It is important,needed and strategic to invest in the development of competitions through formal and informaleducation. This is the reason why FUNCAFE works on kindergarten, elementary and middleeducation levels teaching them about the basic competitions for life, which respond to thedemands of the labor market. 16 SCAMPIS Learning NotesYouth has a great potential on attitude and behavior which can be reached in a short and middleterm and for that reason it was decided to work at schools. In our level, schools have been veryinterested in working on several training subjects, mainly the ones related to agriculture activitieswhich are a fundamental part of the family roots in the rural area. FUNCAFE through SCAMPIS notonly introduced agriculture subjects but also included improvement by showing new technologicalpractices which made better the rural production system. Page
  • It is difficult for schools to work by themselves on agricultural subjects. In spite of being in the middle of the rural area, education is mainly focused on the improvement of pedagogical attitude, and teachers do not have the needed knowledge on agricultural subjects. These difficulties become a problem because knowledge on the best agricultural practices and technologies in order to improve the production on rural area are on hold; as consequence it is increased the feeding and nutritional insecurity within the communities. By knowing these types of weaknesses and that young people who are attending school are the future of the communities, besides that they represent the opportunity of change in the development process, it was decided to work with them through school gardening. FUNCAFE leaves a legacy in the families of the intervened communities with SCAMPIS, because the new generations are going to create their own families with better responsibility and knowledge. All of the actions performed by FUNCAFE in the communities were backed up by the local and national authorities and for this reason it is considered that the actions were performed together with the vision of an integral development. FUNCAFE through SCAMPIS Project left a high strengthening level in women and youngsters on fundamental life subjects for the rural area, because it was provoked inside the communities a positive change on the behavior of the participant families. CHARD ROLLSINGREDIENTS30 leaves of chard; 4 eggs; 1 cup boiling water; 1 pinch salt ; 1 cup oilPREPARATION: Wash leaves one by one and put 20 minutes in salted 17 SCAMPIS Learning Noteswater, drain the leaves. In a cup of boiling water blanch the chardleaves. Beat eggs until stiff. Heat a pan with oil. Make bunches ofSwiss chard leaves and dip the 4-with beaten egg. Put the pan fried inheated oil. Serve with tomato sauce.Preparation time 40 minutes. CARROT DRINK INGREDIENTS 2 large carrots; ½ cup sugar; 2 liters of water ; 3 oranges Page (juice) PREPARATION: Wash and grate the carrots, then melt it with 1 liter of water. Mix carrot juice with the remaining water and orange juice. Add sugar. Serve. Preparation time 20 minutes
  • 1. Strategy adaptation of the project: introducing micro-irrigation systems in school gardens in GuatemalaSantiago Girón, Project Coordinator, Funcafé, Guatemala. Mail: ABSTRACT In Guatemala 1 of each 2 children suffer from chronicle malnutrition, which locates the country as the 1 fourth in a global level with presence of chronicle malnutrition in children under 5 years. The Fundación de 1 la Caficultura para el Desarrollo Rural (Coffee Foundation for Rural Development) –FUNCAFÉ- , social branch of the national coffee producers, aware of the need of making actions in the fight against chronicle malnutrition in Guatemala, reorients the intervention strategies to integral actions in order to beat the negative effects of chronicle malnutrition in the country. The project Using the Micro Irrigation Systems – SCAMPIS- in Guatemala initially proposed the possibility to introduce the micro irrigation technology of low cost to the small producers living in poor and extremely poor situation. Using the help of this technology; increasing the production levels of food for self-consumption, as well as the selling of surplus. FUNCAFÉ decided to integrate SCAMPIS Project within the Food and Nutritional Security Area in order to improve the production systems of micro producers of the rural area and for this reason used the help of three intervention models; working together with the private sector, with a governmental program, a city hall, and an association of exporting horticultural producers. Over 10,000 families know and use the micro irrigation technology to produce food for self consumption 18 SCAMPIS Learning Notes and the sale of surplus, improving with this method their productivity levels. From these families at least the 70% were trained in sexual and reproductive health subjects, food and nutritional security and safe water for human consumption. As continuous elements it was introduced the micro irrigation technology in 124 schools allowing that over 11,000 students were able to know the technology, get related with it and use it as a learning process at school. Funcafé has the certainty that leaves a wider opening and acceptance to the micro irrigation technology in Guatemala, water purification systems, for the sexual and reproductive health subjects and food and nutritional security, in the intervened places through SCAMPIS Project, at individual and family level and at organizational and community level. Page
  • FUNCAFE- social branch of the Guatemalan coffee producers The Project SCAMPIS introduce low Funcafé as social support for the coffee producers sector is based cost micro irrigation technology to in three fundamental and strategically axis; health, education small farmers living in poor and and food and nutritional security. In the food and nutritional extremely poor situation. Using this security issue (SAN) FUNCAFE’ intervention logic is based on technology the levels of food four pillars agreed in the Food Global Summit Conference 1996: production for self-consumption Availability, Access, Consumption and Biological Use, pillars that were adopted in the National Policy on Food and Nutritional increase, the families can also sell Security in Guatemala as a commitment of the Guatemalan the surplus at the market. The Government toward the feeding right that every human has. project started also developing a According to the National Policy on Food and Nutritional local market chain for the irrigation 1 Security , Funcafé begins efforts to improve the conditions of technology and to make it more availability, access, consumption of biological use of the food for accessible to the community the less favor families of the rural area of Guatemala. members. In 2010 UNICEF released alarming information in Guatemala indicating that 4 of 10 children in Guatemala suffered chronicle Funcafé aware of the need of malnutrition and the levels were higher for indigenous children making actions to fight against living in rural areas with 8 of 10 affected. In 2011 Guatemala was chronicle malnutrition in declared as the fourth country in a global level and first in Latin Guatemala, changed the America with chronicle malnutrition presence. UNICEF in its global enfant report for 2012 indicated that the situation is intervention strategies to integral getting worse by having 1 of each 2 children suffering chronicle actions in order to beat the malnutrition in Guatemala. negative effects of chronicle malnutrition in the country.The East side of Guatemala has been identified as Scampis main intervention area, this area is 19 SCAMPIS Learning Noteshevily affected areas by chronicle malnutrition, also affected for long periods with high and veryhigh risk of drought and vulnerability to climate change, decrease of the quantity and quality ofthe water and the deregulation of the cycle of water resources, lack of protection and vanishing ofwater sources as well as the high vulnerability of the territorial division.The main idea was to educate on the creation of family gardens for the horticultural productionin their backyards, using the micro irrigation system in order to reduce the amount of water usedduring the production process. This horticultural production is intended to be used for self Pageconsumption and the sale of surplus. The designated area for each family was 20 m2.
  • There were defined 12 towns from the east side of Guatemala located at Chiquimula, Jalapa,Jutiapa, and Zacapa, 1 town in Alta Verapaz and 1 town from El Quiché.For the towns located in the east side were stated alliances in order to intervene 7.000 familieswith the national program FIDA-East and Asociación Nacional del Café (Guatemalan NationalCoffee Association) –ANACAFE- 1 these partners would support with technicians and componentsfor the family gardens and SCAMPIS Project with the introduction of the micro irrigationtechnology. In Cobán, Alta Verapaz alliances were made with the City Hall of Cobán to support1.500 families and in San Miguel Uspantán, El Quiché with Asociación de Agricultores “ElSembrador” 1.500 families.Faced Challenges in the Beginning of the InterventionOne of the biggest faced challenges in Guatemala in the beginning of the intervention was the lackof availability of units for the micro irrigation dimensions of 20 m2. In Guatemala there areirrigation systems for industrial methods, established for surplus producers with productive unitsof 7.000 m2 or larger. In 2010 there were no small irrigation units. The smallest unit was 600 m2and the model was from Israel, although this one had a high cost for the target population of theProject.There was performed an offer study for micro irrigation in Guatemala and was also launched aproposal to the national suppliers for the production of units of 20 m2, although it wasunsuccessful due to the fact that any company was interested in the production of those models.The small producers in Guatemala before 2010 did not have access to this technology, for thatreason was totally unknown its use in a small scale. 20 SCAMPIS Learning NotesIt was finally reached a supplier company that was interested in the creation of an irrigation modelof 1000 m2, there were made adaptations of the irrigation models available in Guatemala and wasalso implemented an assembly of national products and some imported materials, mainly hoseand the filtration system.Another great challenge especially in dry corridor zone was the lack of culture for vegetableproduction; there was a high level of ignorance about the production of horticultural types. Thefamily diet and production systems were mainly based on corn and beans. There were Page1 ANACAFÉ, for further information
  • inappropriate practices that affected the efficiency of the vegetable production, due to the lack ofknowledge on the agricultural management of these types.The designated families for the project were grouped in teams of 5 and that was how theimplementation began for the production of family gardens in 100 square meters worked by 5families.Cultural aspects as well as behavior patterns directed to individualism marked a large gap betweenthe expected objectives of the project and the actual execution in the field, in other words easternfamilies were not initially willing to join the groups of 5. Strategy ImplementationThere were performed a few field tours to the communities to be intervene, establishing thepossibility of the project and also socializing with the targets that were initially pursued. It wasachieved the goal to make some community leaders become interested, although it was littlecompare to the goals that were expected to reach in the first year.It was strategically decided to implement demonstrative plots in 100 communities, one plot of 100m2 worked by 5 families for the implementation of family gardens, using the micro irrigationtechnology of low pressure. The community leaders were trained by agriculture technicians andgroup representatives about vegetable production, also on the installation, use and correctmaintenance of the micro irrigation system, and there was also given orientation to these groupsfor a productive cycle (6 months) since the preparation of the land until the use of the harvest.During this demonstrative period, there were invited other producers to visit the demonstrativeplots as interchange through the methodology farmer to farmer. 21 SCAMPIS Learning NotesThe demonstrative phase allowed to be known the functioning of the irrigation technology, itsadvantages and more efficient use. Also the demonstrative phase allowed to be known theagricultural practices of horticultural growing as well as the using methods of the same. Thehorticultural using practices were given with the support of a team of health and nutritioneducators.There was made a diagnosed of the intervene community needs through domicile visits made by Pagethe educators and it was determined the imminent necessity to educate in sexual health and
  • reproductive subjects, hygiene practices, healthy feeding, methods for food preparation, amongother subjects directed to home improvement.It was also determined that the main source of water for human consumption en thosecommunities was through non purified water through pipes, about 20% did not have distributionsystems; for that reason they used superficial sources of water as well as underground and theconsumption was done without purification.Funcafé as an alternative to supply the basic needs of SCAMPIS users, it invites to its partners tointervene on health and education issues and projects focused on safe water supplying for humanconsumption. A partner of Funcafé becomes interested and he joins to the effort of SCAMPISProject in order to improve the living conditions of the families of the intervened communitiesmainly in the east side of Guatemala.With this support it is possible to invest in practices in order to improve education in 56 schoolsbeing able to train students and teachers improving by this mean the education quality throughthe active rural school methodology, applied for multi-grade schools and also through educationcampaigns were given school materials and school libraries.There were introduced education subjects focused in the improvement of the knowledge onsexual health and reproductive of the community members and also subjects related to food andnutritional security with strong emphasis in the hygiene subject and safe water. The families weresupported with health campaigns and water purification filters.With this integral support SCAMPIS Project in Guatemala was able to go beyond the introductionof micro irrigation technology, there were also implemented good self consumption practices and 22 SCAMPIS Learning Notesbiological food use, good sexual health and reproductive practices and there were also achievedthe improvement on water consumption methods.Over 10,000 families were introduced and used the technology to produce food for selfconsumption as well as surplus sale, improving in this way their productivity levels. From thesefamilies at least 70% were trained in sexual health and reproductive subjects, food and nutritionalsafety and safe water for human consumption. Page
  • Introduction of Technology through School GardensFuncafé, implements actions in order to improve the education quality with the active rural schoolmethodology, adapted to the context of rural school of Guatemala. It is based in the principle oflearning by doing. There was developed a practical guide on food and nutritional security toimplement actions within the school. A concrete action was the implementation of school gardenswith a productive and business approach.In the east side of Guatemala, through SCAMPIS Project Funcafé is able to identify 124 schools inthe intervention communities. In these 124 schools is designated the intervention of SCAMPISProject for the implementation of school gardens with a food and nutritional security approach.Different to the actions that Funcafé developed before 2010 in schools, for the implementation ofgardens, there were introduced the principles of bio-intensive agriculture “to produce more in lessspace” and the micro irrigation technology for the horticultural production during the time ofwater shortage. It was performed a training process and the education of students and teacherson the design and implementation of school gardens, preparation of natural fertilizers andpesticides, cultivation methods and cultural practices for the horticultural production. It was giveneducation on the identification and production of native plants and it was able to introduce themto the school gardens.Students and teachers were also trained on sexual and reproductive health subjects, hygiene andcleaning, safe water for human consumption and diet improvement through the horticulturalconsumption and native plants. The 124 schools received the needed tools in order to implementthe school gardens as well as filters to purify water; these components were also accompanied by 23 SCAMPIS Learning Notesa training process and education on the proper use and maintenance for the same.It was also considered the implementation of the strategy of SCAMPIS Project in a school levelmainly because it is constituted in one continuing element of the good practices developedthrough the project. In a family level it was used the participation of people over 40 years whohave never seen a micro irrigation system and who had never had the chance to use it. For thisreason it was decided to implement the school level technology. Page
  • Students and teachers were the main actors in their own learning. All of the practices wereparticipative. Students and teachers were involved in the design and implementation of thegarden, the installation of the micro irrigation system and the filters for the purification of water.The arrival to the school allowed advancing with the introduction of the technologies and alsoallowed to give a huge step in the introduction process for better practices in the food production.The younger students began exploring and experimenting new learning techniques as well asadvanced technologies to improve their productivity levels. For these reasons it is considered tohave taken a right step in the introduction of the technology and good practices in food andnutritional security in the communities. Initial Challenges in School GardensThere was performed a disclosure process of the objectives that Funcafé has set out for theintroduction of school gardens in the east side of Guatemala. The technical team introduced theproject to the directors and teachers of the schools. The teachers submitted the project forconsideration to the parents and general alumni and it was reached the first approval.In the implementation of the practices, especially for those that required a bigger effort, like thepreparation of the land, the parents demonstrated some sort of resistance due to the fact thatthey considered that the tasks were too hard for the students. This first obstacle was resolved byinvolving the parents in the process of the preparation of the land, which had a greater acceptanceand allowed better advances.Some schools did not have a land of their own to develop the practices for the school garden. Thisproblem was resolved because some of the parents gave as loan some areas to create the practice 24 SCAMPIS Learning Notesgardens.Generally the schools have different study schedules from Monday to Friday, although theyremain closed during the weekends. The schedule is usually from 4 to 5 hours and it is regularlyduring the mornings. The students organized their own school meetings, there were createdsupport commissions and there were also assigned roles and specific tasks in order to maintain thetasks and cultural labor of school gardens including during the weekends. Page
  • School Gardens as Demonstrative PlotsSchool gardens became demonstrative plots and they brought the interest of the communitymembers. Generally in the schools from the rural area they have open fields for recreation and insome cases some areas without any specific use. These areas were identified for theimplementation of the school garden. In some schools the areas without use had been polluted bysolid remains.Through the introduction of school gardens was able the recovering of these areas and turned intoproductive sites. The students were trained in the handling of solid remains and the separation oforganic remains, inorganic, papers and toxics. Through environmental workshops students weretaught about the reduction, recycling and reused of remains generated at school.The parents were able to participate in the different implementation practices of the gardens. Theparticipation of the parents had multiplying and retorting effects, because they also becameinterested in the implementation of gardens in family and community level.Schools were used to give some workshops on food and nutritional security and sexual andreproductive health. The mothers of students were incorporated to SCAMPIS Project, whichallowed that the students were part of a learning process and improvement not only at school butalso at home.Methodological Development of the Implementation of Gardens and Introduction of the MicroIrrigation Technology at SchoolsIn order to begin with the implementation of school gardens it was given an education process 25 SCAMPIS Learning Notes and training to the teachers and students. It was assigned an agricultural technician for the development of workshops to train about the design and implementation of school gardens. The workshops were theoretical and practical, and the students were educated on distance and cultivation methods, according to the condition of the land that each school had. PageTraining for teachers and students about design andimplementation of a school garden.
  • The schools were granted with 7 horticultural types adapted to the soil conditions and weather ofthe place. The students and teachers were guided about the preparation of the land as well asthe horticultural cultivation explaining step by step on the distance besides direct and indirectcultivation method.There were performed practices in order to educate students on the preparation of substratumfor seedbed, elaboration of seedbeds and preparation of natural products to fertilize, plaguecontrol and disease control.Students and teachers were technically helpedsince the beginning of the preparation of the landuntil the harvest season. There was given a guide tothe school about the preparation of the vegetablegarden so that at the moment that they need tothey could make any practice without the technicalhelp, and just by using the reference material toconsult. This guide has the best practices for theelaboration of horticultural gardens and makes easier Boys and Girls learning how to sow in a seedbed.the implementation of these practices through theuse of images.In the production process of the school garden, teachers and students were trained on food andnutritional security subjects emphasizing the good practices of hygiene and cleaning, dietimprovement, method of best horticultural use, the consumption of safe water and purificationmethods for water, among other subjects that were focused on the four pillars of food and 26 SCAMPIS Learning Notesnutritional security: availability, access, consumption and biological use.Horticultural harvests from school garden were used to make practices on preparation ofnutritional food. Students and teachers learned how to take advantage in a more efficient way ofthe harvests of the school garden. It was prepared a recipe book of food produced on horticulturalgardens and this was taken as support material so the recipes could be included in the student’slunch boxes. Page
  • In the schools there were also introduced sexual and reproductive health subjects. These subjects were mainly approached for teenagers from 12 and older, during this age they are studying the six level of elementary school. There was a little resistance level for the approaching of these subjects; in the Guatemalan communities there is a high level of ignorance and also an infinitive list of taboos related to sexual and reproductive subjects. It was able to reduce the resistance to the subject informing to the teachers and parents in general on the importance of the approaching of these educational subjects in teenagers. Thanks to the level or power of the educators of health and nutrition with their communities it was possible to Students participating a the Food and Nutritional Safety reach the 124 schools of the project and there were Workshop given by Funcafé Technicians given these subjects not only for students but also for teachers. The main subjects related to sexual and reproductive health were: family planning, planning methods, productive risks in women, responsible parenthood and motherhood and sexual transfer diseases. It was interesting to know the level of interest that the students demonstrated on the subject. Final Comments Teenagers between 12 years and older, have several 27 SCAMPIS Learning Notes doubts related to sexuality and reproduction. Sadly in the Guatemalan communities it continuous to be a hidden subject that the parents hardly talk about in a responsible way with their children. For that reason at the momentSome students using a micro irrigation system in a of the approach at school, students took the time to ask horticultural garden questions and expressed their multiple doubts on the subject. As Funcafé it is expected that in a middle and long term this generation be more responsible with its sexuality and that the acquired knowledge be transferred to new generations. Page
  • The introduction of micro irrigation technology was strategically, students and teachersdemonstrated a greater interest in the use of technology. Each school was given with an irrigationsystem of 100 square meters. With this technology they were able to produce three cycles ofhorticultural harvest and in some schools where the teacher lived in the community and thestudents actively participated, they were able to produce a fourth harvest cycle.There exists a high interest at Ministerio de Educación and other programs for food and nutritionalsecurity in Guatemala for the development of school gardens in the country and they look forFuncafé as leader process.Parents came to the school with the desire to know a little more of technology, there they wereable to observe its functioning and use. Through the introduction of technology in schools, therewas an increase on the demand of the families for more micro irrigation systems and they werealso more interested in the use of this kind of technology for the production of horticulturalgardens, and also to be able to improve their production system. Students are more curious andthey discover the benefits of the use of technology easily, they execute an influential level in theirparents and achieve that they improve their habitualpractices in the field.It is expected that over 11.000 students that met themicro irrigation system technology may be able in thefuture to improve their productive systems and also beable to reduce the resistance to the use of this technologyas well as the future technologies, in order to improve their Students showing the harvest of the horticultural gardenfood production systems. That these students be aware that 28 SCAMPIS Learning Notesthere exist new methods that help them produce more units and that they must be accompaniedwith the updating process in order to face the challenges of the future, in the endless search offood.Funcafé continuing with its constitutional mandate and focusing its efforts to achieve its vision-topromote human development in the rural area- expects to have contributed in the improvementof life quality of the families participating in SCAMPIS Project and also expects that thisimprovement process, for the new generations that were able to participate in the integral Page
  • implementation of the actions of SCAMPIS, use the learned actions and continue the learningcurve in order to improve their own living conditions.Funcafé has the certainty that is leaving a wider opening and acceptability of the micro irrigationtechnology, water purification system, subjects like food and nutritional security and sexual andreproductive health, in the intervene places through SCAMPIS, in an individual level, family level,organizational level and community level. 29 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Page
  • 2. Scaling up integrated strategies for micro-irrigation through coffee producersMynor Maldonado, Executive Director, Funcafé, Guatemala. Mail: Abstract Scampis Guatemala Project began as a part of a Feeding and Nutritional Security Area and was developed in three intervention modalities: Alliance with a City Hall; Alliance with an Association of exporting horticultural producers; direct attention to the user families in the community. Scampis project in Guatemala focused on the feeding and nutritional security where irrigation technology represented an innovative strategy that can contribute the food security improvement. The intervention of the project was designed in an integrated way with actions that allowed adding and complementing technical, human and financial resources; looking for an individual and collective behavior change in the intervention communities through these resources. As consequence Funcafé arranged additional resources in order to integrate the actions and strategies from which were considered five approaching strategies: integration of technical components; methodological approach; working with women; differentiated attention and formal education on feeding and nutritional security. The integration of actions as well as the implementation of irrigation system technology was institutionally adopted within the Feeding and Nutritional Security of Funcafé in a way that the new projects for the next five years consider the good practices and lessons learned through Scampis FIDA Project. 30 SCAMPIS Learning Notes For the sustainability of future actions it is hoped to be able to work with Small Producing Organizations, Cooperatives and Coffee Associations and it is also defined a goal of 5000 individual systems of 50m² a total of 25Ha under micro-irrigation production intended for the self-consumption and 1.000Has with greenhouse system through irrigation with a commercial production focus. These families belong to organizations of producers who are linked to an agricultural chain (coffee and horticultural production). The learned lessons through Scampis Project were systematized and the experiences are being incorporated in the new actions as a continuous improvement process in the rural developing management. Page
  • The Fundación para la Caficultura para el Desarrollo Rural (Coffee Foundation for RuralDevelopment)-FUNCAFE-2 as social branch of Guatemalan coffee producers, works in threestrategically areas: Education, Health and Feeding and Nutritional Security.Scampis Guatemalan Project was designed under the Feeding and Nutritional Security Area; it wasalso developed in the intervention modalities: 1. Alliance with a City Hall: Cobán, Alta Verapaz3 City Hall made the selection of communities and families, and gave technical advising as well as seeds for the production of vegetables which were sold in the local market. 2. Alliance with an Association of exporting horticultural producers-AGRISEM-4: in this case AGRISEM, made the selection of families, the technical assistance and granting of seeds, which most of the producers used to cultivate small vegetables for exportation. 3. Direct attention to the user families: in this third modality the technical personnel from Funcafé did all the execution process with an integrated attention; this integrated attention considered organization actions as well as community participation, preventive health, with emphasis in sexual and reproductive health; maternal-enfant health; nutritional education for mothers, children and teachers; vegetable garden production training under bio-intensive agriculture and also the implementation of micro irrigation system as the technical innovation of the project. During the execution was present the personnel who gave technical assistance on each of the approached subjects. It was integrated an educators team with higher education in 31 SCAMPIS Learning Notes order to have additional help and monitoring within the communities that received the advising from the expertise on vegetable gardens, nutrition, adult education and preventive health.2 FUNCAFE, was established by coffee producers in 1994.3 Cobán, Alta Verapaz is a place North Guatemala City, with an Indigenous-Mayan population from Queqchí Pageethnic group.4 AGRISEM is an Agricultural Association located at Uspantán, El Quiché, and Indigenous-Mayan populationfrom Quiché ethnic group.
  • It was also monitored the advance of the project each trimester and the coverage was extendedwith the participation of local agents like city halls, non-governmental organizations and producercooperatives.The integration of actions as well as the implementation of irrigation technology, wasinstitutionally adopted within Feeding and Nutritional Safety from Funcafé, in a way that thoseprojects for the next five years consider the good practices and learned lessons from Scampis FIDAproject. Integrated StrategiesScampis Project in Guatemala focused onfeeding and nutritional security, whereirrigation technology represented an innovativemethod to contribute in one of the feedingsecurity pillars, as for food production,especially for self consumption.In order to have a greater impact in theintervention of the project it was designed anintegrated way with actions that allowed addingand complementing technical, human and Demonstrative workshop in school V-gardensfinancial resources; looking for an individual andcollective behavior change in the intervention communities through these resources. Asconsequence Funcafé arranged additional resources to integrate the actions and strategies from 32 SCAMPIS Learning Noteswhich were considered five approaching strategies: differentiated attention and formal educationon feeding and nutritional safety. 1. Technical Components: preventive health; feeding and nutritional security; education. Each technical component was designed and assisted by the professional responsible within the Foundation. It is important to clear up that the main financial support from Scampis was designated to the implementation of irrigation technology by irrigation. Page 2. Methodological Approach: learning by making. The implementation process in the field was under the philosophy of learning by making, this was applied by children, teachers
  • and community members. Schools were constituted in demonstrative centers and the bonding of children learning at school through the practical classes with everything that their parents were doing at home, for the production of food.3. Working with women: organization and training in situ. Most of the community groups were integrated by women (60%). The participation of women turned out to be strategically due that the irrigation systems were for small areas (from 50 to 100 square meters) and also because of the feeding care of the children and mostly, for the rest of the family is in the hands of the mothers.4. Differentiated Attention: individual, family, community and organizational. Users received differentiated attention and advising, according to age, region conditions, idiosyncrasy, especially for the sexual health and reproductive subject. As family level it was emphasized in home hygiene, harmlessness in food, consumption of safe water and it was given to several member of the family. In the community it was given according to their needs and interests and it was also respected their community values. As organizational level it was heard and known their interests, it was negotiated the support for the greater use of the financing and it was concreted the support by responding to the objectives of the project and benefits of the organization.5. Formal Education in Nutritional Security: training to school teachers, organization and children training, educational material at classrooms as part of the 33 SCAMPIS Learning Notes education program from rural elementary level. It was incorporated technology at schools, considering that schools are an excellent demonstrative and learning mean. Technology was also accompanied with training to teachers as well as technical advising in the production of school horticultural gardens, which allowed in a practical way to teach children the feeding and nutritional security principals. There were designed reference and advising books for the application of the principals at school, by the families and in the community. Page
  • 6. Generation of Knowledge: Scampis Project strengthened the capacity to systematize the good practice actions and their learned lessons, as a way to generate knowledge as well as organizational learning. Derived from this strengthening it was defined the management unit structure of projects that consider the design, monitoring and evaluation of the projects within Funcafé.Scaling up with coffee producers in GuatemalaAsociación Nacional del Café (Guatemalan National Coffee Association) –ANACAFE-, within a visionof rural development defined a new strategically plan 2013-2017 of the Productivity andDevelopment agenda. This agenda considers production elements and competitiveness of coffeechain and social development subject which by orders of farmers must be performed by Funcafé.So the new interventions during this period of work will be closely coordinated between thetechnical-economic and social matter.As consequence of the above, the first project to replicate the learned lessons and practices ofScampis Guatemala, will be supported by the United States Government (USG) aimed to reducepoverty, hunger and malnutrition.The project will be performed through a consortium between ANACAFE, ConfederaciónGuatemalteca de Federaciones de Cooperativas (CONFECOOP),5 FUNDASISTEMAS6 and FUNCAFE,where Funcafé is the responsible for implementing the food security component. That is why thisproject called Rural Value Chain –RVC- is centered around a design that addresses several aspectsconcerning to the development, incorporating the elements listed below. 34 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Make a juxtaposition of economic growth with improvements in nutrition, not as coincidence but looking at them as independent goals; Requires implementing a participatory and strong approach, from bottom-up, to achieve behavior changes that affect nutrition and economic status; Give attribution to the private sector to generate equitable economic growth in the agricultural area. Page5 High organization of small producers organized in cooperatives.6 Foundation with experience in business development.
  • The expected results include increase incomes of producers through innovations in productiontechniques and market access, along with improvements in nutrition levels through changes inbehavior based on educational approaches. Here are some highlight elements of the proposal. The Consortium: ANACAFE will be the organization that leads a Consortium of producers and entities working in favor of development. This provides greatest ownership of the project and builds capacities in local organizations. Together with its partner CONFECOOP, ANACAFE becomes the leader of a value chain that includes more than 15,000 producers in the objective Departments. They have been major players in the process by which Guatemala managed to enter, and even stood out prominently, in the specialized international markets of coffee crops and vegetables. The Consortium will play several roles within RVCP, including where they become beneficiaries, as designers and executors of the project, contributors in the role of a counterparty organization and also they become the vehicle to achieve a sustainable development that extends beyond the life of the project (LOP). The fact to have incorporated small producing organizations of the rural area since the beginning is a way to strengthen their participation in defining the objectives of the program, as well as strengthening its commitment to share the costs and responsibilities of the project. Technical Support and Business Development: The Consortium partners are the main organizations to provide technical services to our target groups of producers and entrepreneurs. The models we are going to use to provide the technical support and business development incorporate a number of processes that will bring as result that the 35 SCAMPIS Learning Notes beneficiaries will “graduate” from the program, leaving behind the benefit of a subsidized service. By graduating a number of beneficiaries, the provided assistance will have the chance to incorporate new producers and entrepreneurs to strengthen programs and, thus, will expand the process made on issues of productivity, quality, profitability, and so on. Communications: The design we use for RCVP manages to incorporate a combination of Page strategies previously tested, with innovative practices of Guatemalan institutions.
  • Technology Expansion (SMR)Working with organizations of small producers, Cooperatives and Associations of coffee under thisnew project will allow the implementation of the irrigation technology on a level of individualsystems of 50m2, with a total of 25Ha under micro-irrigation; this production will be destined forconsumption and 1.000Has with irrigation under greenhouse systems, for commercial productionpurposes. It aims to cover at least 5.000 new families in the western rural area. These familiesbelong to organizations of producers that are linked to an agricultural-food chain (coffee andvegetables). Working with women Chronic malnutrition in children under five years of age has a direct correlation, - although this is not due to – the educational level of the mother. Recent information in Guatemala indicate that chronic malnutrition rates of children with mothers who have an education equivalent to high school education is 15.8%; the rate of those mothers with elementaryschool level is 43.3%; and the rate of those mothers who did not attend school is 62.9%.The poverty and chronic malnutrition issue will be addressed as a complement to thegovernmental activities that promote habit changes and nutritional practices of this group. It isgoing to be emphasized in the work with mothers because they constitute a key factor in the fieldof production to self consumption, selection and preparation of food for the family.Main future actions 36 SCAMPIS Learning NotesThe main actions under the new proposal include:  School and family gardens with micro dripping irrigation.  Training on health and nutrition issues for elementary school teachers.  Training in health and nutrition.  De-worming Page  Alternative methods for the handling and processing of safe water.  Firewood saving stoves for smoke-free family spaces.
  • Monitoring & EvaluationA lesson learned in Scampis project is the correct definition of indicators, outputs, outcomes andimpact. This involves the removal of a baseline that allows defining the starting point and theconditions of people, families and communities before the project intervention and objectivelymeasuring the contribution of the project to improve the lives of families. As well as theevaluation of the effectiveness cost of implemented practices. ConclusionsThe execution of Scampis Project Guatemala, allowed:  Spaces for users “rural community club” theses spaces made easier the sharing of knowledge, experiences and collective learning.  Opening of rural population to unknown technology.  Implementation of 27 hectares of agricultural production under the micro irrigation system, low pressure systems to accessible prices for the rural population.  To learn and optimize the water resource for the production of food.  To generate a positive change in behavior before the production of agricultural food in areas where did not exist horticultural production culture.  To diversify the diet and increase the availability of food in the user families.  To learn how to treat the water human consumption in a safe way. 37 SCAMPIS Learning Notes  Irrigation technology represented a good practice, which was instituted by Funcafé in its Feeding Security Projects for the coffee growing area in different regions of the country.  The learned Lessons through Scampis Project were systematized and the experiences are being incorporated in the new actions as a continuous improvement process. Page
  • 3. “The first experience lasts forever”: Bijaya Kumar experience as Scampis promoterBijaya Kumar Rout, Scampis Business Associate, IDEI , Orissa, India. Mail: Who am I? I (Bijaya Kumar Rout) belong to a small tribal village called Chandragiri in Gajapati district of Odisha State. Born in a poor family of seven members I somehow managed to complete my graduation in 1990. After two years I got an opportunity to work as program staff at Chandragiri under Suara Development Agency (SDA), Government of Odisha. There I was involved in various Socio-economic development programs and served 15 years for the development of Primitive Tribes. I went to the field withother staff to meet the tribal people. They were facing many hardships including the almostabsence of health facilities and huge language barrier. They live on hilltops and engage only in rainfed agriculture. They are very simple and hard working people. Lacking suitable irrigation facilitiesand lack of knowledge about modern agriculture practices are the key factors for their underdevelopment. In my interaction with them I can say that agriculture is their main livelihood. As faras agriculture is concerned, irrigation is their key constraint and they cannot afford electric, diesel 38 SCAMPIS Learning Notesor petrol pump sets.It is said that first experience lasts forever. I would like to briefly talk about my first fieldday experience. I was travelling with my Motor Bike to village Gumiguda which is 34 Kms from mylocation. I reached there around 9 am. I was a bit anxious about meeting people and sharing withthem about the project & products. But to my surprise, there was not even one male member inthe village. They were engaging in terrace cultivation and therefore not present in the village. I Pagethought to myself- “now what to do”? I just walked around in the small village and saw somefields. I found barren land everywhere. Then suddenly it struck me- let’s start from the scratch and
  • here in this village itself. Then I selected one of the many barren fields and decided to install MicroIrrigation System. At the same time a small boy came and started to make enquiries about me &what I was doing. I came to know that the boy is the son of the land owner.I asked to bring his father. Then the farmer came and I got an opportunity we both discussed indetail about the use and benefit of MIS sitting in the field. A smile appeared on his face. But heexpressed his inability to purchase the MIS. Then both of us went to dealer shop to get the systemon credit with a condition that he must return his contribution amount in a week time as thefarmer contribution because of the subsidy is very less. Finally the dealer agreed and the rest asthey say is history.The day after, I installed a Drum Kit in his field and Chilly, Brinjal & Tomatoes seedlings wereplanted. I supported him by providing proper guidance to take care of his plants. Then LOFprepared and installed in his field and in due time it applied to the plants. When the plantsappeared in full of green and crop the farmer was very happy and expressed his gratitude. But Ireminded him that actually it was because of his own positive attitude and a great deal of trust onme. After few days the farmer started harvesting the crops for his family members andinclusion of vegetables in their diets was thrilling! He started to share his joys with others andstarted selling surplus crops to the village people & in local markets. He earned more moneygradually. He earned approximately INR 5, 000 from that single crop in a season. He spent moneyon purchasing good clothes for family members and repaid old debt. Since then he has beencultivating vegetable crops in every season by using MIS and receiving more financial benefits.With continued use he has been able to converting his thatched house to a new tin roofed house,purchased land and ornaments etc. and living with his family happily. Bijaya Kumar Rout IDEI; July 39 SCAMPIS Learning Notes2012Moreover, the SHG members were not aware about vegetable cultivation. After my joining inSCAMPIS I have mobilized more than 40 SHGs about 500 women members. They are now involvedand are using our technologies have enhanced their knowledge on vegetable cultivation,preparation of LOF i.e. Pot manure, Magic Tonic & Vermi Wash. All SHGs have cultivated andharvested different crops like Tomato, Brinjal, Okra successfully and developed their economiccondition. They are following our recommendation on cultivation. Page
  • My work…During my work in SDA and meeting so many tribal people I had a desire to help them overcomethis problem however I felt that I was not able to help them really change much. After joining IDEIas Business Associate in 2010 I started to work very hard to fulfill my desire to help poor families inthe best possible manner.I joined the SCAMPIS project and underwent athorough training in which I learnt about theproject and the different aspects. As wasshared in the training that we work inconjunction with OTELP; there were projectsby OTELP that were being implemented in theChandragiri area. I then identified potentialvillages. I organized promotional activities suchas farmer meetings, Individual contacts, Villagedemonstrations and Haat demonstrations in the villages and convinced farmers about our projectactivities, its aim and objectives and benefit of technologies like STP (Surface Treadle Pump), Dripirrigation like Drum Kit and Bucket Kit. As I know many farmers are shown their interest towardsour technologies and to use them in agricultural field. Accordingly I initiated the supply oftechnologies through dealers. Primarily on an average 3-4 farmers in each interested villagespurchased these technologies. As was shared with us, we also paid special attention to providing Service After Sales (SAS) to the new 40 SCAMPIS Learning Notes users. We tried to identify local Bijaya Kumar Rout IDEI; July 2012 youth; train them as VBM, who are critical in providing SAS and maintenance of pumps/drip kit. In my work I always emphasized to involve women in promotional events and capacity building. Hence it was easy for me when I involvedSHG members in our activities. Many SHG meetings and trainings were conducted to convince thewomen members for their involvement in our programme. At first only one SHG women members Pagestarted vegetable crop with use of our Bucket Kit with and I provided all assistance I could to
  • convince them about the efficiency of the technology. At the growing stage of plants/seedlings Iorganized Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) trainings for them to give more knowledgeabout Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF) i.e. preparation of Pot Manure, Magic Tonic & Vermi Washand its application to the plants and they did accordingly. I also imparted training on Agronomy tothe farmers to take proper care of plants from different insects and diseases. With so much care,the plants grew well and a good harvest was achieved. This led the family members to enjoynutritious healthy food and also increased their economic status by selling additionalharvest/crops. After seeing the benefit from users other farmers and SHG members have graduallyshown interest towards our technologies.With the initial success and good result morefarmers started to show interest in the SCAMPISproject. Now the farmers of the project villagesare cultivating different types of high value cropslike Tomato, Okra, Brinjal, Cabbage, and Chillyand getting better financial benefits, anddeveloping their economic condition. They areable to send their children to go to school ingood school dress and fulfill minimum needs and finally changed their life style. Previously I had todo lot of handholding but now they are doing everything themselves. In this way I covered allOTELP villages under SCAMPICS project successfully. During these three years, so many farmershave re-done their houses; from kutcha (non-concrete) to tin roofed houses, some have clearedtheir debts, purchased lands, agricultural implements, ornaments etc. for their family. 41 SCAMPIS Learning NotesBy helping so many people live better dignified lives, I have derived even more strength in theform of (1) Self interest in work (2) to do the work with a special quality and quantity (3) fromdifferent meetings & trainings etc. It has not been easy, all along I have faced many challenges andthose are as follows: o All the villages are situated in hill areas so it has been a challenge to access these villages Page o It was difficult to work in politically disturbed (Naxal) villages
  • o It was difficult to convince the tribal people to use our technologies as because they were acquainted with their traditional method of cultivation o In some cases, the interested farmers had no water sources for cultivation Personal Achievement During my involvement in SCAMPIS project I have achieved the followings: 1. I have achieved the following sale of technologies:  STP: 457  Drum Kit: 261  Bucket Kit: 887 470 of LOF (Liquid Organic fertilizers) also installed, prepared and applied it to the plants.I was specially entrusted to involve more women farmers in our main stream of SCAMPIS projectand for which 40 SHGs were mobilized in Mohana Block and all most all SHG members installedBucket Kits throughout the year and are harvesting different crops and giving their familymembers nutritious food and developing their own as well as their Groups economic condition. In6 Churches I have installed Drum Kits/Bucket Kits in different crops and imparted training to thefarmers.I have also imparted training on LOF to SURAKSHYA NGO.Due to my hard work, many poor people and SHG s are in good position on socially, economically.Now they are living happily. For me, their happiness is the greatest achievement. 42 SCAMPIS Learning NotesI have acquired more knowledge about the program and the poor tribal livelihoods. With my hardwork & dedication and work ability, I think personally I have achieved tremendous growth andcontributed to fulfilling the goal. Page
  • 4. Role of promotion strategy for introducing the MIS innovationTapan Kumar Pattanayak, Chief General Manager IDEI, Regional Office Bhubaneswar, India. Abstract International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), with support from The Coopernic Sustainability Fund (CSF) undertaken grant-based implementation of Scaling up Micro-Irrigation Systems (referred as SCAMPIS hereafter) in three countries with India being one of them. The (specific) main objective of the project was to improve rain fed agricultural productivity with adapted supplementary micro irrigation systems and to improve agricultural productivity with fertilization systems (Liquid Organic Fertilizer System-LOF) of smallholder farmers. It also aims to raise awareness of institutions, govt. /private companies that are working in the field of irrigated agriculture on the concept and potential benefits of MIS/LOF. The duration of the project was three years and it was implemented in two backward districts of Eastern state of Orissa, namely Gajapati and Koraput. These two districts are predominantly inhabited by tribal households. The MIS comprises of water lifting technology- Surface Treadle Pump and water application technology- 20 sq m and 100 sq m drip systems operating on gravitational force, while the LOF includes Vermi- wash, Pot manure and Magic Tonic. The initial target for the project was set at a promotion of 14, 000 technologies (Surface Treadle Pump, Bucket Kit & Drum Kit) and 5, 000 Liquid Organic Fertilizer. International Development Enterprises (India); IDEI, ( was selected as leading organization of SCAMPIS India in order to ensure the proper execution of the project. IDEI has a large experience and well established reputation worldwide, as the organization has suitably and efficiently 43 SCAMPIS Learning Notes adapted Micro irrigation technologies in India since 1991 to meet the needs of poor farm families by making the technology simpler and more affordable. Over the past two decades, IDEI has reached out to over 1.2 Million small holder farm families, thereby benefitting over six million people.IDEI’s Promotional StrategyDemand creation through varied rural marketing and promotional activities have been carried outby IDEI staff for creating awareness amongst smallholders and generating sales of IDEI products.This is a critical activity under the SCAMPIS project. Page
  • To achieve a target of promoting over 15, 000 technologies amongst smallholder householdswithin three years time IDEI realized that effective promotional strategy is central to creating agroundswell of demand. A multitude of static and dynamic promotional tools are employed tocreate increased awareness of low-cost irrigation technologies. It was decided to identify mostefficient dynamic activities which would be village based followed by appropriate static toolswhich would be simple and well communicated to the prospective families. All these activitieswere carried out by Business Associate places at the village level.The promotional activities are categorised as a) Static and b) Dynamic.a) STATIC PROMOTION : The promotional tools such as leaflets/ handbills, wall paintings etc arestatic promotional activities. These are used in combination with the dynamic activities. Theyusually carry an attractive illustration/ photograph of farmer using the technology along with keydetails such as costs, ease of use, water discharge, gender friendliness and other characteristicswritten on it. It also carries contact information of the dealer on it and these basically serve as areference point for farmers after they have been to a promotional activity. These provide supportwhile disseminating communication package during a dynamic promotion.Advantages:  Provide information on brand value  Communicate customers about the profile and benefits of the technology  Encourage customers’ decision making process  Increase the knowledge of customers on technology adoption and maintenance  Provide information of supply chain for convenient purchasing and after sales services of technology 44 SCAMPIS Learning NotesStatic promotional materials used under the program are as follows:LEAFLET: are used togenerate awarenessabout the product/sleaflets have beenprinted. They highlightqualities of pedal Pageoperated pump, itscoverage, discharge &
  • usability in different crops. These are very useful in reaching out to large number of people acrossdifferent locations in a go. Additionally, it makes available information about the product andcontact information for sale point readily with the recipient. The leaflets are printed periodicallyby the SCAMPIS Office basis requisitions from the area office.BANNER: are normally used duringthe peak sales season. These areusually made of cloth or flex. . Theseare given to dealers operating fromrelatively larger rural permanentmarkets and they provide goodvisibility. The banners should havethe name and address of dealer on it. Banner on synthetic sheets are used for longer usage.Generic banners are used on short campaign vehicles, during large farmer meetings, exhibitions,haat/village demonstration. The flex banners are mostly used on short campaign vehicles sincethey have a longer life and the cloth banners are used on other occasions.POSTER: have very short life span, hence should be veryoccasionally used. Posters may have information regardingsystem, its dealer point etc. These should again be used duringpeak sale season as recall tools. Posters are mostly used to pushsales during a particular time period, or for a particular cropwhich is most popular in the area. Pasted at dealer location, 45 SCAMPIS Learning Notescommon meeting areas (panchayat office – after gettingrequired permission), tea shops etc, they become effective toolsfor achieving instant queries. WALL-PAINTING: Wall Painting is a tool for recall and it helps where there is competition from low grade low price material. Wall paintings should be done on walls near busy roads, intersections and public places. Ideally the height of the base Page of painting should be 10 feet above ground level as it ensures
  • good visibility. A fixed format for paintings is followed, which leads to better recall. The shops ofmajor dealers should also be painted for visibility in the market place also for point of sale recall.KB STALLS: During the demonstrations and while participatingin large fairs, it is important to have a branded space which canbe recognised by all. Keeping this factor in mind IDEI hasproduced KB branded stalls (canopies) which carry messages inthe regional language about the technology being used in thearea as well as its benefits. Colourful pictures attract people tothe stall. DEALER BOARD: IDEI provides dealer board to all its regular dealers. The design of dealer board is fixed and the same standards are maintained across all areas. The name of dealer for dealer board is recommended by field & area office. The field office should ensure that the board is properly installed at a prominent place on thefront of dealer shop and it does not get covered by any other board or material.SAP BOOKLET: IDEI along with the development and dissemination oflow-cost irrigation technologies, Sustainable Agriculture has becomethe mainstay of its smallholder development programme. IDEI has 46 SCAMPIS Learning Notesidentified several Sustainable Agriculture Practices like Vermi Wash,Pot Manure and Magic Tonic which are promoted among farmers. Abooklet on SAP is being developed and circulated to the staff andVillage Base Mechanics of SCAMPIS programme, local NGOs, Govt.Institutions, Private agencies to raise awareness, interest and demandfor its use and benefits among the smallholders in the SCAMPIS programme areas. Page
  • Break up of Static Promotional Activities conducted during the programme: Sl.No Item Conducted 1 Banner 685 2 Poster 5, 000 3 Leaflets 40, 000 4 Product Brochures 3, 000 5 KB Stickers 6, 225 6 Wall Paintings 4446 sft 7 Dealer Board 12 8 Progressive farmer Board 20b) DYNAMIC PROMOTIONS: IDEI focuses on direct and activity based promotion also calledDynamic Promotion. These communication tools are ones in which a one to one communication isestablished between the promoter and customer as in case of Farmers’ meeting. The interactivenature of direct communication enables it to be more effective as it not only disseminates desiredinformation but also goes much beyond that by answering queries generated by primaryinformation generation.Advantages:  Create awareness among the rural customers on technology adoption 47 SCAMPIS Learning Notes  Increase the confidence level of the customer on performance of the technology  Address all the customers’ quarries on spot  Provide knowledge to the customer regarding easy maintenance of technology  Create platform for potential buyer for taking positive purchase decision Page
  • IDEI conducts the following Dynamic Activities:FARMER MEETING: During the interaction at the haat, melaand other gatherings, the BAs are able to identify thelocations where farmers may be interested in knowing moreabout the technology. Taking cue from the queries raised, afarmers’ meeting is organised where in (mostly along withdemonstration), further details are provided about thetechnology. Installers, local opinion leaders play a key roleduring such meetings. These are an excellent forum that allow for a one-on-one discussion withfarmers and helps them better understand about the technologies. Especially under theprogramme it was felt that women must be encouraged and motivated to attend the meeting.Women staff, from local partners as well plays an important role in encouraging women fromvillages to participate. The timing of meeting should be kept to encourage their attendance. Aneffort is made to identify and motivate progressive farmer in the village, convince him about KBtechnology and encourage him to speak about how he perceives the system and its benefits. Priorintimation about the meeting and relaying information about key topics to be covered to farmersensures good attendance.Proposed Sequence of discussion1. The person conducting farmers meeting should introduce the organization: purpose, objectives,activities & impact 48 SCAMPIS Learning Notes2. IDEI technologies and its use/benefits etc with demonstration. Questions from participantfarmers are encouraged; these aid deeper understanding3. Cultivation practices in the area, commonly grown crops, irrigation systems (this is ideally thelast point. The farmers would otherwise move out post learning about better crop practices)The area office should develop a skeleton of contents that needs to be covered during farmermeeting. Ideally there should be no snacks, tea/coffee served in the meeting as it often generatespresence which is more interested in such hospitalities than the matters of meeting. It alsoincreases cost of meeting which can be avoided. A leaflet containing information about IDEI Pagetechnologies with local contact phone number and address of the IDEI staff and dealer should be
  • distributed in the meeting. A banner could be used along with the commonly used slogan forbetter future recall. SHORT CAMPAIGNS (JEEP AND AUTO RICKSHAW CAMPAIGN): These are two to three days campaigns that are conducted in a location. It involves spreading information about technology through public address system along with distribution of leaflets. Normally a vehicle is used for the purpose for covering larger area. The selection of vehicle depends upon the terrain andproximity of villages. In places where villages are nearby one may hire three wheelers or evenbicycle or cycle rickshaw. The bicycle or cycle rickshaw puller can be given a brief about theproduct for interacting with the farmers. A women campaigner with rickshaw puller always drawsmore queries from the lady farmers. In places where distance among villages is longer, one hires afour wheeler. These are costly but cover much larger area hence giving almost same outreach/costbenefit. The vehicles move in the area spreading the message about pump/drip kit. They stop atimportant places in a village and also answer the queries if any. They carry with them leaflet aboutpump/drip kit which are distributed among the farmers who enquire about the system. Thevillages where more farmers show interest in pump/drip kits are shortlisted for farmer meeting innew areas. However, in old areas too short campaigns provide a good effective tool for recall ofproduct and brand. The primary purpose of a Jeep or Rickshaw campaign is to generate outreach,awareness, and buzz. Generally one microphone and sound system accompanies the campaign tobroadcast the benefits of the KB technology. 49 SCAMPIS Learning NotesVILLAGE DEMONSTRATION: This activity involves showingoperation of pump/drip kit in a new village. It is always veryimportant to show technologies in operation. Thesetechnologies are new products for farmers and it is difficultfor them to comprehend its effectiveness and utility only bylistening or reading about it. By demonstrating the way thepump operates generates confidence in the prospective Pagebuyers. Usually in a village, pump is installed on an existing open well.
  • HAAT DEMONSTRATION: In case of haat demonstration the pump is installed on open well if the well is nearby otherwise the demonstration takes place with the help of drum or utensil. In the haat, the big umbrella or flex stall could also be placed to attract crowds and create brand recall. Product leaflet should be distributed during haat demo and a publicaddress system should be used. It is important to note the name, phone number (if any), andname of the village of those farmers who make specific enquiries during the haat demonstration.This list acts as a guide while selecting villages for farmer meeting and other follow ups.FARMER EXPOSURE: Farmers’ exposure is a very effectivetool as it adheres to “seeing is believing”. Here a group offarmers are taken to the field of another farmer wherepump/kit has already been installed/ in use on a crop. Thegroup of farmers get an opportunity to interact with theuser farmers besides observing the system in use. It is heldonly after farmers have been through a farmers’ meeting. Inlocations where a number of systems have already been installed farmers’ exposure can beavoided, as often involves significant expenditure and working hours. It is advisable to visit a localarea as it not only saves time but also gives more credibility as the conditions will be similar in thedemo plots and that of the potential customers. It leads to the fact that farmers’ exposure shouldalways be conducted in the areas similar to the target area. While organizing the farmers’ 50 SCAMPIS Learning Notesexposure, care should always be taken about their social and cultural norms. The percentage offarmers covered through farmers exposure purchasing the system is fairly high compared to other tools. DEMONSTRATION PLOTS: In areas where pump is not known or has not been installed in visible numbers one should go for demonstration plots. Usually a progressive farmer from the locality is identified and convinced about Page usefulness of the pump. The system once installed on such
  • fields is used as demonstration plot. Proper care & hand holding is provided for the use oftechnology & the crop for better results & its demonstration effect. As far as possible thedemonstration plot should be near a frequently used road. A KB board should be put up on thefield giving information about the demonstration plot like its size, crop, and date of installation,name of promoting organization and local contact number of personnel / dealer. Thesedemonstration plots help in establishing credibility of the product and also in educating farmersabout the product, its usage and maintenance. The demonstration plots are used during farmerexposures. The demonstration plots should be arranged on targeted crops in the area. One shouldalso go for various demonstration plots for different products if required. The farmer should bemotivated to bear the cost of system installed on his field for demonstration plot. Giving free orhighly subsidized system for demonstration plot runs the risk of poor maintenance and failure ofsystem. Number of demonstration plots depends on the geographical area being covered,similarity in agriculture condition in the area, transportation facilities and crop types cultivated inthe area which are suitable for KB pump.MELA / EXHIBITION: In rural areas there are often localfairs and exhibitions. These attract a large number offarmers from even a little far away villages. Hence theseprovide good platform to promote pumps/kits. Theteam first visits the mela area to select proper locationfor stall. All mela should have public address system topull lots of people/ crowd to the stall. The field officealong with local supply chain member can have stalls in the fair for promotion. A running model of 51 SCAMPIS Learning Notes system is demonstrated on the stall and leaflets distributed. One should also have some stocks also for sale. The important next step to such stall is recording of all queries generated and their follow up by the promotional team in their villages. Using the KB branded stall in such exhibitions would draw larger crowds and Page create brand recall.
  • VIDEO VAN SHOW: IDEI has its own video vans with projector, screen and generator. Duringdaytime the van undertakes campaigning and while announcing the place and timing of the videoshow in the areas from where the villagers are expected to come to watch the film. At times onemay have to get administrative clearance for organizing such a show. The location of video vanshow village should be such that villagers from nearby villages can also easily come and go afterthe show. Same stands true for timing of show. It should be fixed as per season, earlier in winters,convenience of farmers and especially the women who should be free from their daily works bythat time. The video show should not be too long as farmers may not have that much time, alsolonger shows may lose attention of audience. IDEI produces its own films for shows. It attractsvillagers to the show and also the attention of audience is better. Ideally a video show could be of60-75 minutes duration.Break up of Dynamic Promotional Activities conducted during the program: S.No Activity Achieve 1 Farmer Meeting 3,958 2 Village Demonstration 1,184 3 Haat Demonstration 179 4 Short Campaign 129 5 Farmer Exposure 92 6 Mela Demonstration 3 7 Video showing farmer success 1 52 SCAMPIS Learning NotesConclusionConsidering the unique characteristics of the segment in the potential market for micro irrigationsystems IDEI has developed the static & dynamic promotional activities. Target customers are thesmall landholding tribal farmers who are either using the traditional devices for micro irrigation ornot using anything. To impart a conceptual change in their age old practices considering theirliteracy/ knowledge level and adaptability standard IDEI focused more on the process of directcommunication with them. Hence more stress was given on dynamic promotional activities. The Pagemicro irrigation systems developed by IDEI was positioned as the most appropriate for rural smallland holding farmers who needs simple & almost zero maintenance irrigation devices Vs other
  • competitive products. In all these activities the person involved plays a vital role. The attachmentwith the tribal people makes sense of belongingness and the growing acceptance level with theorganization finally converted to their desire for the product. Initial awareness created by VideoVan Show and Short campaigns slowly generates their desire to possess one. This desire to havethe product is consolidated by Haat Demonstration and Village Demonstration. At the last stagethe Business Associate makes a close contact with the prospective farmer and there the sale isclinched.All promotional activities carried out by IDEI made tremendous impact in scaling up MicroIrrigation Systems and Liquid Organic Fertilizer among tribal farmers of two backward districts ofOdisha. All these farmers have not only increased their income but also provide good education totheir children and better medical facilities for their families. 53 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Page
  • 5. Scaling up of micro-irrigation systems – Integrating MIS in Indian National Programme for Livelihood improvement: complexity and opportunitiesSusanta Nanda, Programme Director & CEO, Odisha Tribal Empowerment & Livelihoods Programme (OTELP).Mail: Abstract: Rain fed agriculture is the main source of livelihoods of 62 different tribes, residing in the Eastern State of India in Odisha. Water being the most limiting factor for agriculture production, erratic rainfall has been the major reason for a stagnating farm yield, consequential poverty and food insecurity across the tribal belt. Against this backdrop, the SCAMPIS project has effectively demonstrated MIS as a new technology to the tribal farmers, with significant water and energy savings adding to the income and food security at the household level. The learning from SCAMPIS, the technology demonstrated by Jharkhand State Livelihoods Promotion Society (JSLPS) and the funding opportunity provided in two of the India National Programmes have helped OTELP to scale up MIS as a sustainable livelihood for the poor tribal farmers. It envisages using gravity based / low pressure drip irrigation system for commercial vegetable cultivation on raised beds for increase farm productivity with an assured yearly income enough to enable rural poor to overcome poverty. The article describes the approach, strategy and technology adopted by OTELP in scaling of the MIS. This is likely to impact the lives of 5000 households to come out the poverty in the shortest possible time.Introduction 54 SCAMPIS Learning Notes The Eastern State of Odisha in India has the 3rd largest concentration of tribal populationin the country. 62 different tribes, accounting for 22.13% of the total population of the statenumbering at 81,45,081 live mostly in hilly and forest regions spread across the state. Agricultureis the main source of livelihood in these areas with settled and shifting cultivation accounting forthe majority of the income. Potential of water resource is very poorly developed. Thus, rain fed Pageagriculture has been the mainstay of agricultural activity for the tribal’s. As a result, more than
  • 80% of the cultivable area is mono-cropped with a stagnating yield. Since water is the mostlimiting factor for agriculture production, erratic distribution of rainfall has been one of the majorreasons for poverty and consequential food insecurity in these areas. Vast majority of the farmersown small land holdings and don’t apply fertilizers and pesticides. Under such situation,experience of use of low cost water lifting equipment / machineries along with liquid organicfertilizers have proved to be very effective for small land holding to give additional family income. The experience gained through such intervention under SCAMPIS7 (Scaling up of Microirrigation System) Project in Odisha Tribal Empowerment and Livelihoods programme (OTELP)8have incited to up-scale MIS (Micro Irrigation System) as a source of livelihoods by converging withNational Programme of “National Mission and Micro Irrigation” (NMMI)9 with objective to assistthousands of tribal families to come out of the poverty.LESSONS LEARNT UNDER SCAMPIS Odisha Tribal Empowerment &Livelihoods Programme (OTELP) started in2004 as a Multi Donor Externally AidedProject in seven tribal districts in southwestern Odisha to ensure food security.SCAMPIS India Project started since 1stApril, 2009 in two pilot districts whereOTELP was operating. The Project focusedto improve water availability through Micro 55 SCAMPIS Learning NotesIrrigation System (MIS) and application ofliquid organic fertilizers for increased productivity of agricultural crops in 265 villages covering10,000 households. Till now, 11,905 household have been covered in 469 villages which1. SCAMPIS – This programme support by IFAD started in two pilot districts namely Koraput & Gajapati in Odisha, India since 01.04.2009 and continued till 31.03.2012. The project focuses to improve water availability with MIS & applications of liquid organic fertilisers for increase of productivity of Agriculture crops.2. OTELP – Odisha Tribal Empowerment & Livelihoods Programme (OTELP) assisted by IFAD, DFID & WFP is being implemented since 2004-05 in 7 southern tribal districts of Odisha, India. The programme aims to ensure tribal livelihoods & food security of poor tribal households are sustainably improved. Page3. NMMI – Mission was launched and funded by GoI since June, 2010 to boost convergence of micro irrigation activities under major Govt. programme for increasing water use, efficiency, productivity and farms income.
  • demonstrated the effectiveness of MIS in enhancing the food security and income of the tribalpopulation. SCAMPIS Project promoted 20 liter bucket kit and 200 liter capacity drum kit with microtube emitters to irrigate 20 square meter and 100 square meter area respectively. Small landholding farmers were able to take advantage of this for growing vegetable as an additional sourceof income. The Project demonstrated significant water and energy savings and use of a newtechnology in the tribal areas. The impacts and learning’s from the same are as follows:a. Mostly MIS was used in vegetable crops. Vegetable area increased by 10 -15% after use of this technology which was earlier kept fallow. Besides new crops like ginger, capsicum and spine gourd have been introduced in the areas where MIS is operating.b. Cropping season increased due to increase in water use efficiency by using MIS, resulting in increase of fruiting time of the vegetables. Average yield of vegetables increased by 10 %.c. Quality of vegetables improved significantly and fetched a higher rate in the market.d. Small land holding farmers / landless in their backyards have grown vegetables and have got income of Rs 20/- to Rs 50/-per week (on an average Rs 150/- per month) by selling vegetables in the nearby weekly markets after meeting their own requirement. They purchase their grocery items from the weekly market out of above income. Consumption of vegetable for these landless was a difficult proposition prior to introduction of above technology.e. There is positive impact on the health due to consumption of fresh vegetables by the tribal 56 SCAMPIS Learning Notes and is likely to have a dent on the prevalent malnutrition of the area.Scaling up through convergenceSince SCAMPIS Project targeted small areas giving limited income, taking up commercial vegetablecultivation through this intervention as a livelihoods measure was a difficult proposition. But fromthe experiences gained from SCAMPIS project and from the learning’s of commercial vegetablecultivation taken up in the near by state by “Jharkhand State Livelihood Promotion Society”(JSLPS), a scaling up approach was adopted in OTELP areas using gravity based/low pressure drip Pageirrigation system for commercial vegetable cultivation on raised beds for increased farm
  • productivity of tribal farmers with an assured yearly income of Rupees 30,000-50,000 from 500-1000 sq. m. of area. This has created sustainable livelihood opportunities for the poor tribal toovercome poverty.The constraints of up scaling has been taken care as below, to make it a sustainable one byintegrating with two of the Indian national programme which provided the biggest opportunityfor up scaling:1. Drip irrigation round pipes are LLDP (Liquid low density poly ethylene) having inline dripper unlike lay flat pipe with micro tube in case of SCAMIS micro irrigation system. Drip irrigation pipes can withstand variable pressure unlike SCAMPIS and are more durable.2. The SCAMPIS Project was implemented in limited areas and was demonstrative in nature. In contrast, the up scaling plan is for commercial vegetable cultivation in more areas.3. 90% of the cost of the lifting equipments of MIS came as a grant in SCAMPIS Project and up- scaling of the same once the Project was over became difficult in terms of funding. Taking advantage of provision of 80% subsidy in Drip kits under NMMI (National Mission on Micro Irrigation in India) for the tribal farmers, the funding issue was addressed to a substantial Poly Nursery managed by women Self Helf Group in Digamala villag in Kandhamal district degree.4. Advantage was also taken for availing 50 -75% subsidies (depending on size) under NHM10 57 SCAMPIS Learning Notes (National Horticulture Mission) and RKVY11 (Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana) for poly nursery in up scaling the project. The approach followed by JSLPS12 has been adopted to focus on tribal farmers and the women Self Help Groups to earn enough in the fallowing ways: 4. th NHM – Mission was launched and funded by GoI since 10 plan to promote holistic growth of Horticulture sector in different states of India. Page 5. RKVY – Scheme was launched and funded by GoI since 2007-08 to incentivise different states to draw of plan for holistic development of their Agriculture & allied sectors for achieving 4% annual growth in Agriculture sector.
  •  Providing an efficient irrigation (water) management technology that empowers farmers to overcome drought situations.  Maximizing the reach and impact of existing irrigation and water harvesting initiatives already taken up in OTELP, like Check Dams, Diversion based Irrigation Systems, Ponds, Well etc.  Ensuring a regular income mechanism – a round the year cash flow system for the farmer. Thus, ‘Enabling Rural Poor to Overcome Poverty”.Through this approach, it is expected that increased farm productivity will generate an annualincome enough to take them above the poverty line. The following strategies are envisaged: a. Beneficiaries - a wide range of beneficiaries will be included but the preference will begiven to the poorest of the poor in the village. b. Implementation areas of micro-irrigation will be introduced in all the programme districtsof OTELP. New districts, which until now were not covered under SCAMPIS, will learn andcapitalize the Koraput and Gajapati experiences c. The OTELP will add another MIS technology installation i.e. low pressure/ gravity basedDrip irrigation for vegetable cultivation on raised beds and linking a group of minimum 25 farmersin a village to one poly nursery (for raising seedlings) to be exclusively managed by women selfhelp groups. d. Good institutional support as well as an articulated body of technicians and experts 58 SCAMPIS Learning Notesalready existent in place, enables OTELP to provide technical and marketing support at village levelindependently. e. Considering the dimension of the Scaling-up strategy, OTELP will hire persons alreadyengaged in this program for the implementation of field activities & supervision. f. A different subsidies strategy compared to the SCAMPIS Project will be introduced byOTELP. It foresees a possibility for differentiated level of subsidies at the beginning. After the first Page 12 Jharkhand State Livelihood Promotion Society, UNDP Supported Livelihood Promotion Strategies Projectimplemented by Government of Jharkhand, India
  • phase of subsidies, a system of revolving funds available under RFS (Rural Financial Services)placed in the programme Villages of OTELP will be introduced as a loan component which thefarmer will be able to recover in one or two seasons. At the first stage of the scaling up, subsidiescannot be completely withdrawn. The revolving funds could be an appropriate method toguarantee the sustainability and not to compromise the technologies, market chain(manufacturers/retailers/services for distribution) already in place in most of the Odisha districts. Technologies introduced1. Low Pressure gravity based drip irrigation system is installed on the raised beds of 500-1000 sq. m. of areas for commercial vegetable cultivation. Drip irrigation uses specially designed pipes pre-fitted with advanced drippers. This discharges the exact amount of water and nutrients that crops need right at the root zone. Thus, every drop of water is effectively used to raise quality and increase year- round yields.2. Pressure compensated drip liner ensures uniform discharge of water in undulating lands ensuring uniform crop size and yield.3. Water lifting arrangement from the available source to the tank will be made by pump sets or 59 SCAMPIS Learning Notes by peddle pump depending on the energy availability. The Village Development Committee (VDC)13 in the programme areas of OTELP in many places owns pump in Agriculture Resource Centres and can effectively give the same on rent to individual farmers to reduce the financial burden.4. To cater the needs of a cluster of 25 farmers in one village, a Poly Nursery will be established with collapsible shed net screens under the root. This will take care of the favorable growth of7 Village Development Committee: A Committee of the villagers situated in one Micro Watershed covering Page approximately 500 hectares of area.
  • younger seedlings which can also be better protected against pests and diseases and other environmental calamities. The Present Up-scaling Plan Productivity & profitability from vegetable cultivation is increased by use of low pressure drip irrigation system as compared to traditional flood irrigation. These Gravity fed Pressure Compensated Drip System require low energy (can operate with paddle pumps where there is no electricity). Pressure Compensated (PC) drip liners unlike otherdrip lines, works on very low pressure ranges and maintain uniform discharge at the emitter. Thefarmers are benefited from uniform crop size. Under high rainfall condition, raised bed (30-45 cmhigh) techniques can give better yield compared to traditional ridge and furrow system.Permanent raised beds of 90 cm width made of a mixture of sand, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) andsoil is dug out on the entire cultivation area with 30 cm inter-bed spacing for drainage andmovement. Raised bed system allows for better soil arability and supports healthy root system.One farmer can easily manage 500-1000 M2 area cropping without depending on outside labour.One homestead well is adequate to provide water resource for the above area for entire year. Thesystem prevents water run-off, deep percolation, leaching and soil erosion, maximizes water andfertilizer efficiency and easy for operation and maintenance. 2600 tomato plants can produce 10tons yield / 4800 cabbage plants can produce 7.5 tons yield from an area of 1000 M 2 through useof low pressure drip irrigation system. 14 60 SCAMPIS Learning NotesThe MIS technology is implemented in 6 programme districts of OTELP covering 1626 farmersduring 2012-13. Out of above 1626 farmers, 1500 farmers from Nawarangpur, Koraput, Rayagada& Kandhamal districts have been linked to vegetable cooperatives. Each farmer will growvegetables round the year in an area of 500- 1000 M2 with assured irrigation and installation oflow pressure drip irrigation system. Poly houses will be constructed by the women SHGs afteravailing 75% subsidy from Government for raising of quality seedlings. Each poly house will cater14 Page Jharkhand State Livelihood Promotion Society, GoJ-UNDP Supported Livelihood Promotion Strategies Project RuralDevelopment Department, Government of Jharkhand, India
  • the need of seedlings for 25 farmers. The cooperatives will supply agro inputs to the farmers atdoor step, facilitate capacity building of farmers on scientific cultivation of vegetables andmarketing of produce collectively after sorting and grading. The programme aims to cover 5000poor tribal famers in next 2 years which will take them out of poverty in the shortest possibletime.The marketing StrategyPoor marketing of vegetables in India is one of the majorreason for fluctuating consumer prices as well as cause forsubstantial wastage. There is significant loss of quality andsevere mismatch between the supply and demand. Theco-operatives taking up vegetable cultivation willcollectivize and aggregate vegetables at different pointsfor better marketing. The produce will be graded, packed and stored in scientific manner to bedespatched to the demand areas. The co-operatives have entered into an agreement with“Surendra Agro Tech” – a private firm dealing with vegetable supply in urban areas - to markettheir surplus produce. The agro climate of OTELP districts are suitable for production of off season vegetables and can fetch a higher price providing huge commercial gain to the farmers. Conclusion On the basis of learning experience from SCAMPIS Project, OTELP has introduced 61 SCAMPIS Learning Notes another MIS system (Low Pressure Gravity based Drip irrigation) for commercialvegetable cultivation. The expected outcomes are as follows:1. Increase farm productivity with sufficient income to overcome poverty and food insecurity.2. Reduced distress migration through off farm and on farm activities.3. Enhancing the price of farm products through post harvest management and market linkages.4. Adding commercial vegetable cultivation as a livelihood options in the tribal belt. Page5. Learning in implementation of this MIS will provide quality inputs in formulation of livelihood intervention in addressing poverty.
  • 6. Micro-enterprise for MIS – the born and the consolidation of InnovagriRandriambelo Lova Tovonantsoa, Innovagri, Madagascar. Mail: Abstract IntroductionAs part of our contribution to rural development and improving In Madagascar, 75% of thefarmers income, the SCAMPIS project develops manufacturingand supply chains of micro irrigation kits . This technology can be population is rural and water isused in all types of agriculture and is supplied to the farmers essential for agriculture.though the enterprise INNOVAGRI and ULAM. Besides reducingthe time needed for irrigation, these materials also reduce the One major problem is the poor wateramount of insecticide by his through self-management.With the existing problem of water scarcity continuously faced management that brings to poorby the farmers, INNOVAGRI stands as an actor to take up the yield.challenge of improving farmers livelihood and at the same timebecome a stable enterprise. Therefore, the micro-irrigationFinancial assistance from potential donors would boost activities system was introduced in theimplemented though the partnership SCAMPIS - INNOVAGRI andwould have a beneficial impacts in improving the lives of country in 1980.households and farmers. From 2009, the SCAMPIS project has revitalized and disseminated the useof MIS introducing kits imported from India, to establish a suitable solution to water scarcityproblem.In 2012 started a collaboration between the SCAMPIS project and INNOVAGRI and with it has beenestablished a new local manufacture of MIS equipment improved and adapted to the local contextand needs at an affordable for small producers. 62 SCAMPIS Learning NotesThrough this partnership, a production line was started. The partnership look at the same time atthe sustainability of the production at manufacturing level and at the farmers satisfaction inadopting the technology.Water problem in Madagascar General problem In hydrology, Madagascar is sufficiently supplied with water either in terms of groundwater Pagebut they are irregularly distributed geographically and during the seasons of the year.
  • The control of water helps to reduce human poverty (improvement of living conditions and healththrough access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene) and poverty (contribution to thedevelopment of means of agriculture economic production). Water problem of producersManagement and maintenance of networks of measurement, observation and monitoring are veryexpensive. Thus they are sometimes neglected. They are rehabilitated in the strategic areas forprotection against floods, drought and agriculture.The farmers, among the main users of water, should be educated and sensitized to the problemsof water. Indeed, the lack of knowledge on micro-irrigation in the country continues the traditionof ancient irrigation culture. They depend entirely on rain. They waste the well water for watering In some places, they often collect water far away from their plots, from fivers or canals,loosing a lot of time.Furthermore it is difficult to find water during the dry season.This cause the rising cost of production because they have to pay third parties to get water.Production line INNOVAGRIThe company aims to manufacture and sale agricultural inputs andequipment, to import materials for the manufacture MIS, beinvolved in the agricultural sector and rural development in 63 SCAMPIS Learning NotesMadagascar.LeadersM. Lova Tovonantsoa RANDRIAMBELO, Manager, AgriculturalTechnicianGSM: 034 16 374 60 Personal business management Recruitment and management of permanent and temporary staff Support for development of partnerships Page
  • M. Tiavina Heriniaina RAFENOMAMPIANINA, Operations Manager GSM: 034 91 287 91  Animation and Control of Operations  Support for personnel management of the company  Support for animation and control of operations The organization chart Manager (01) Accounting Manager (01) Operations Manager Hydro geologist Responsible agronomic (01) responsible (01) (01)ULAM (Local Unit of theAssembly Materials) (03) Specialized labor (05) Temporary labor (15) Our beginnings INNOVAGRI began with a farmers association called LORITI in March 2009. Every season LORITI cultivated tomatoes of 1 ½ acres. At this time we have encountered problems in water due to climate change. Therefore, we expected to find the solution by hiring people for manual irrigation every two days. This created a heavy burden to the association; members began to think at how to alleviate the costs. In this moment we got in contact with Scampis during a demonstration in October 2009, we put in practice on our cultivation drip technology developed manually by us 64 SCAMPIS Learning Notes that turned out to be a failure, we used the plastic bag white with a port (PVC T) at each plant. As we were beginners, we ignored the following facts:  Photosynthesis  Problem sealing  Failure in diameter We talked about our home-made drip system to Scampis coordinator who supported our efforts and offered their partnership. With Scampis, we found that the kit imported from India had some Page
  • limitations so, with "Tanety" Malagasy, and together we tried to adapt the MIS kits to le localcaratheristics and needs.RealizationCollaboration with SCAMPIS: - 2010, start the kits production and identification of necessary improvements to face problems encountered during fabrication and installation of MIS - 2011, dispatching and collection entrusted to INNOVAGRI by SCAMPIS Compared to this stage, we could see the reality on the ground, which lead to the creation of the Local Unit of the Assembly Material  (ULAM )  The ULAM assembles the kits sent by the manufacturer, meets the dealers orders of their region, and both can act as dealer. - 2012, opening on INNOVAGRI partners other than SCAMPIS. INNOVAGRI provides modest financial support in the SCAMPIS a certain percentage of the price of the kits. This is intended to empower the long term. Strengths, challenges, opportunities and risks Strengths Challenges- INNOVAGRI, pioneer in manufacturing: we can - Funding problems: enlargement ofstill make innovations on micro-irrigation INNOVAGRI scale is constrained by too muchsystem in Madagascar. interest from the bank.- Regular Suppliers: credit up to a month or - Problems in the import of raw materials:more. vannette and lateral pipes (solved by obtaining- Corporate Partners. an extruder and one injector).- Market kits very open and farmers were - Company away from self: margin benefit is feltalready aware of water problems. only when ordered kits are a significant- Creation of ULAM (Unités Locales number. 65 SCAMPIS Learning Notesd’Assemblage des Matériels) Opportunities Risks- Sustainable financing: Opportunity to open the - Difficulty of product protection by patentdomestic market or international product application (easy to imitate).cheaper in the world to date. - Questioning manufacture kits by law in the- Installation possible regional. making of the Malagasy State Ban on import of- Export demand for bio. plastic products (plastic sheath: the main- Import of raw materials possible (depending component of the kit)on their status). Page
  • Impacts of the implementation of the production line  Exchange between successful farmers and users of INNOVAGRI kits micro- irrigation system. Economy  Creating employment within INNOVAGRI by hiring a dozen people.  Economic spinoffs in the region Vakinankaratra: job creation through ULAM  Valuation of land farmed.  Existence of chemicals Environment  Reduction of chemical fertilizer  Stabilization of soil structure  Reduction and water erosion due to irrigation  Increase in production  Creation ULAM Production  Reduced cost of production  Facilitation of dispatching and collection  Recognition of visually specific demands of the peasants.  Saves time: farmers can focus on other activities. Household  Improvement of farmers income.  Possibility to go to school for children.ConclusionThe partnership between INNOVAGRI and SCAMPIS should be encouraged and supported bycentral government through the Ministry of Agriculture. This action contributes to the fight againstmismanagement of water in Madagascar, although is essential to agriculture that ensures the 66 SCAMPIS Learning Notessurvival of the human race.The micro-irrigation improves the living conditions of farmers who see their financial situation andstabilize their lives more manageable, benefiting manufacturers.INNOVAGRI would be grateful to partners, local or foreigner, who would like to strengthen theexpertise, the know-how in micro-irrigation through training. With its means possibly granted bydonors, farmers in other regions may benefit from training and awareness and ULAM could beimplanted in each region. Page
  • 7. Breaking the small farmers vicious cycle of debts through micro-irrigation systemsFenomanantsoa Andriamanalina, Scampis Madagascar project coordinator, AVSF, Madagascar. Mail:f.andriamanalina@avsf.orgArivonimamo district which particularized by the importance of the number of chronicallyindebted poor farmersArivonimamo is one of the three districts of the Region of Itasy, a zone who the SCAMPIS Projectintervene at its start in 2009. It has an agriculture difficult climatic conditions, in particular, lack ofwater and poor soil fertility. Indeed, Arivonimamo is the driest place in all areas of intervention ofSCAMPIS. The soil is rich of iron and very poor in organic components. With inadequate hydroagricultural infrastructure, the production of small farmers, especially of rice is greatly affected bythis situation.To face this situation, farmers diversified their activities; they have small livestock, produce cropsand vegetables after the rice season, especially tomatoes. This last is cultivated after the harvest inrice fields (low land) where water constraints are less important.This alternative does not resolve the problems of poor farmers who have no rice parcels. Indeed,the district of Arivonimamo know a very unequal access to land which is, in general, managed bythe descendants of the first migrants who are often the most influent. The division of plots by theheirs (fragmentation of family farms) leads to social and family conflicts and aggravates the 67 SCAMPIS Learning Notesimpoverishment of households. The season of tomatoes production faces problem ofprice, because during this season, most of the farmers in the region produceall the same product, and this depresses the prices, that lose 2/3 of their price during theproduction peak.The strategies of the poor and moderately poor households to overcome the poverty not very Pageeffective: they use shared cropping, agricultural labour, early sale of crops, loan from money
  • lenders or microfinance institution. They expose themselves to the vicious cycle ofdebt.Indeed, sharecropping greatly reduces the income of operators at two-thirds and continuouslyexposed to this mode to enforce. The microfinance institution is less common, due to the non-accessible conditions, judged too high interest rates and, especially, access and recoveryprocedures not adapted to the financial needs of vulnerable families, who use the money foremergencies (health, death, inputs, education of their children...).Another strategy, the use of agricultural labour, also constitutes a form of debt by households.Indeed, many poor families borrow money from wealthy families under stress to work for thebenefit of the latter. Same is true for the case of the early sale crops because households sell thelatter in exchange for an advance which can be regarded as a credit.The length of the period of welding and malnutrition exacerbate social inequality, as well asaffecting the health and, therefore, force, only real capital of the poor. To meet their basic needsand mitigate the welding, the poor rely on reduction of the amount of rice consumed per day, thesuspension of the education of the children, the demand for help from families living outside thecommunity... Tsinjoina, and the Ursulines’ Community, partners working to eradicate the chronicindebtedness of small farmersIt is in this context that the Association of farmers Tsinjoaina was established in 2000, in theRoman Catholic Church. Having covered several areas, Tsinjoaina has as its main objective, out the 68 SCAMPIS Learning Notesfamilies from this vicious circle of debt. Its strategy is to improve the income of the membersthrough the improvement of their production process and to help them in order to implement thesolidarity funds. A fund consists of a network of 7 to 15 families who can use the funds as analternative recourse to borrowing in case emergency needs (diseases, education...) andinvestment in farms.The Association received financial support from the Action Carème Suisse (Switzerland) foranimation and support of networks of farmers in the constitution, the management and thestrengthening of these funds. These activities are provided by volunteer animators who are Page
  • compensated. On average, an animator support four networks of farmers, so four solidarity funds.The district of Arivonimamo had 48 networks, led by 11 animators.The Community of the Sisters of the Ursulines is one of the first partners of the AssociationTsinjoaina. This Community helps several families in difficulties in its center in Arivonimamo, inproviding them some land for production. It has developed at the disposal of the association, apart of his land (as a site for demonstration and training for farmers), and gives one of its membersa facilitator (as the 18 of the Tsinjoaina) what is the sister Antoinette. She also manages the Micro-irrigation demonstration site. With his from age 50, sister Antoinette who has a conviction onassistance to young people from age 50, did not refuse this responsibility.In October 2009, the Community experienced drip irrigation with the test of imported materialsmade by SCAMPIS Project. Indeed, the project team had come contact the Community toimplement some kits in its demonstration site. Sister Antoinette agreed to take the kits and hasfollowed with interest the demonstration. Satisfied of the interests of this innovation, theCommunity decided to continue the demonstration with kits manufactured locally in the Center,while introducing innovation to Tsinjoaina networks that are placed under his animation. Difficult start of the integration of the SMI in the Association TsinjoainaIn 2010, the start of the introduction of the IMS in the networks of farmers Tsinjoaina experiencedsome major difficulties. Indeed, the donor of the Association has decided to stop its funding. Theanimators were more so the compensation received. A few began looking for other activities. Inaddition, the main targets of the Association are vulnerable families who do not have the meansto buy the hardware resellers. Most of them raised their concerns on the steal of kits in the fields.Some of them have refused to take the material, let alone to commit to pay. 69 SCAMPIS Learning NotesDiscontinuation of funding for animators developed Sister Antoinette in embarrassment, which ledhim to abandon the idea of introducing innovation to Tsinjoaina members. But after, she hasnegotiated a special rate with the SCAMPIS/AVSF project. The projet gave farmers a priceequivalent to a third of the price on the market (5 000 AR or 1.9 EUR), as financial support for thevulnerable. The project has still decided to offer revenue recovery Association which should reuseto compensate the 11 animators. On the request of Sister Antoinette, the facilitator of the projecthas strengthened them in animation and formation of members. Page
  • Thus, 45 irrigation drip for 50 m² kits have been distributed to farmers who have used with tomatoand green bean. The sister Antoinette ensured follow-up/animation of at least 60% of thebeneficiaries. Most of the farmers have all honor their debts in the solidarity funds, and no steal ofkits is observed.In 2011, with this progress, the Association decided to strengthen its marketing kits to itsmembers. During the dry season tomato prices has slowed to encourage farmers to buy the kitsand with the support of SCAMPIS/AVSF technician, Sister Antoinette sought a vegetable dealerwho agrees to take the vegetables. She found someone who promised to take the green bean ofthe Association with an attractive price. Sister Antoinette has negotiated this idea to the nearest reseller (Office IMANASOA) who accepted. As the number of kits for sale is important, the sister decided to reinforce the three animators by itself the animation into the more remote villages in the district with displacement to feet. The result of the sale of kits is important because the Association could sell kits to 192 members, of which 82 are poor families which have no rice. The peasants have increased at more than twice their production (bean- green). Indeed, with this period and habitual picking technique, they could make up to 9-10 pickups instead of 3 pickups only.However, farmers met with problems because the dealer failed in his promise to purchase theirproducts. Farmers were forced to sell their products in the local market. This situation hasdiscouraged many farmers who have not had the expected results. 70 SCAMPIS Learning NotesThe experience of Tsinjoaina has showed another facet of the interests of drip irrigation, whoallowed farmers who have no rice or other type of production.Sister Antoinette has not abandoned. She sought another licensee and found an NGO(MAMPITASOA) who buys pimento (pili pili varietie) by agreeing to sign contracts with theproducers. Speculation change done hesitate many peasants, but in July, 15 of them have alreadysigned contracts with the MAMPITASOA NGO, which has been gradually increasing the number of Pagenew farmers who produce with drip irrigation.
  • Sister Antoinette has not hidden its concern on the development of the use of the micro-irrigationafter the completion of SCAMPIS, of after it, the risks are not only on the increase in prices ofmaterials, but also on the absence of the animation of the producers.This year, after 8 years in the Community, Sister Antoinette would be affected in another region.This situation caused much concern among the peasants. But after discussion with his superior, hisassignment is still delayed, which will still allow it to continue the story with the SMI.The SCAMPIS/AVSF’s team think that without husband and children, Sister Antoinette considerspoor producers as his own family, which inspired him to cross all obstacles to help them out ofpoverty. “We always met difficulties, perhaps also because we are not the true professionals in this matter. I dont know what we are doing today will bring to these farmers. But I am sure that as our experiments in drip- irrigation, the change from the usual practice will change many things. If seeking a solution, found the still. The problem is the fact of not looking. Before, these farmers were afraid to use the kits because of theft. Today, they have more cited this concern”. Sister Antoinette, with the facilitators. 71 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Page
  • 8. Scaling up micro-irrigation systems in Madagascar: opportunities and constraintsChristin RAMAROSON, Agricultural engineer specialist in rural development and monitoring and evaluation.Mail: ; ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION The SCAMPIS project achievements and the experience in Madagascar has allowed to make important leap on The drip irrigation is still a new practice the promotion of micro-irrigation system (MIS). The for Malagasy small farmers. The IFAD governmental projects implemented together with the Ministry of Agriculture contributed in a traditional practice is irrigation by significant way to the geographical dissemination of the technology and facilitated the farmer access to it. The watering can or by submersion, both very scaling up goal of the projects funded by IFAD is the water wasteful practices . improvement of the supply chain of MIS and the strengthening of the farmers production for food security. The level of technology adoption is still low SCAMPIS project has provided to small even if the good number of the interested stakeholders. farmers in Madagascar an opportunity to In this article, we highlight the opportunities and the challenges for scaling up MIS and discuss how to innovate their practice of irrigation by the integrate it to the use of waste water in the optic of dissemination of low- cost drip irrigation. water savings. But most of the farmers have not yetaccess to the technologies; the costs and the market availability is not enough developed yet.Some stakeholders, in particular the Malagasy State through the Ministry of Agriculture are veryinterested in promoting and scaling up the MIS (micro-irrigation system) to face the current threatof the negative effect of climate change and the scarcity of water for agriculture. Thus, apart from 72 SCAMPIS Learning Notescontractual areas of SCAMPIS project, the Ministry of Agriculture projects (funded by IFAD) havecontributed to the promotion of MIS technologies in 13 of the 22 regions of Madagascar. The lowadoption rate of MIS is due to the farmers difficulties in accessing the technologies market chainand to the short duration of the projects which were supporting the promotion and disseminationof the know-how on how to use the technology. Otherwise, opportunities exist and those shouldbe the motor for the promotion and dissemination of MIS technologies in Madagascar.In this article, we try to describe how the MIS scaling up began in Madagascar, the opportunities Pageand the limitations faced.
  • ContextThe main achievement of SCAMPIS project has been the ability in demonstration that severalgroups of actors (projects, NGOs, traders, farmer’s organisation, platforms, CSA, and especially thefarmers and the Ministry of Agriculture) have interest in promoting and adopting MIS. The MISincludes two main technologies: the drip irrigation and the pedal pump.The SCAMPIS project has received collaboration requests from various stakeholders and theMinistry of Agriculture stated its interest in supporting scaling up strategies.The SCAMPIS project covers five regions, four of those regions are also part of the governmentalIFAD projects intervention area. During the dry season these areas face a water shortage forirrigation, on the other side this regions have good and dynamic agricultural potential. These areasare considered as precursors in adopting MIS technology. In addition to those, other IFADintervention areas are appropriate for scaling up MIS to face the food insecurity and the drought.Among the projects that started the scaling up of MIS we can find: PARECAM (Support Projectresilience to food crises in Madagascar) funded by the European Union and four IFADgovernmental projects: AROPA, PROSPER, PPRR and AD2M.The intervention strategy for scaling up MIS through the national projectsThe Scampis implementing organization developed and approach for scaling up MIS thatidentified to main lines of action:- Capacity building and intensive training of the local staff and organizations to improve theproject implementation and the increase the technology adoption at farmer level. 73 SCAMPIS Learning Notes- Development and expansion of a local MIS manufacturing and supply chain to address thespecific needs of each area.OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE SCALING OF MIS THROUGH NATIONAL PROJECTSOpportunitiesThe current experience has shown the existence of positive factors that justify and assess the Pageneeds for promoting MIS and scaling it up.
  • i) The SCAMPIS project.The SCAMPIS project itself, though its results and achievements and the development andintroduction of technology low cost, suitable for Malagasy farmers has created a good basis forscale up MIS.ii) The interested parties.The various stakeholders enthusiasm in promoting MIS is an asset and also an opportunity for thescaling up of MIS in Madagascar. Among the stakeholders we there are economic operators,NGOs, agricultural service centres and the Ministry of Agriculture with its decentralized services.Specifically for the Department of Agriculture, the interests has been manifested by theundertaking of technical meetings on promotion and MIS scaling up, moreover the decentralizedservices have been in concretely involved in promoting MIS. Finally the Ministry of Agricultureproposed to develop a section about micro-irrigation in the Agricultural Sector Programme (PSA).iii) Scaling up though national projects funded by IFAD.The intervention of projects of the Ministry of Agriculture funded by IFAD is a real opportunity forscaling up. From the geographical perspective the projects funded by IFAD cover 13 regions of the22 regions of Madagascar. These are areas that have good agricultural potential and suffer ofwater scarcity due to chronic drought (South Zone of Madagascar) are appropriate for thediffusion of MIS. The specificity of IFAD projects is their duration of action (7-10 years), this allowsufficient technical staff to achieve a larger number of beneficiaries who adopting MIS willincrease the “critical mass” needed to stabilize a local market. The projects want to integrate thetechnical support for MIS with the introduction of the reuse of waste water in agriculture with the 74 SCAMPIS Learning Notesfinal objective of saving water resources.It is not always possible to integrate MIS in the projects especially when they have a very specificfocus/objective (see box 1) Box 1: Case of PROSPER project in supporting the scaling up of the MIS The PROSPER project is specifically targeting rural microenterprises in its interventions. The action to support scaling up technology MIS has focused on supporting the establishment and training of local artisans manufacturing equipment. Eight workers were trained and set up in the South East and in Northern Madagascar. Page
  • The IFAD governmental projects decided to introduce MIS in order to i) improve vulnerablefarmers food security. MIS increasing food availability during season ii) link farmers to the market(local and international). MIS has been introduced in areas where there is a potential market asMIS allow efficient use of the water resources and improves the quantity and quality ofagricultural production. Box 2: Vegetable Production in the East Coast during the dry season (Project Area PPRR) Normally the Toamasina marked is supplied by the vegetables produced in the highlands. During the period of rice cultivation, the vegetables at the market rare and expensive. The vegetables cultivation is an opportunity for local farmers to increase their income. The MIS helps small producers during these dry periods in water management and facilitate the cultivation on sandy soils that generally have low water holding capacity. Box 3: Improvement of food security in southern Madagascar (Project Area AROPA). The southern area of Madagascar is affected by recurrent droughts that have heavy impact on food production and food security. Water for irrigation is an important constraint for small farmers. The introduction of MIS in the area offers an opportunity to diversify and increase the food availability, through efficient management and use of water resources during the dry season. The MIS also helps to secure the production of sorghum seed to start growing crop after the drought. Usually after the drought, farmers are extremely poor, crops are destroyed and even seeds to start cultivating are no longer available.iv) Climate change.The pressure of climate change negative effects motivate farmers in the research for alternativesmethods for water management. The water constraint is already felt at farm level especially in 75 SCAMPIS Learning Notesnon-irrigated plots.This situation leads to the enthusiasm of farmers and government to MIS technologies to face thewater problems. Box 4: Effect of delay of the rain on litchi production in the East Coast of Madagascar Producers are finding that the duration of the dry period in the area is increasing in the last ten years. As the rainy season is crucial in relation to the production cycle of litchi, the delay affects the quality of production mainly destined to export. To deal with this problem, the farmers irrigate the litchi fixing in the ground bottles (top-down) full of water, but Page system is not always effective.
  • LimitationsFour main constraints have been identified in relation with the scaling up of MIS. The lack of trustof farmers in using an innovative technology; the low financial capacity of the farmers to purchasethe technology; the limited distribution of MIS on the market; the limited availability of finds tocontinue the technology promotion. i) Distrust of small producers.MIS technology is still new for small producers; the adoption of the MIS in the cultivation systemwill be linked to behaviour change in relation with usual practices. In fact, outreach anddemonstration more advanced and supported are still needed to convince producers of thetechnical and economical advantage of the MIS and the importance of rational management ofwater resources to climatic constraints face. The small farmers view the integration of MIS as arisky investment due to the not stable supply chain at village level and the relative high cost of thematerial. ii) Low financial capacity of producers.The low purchasing power limit producers access to technologies, especially the poor who are themain target of IFAD projects. The cost of materials creates a ask investment too high for thisfarmers who are also the one who have e lowest access to innovations and resources (especiallywater) iii) Limited range of materials.The vegetable production for the markets, has seen as an opportunity to consolidate the MISmarket chain, this because the farmers who practice this agriculture are considered the most 76 SCAMPIS Learning Notesreceptive to innovations. iv) Fund to continue the promotion campaign. SCAMPIS Madagascar project ends Sometimes the introduction of MIS in an area could have a in 2012 after 3 years of conflicting interest with the survival strategy of small farmers. In relation to this, some small farmers (mostly poor) are working as implementation. If there will be no agricultural irrigation employee during the lean period. MIS more funding to support the reduces significantly the need for worker in irrigation. In fact, the operations developed until now, if Page distribution of MIS may lead to loss income for these farmers the promotion of the technology employees. This case may be encountered in the onion-growing area in the northern part of Madagascar also PROSPER project area.
  • will not continue, all the achievements could get lost.Relative to the current situation, the mechanism is still fragile because the critical mass ofadoption has not yet achieved and the sales volume does not allow the servicing of smallenterprises engaged in manufacturing. The achievement of this critical mass is a precondition forthe automatic adoption of MIS therefore maintaining the structures put in place. This weaknessstate also the need for continuing the scaling up of MIS.CONCLUSIONMIS scaling-up in Madagascar is still in its launch stage. Despite the efforts and commitment of theactors in the promotion and dissemination, the level of adoption by farmers is still very low. Thefactors behind this level of adoption consist of minimizing risk to the producers for conversion inMIS technologies, the short-term intervention for scaling (one year for national projects). Also, thissituation explains the need for progressive learning for irrigators and developers of projects. Themain challenge is to establish a strong strategy for successfully scaling-up MIS.The experiment conducted in this scaling demonstrates the feasibility of transferring skills to localstructures in the context of MIS promoting. It showed that the technical capacity development oflocal technicians on the MIS is possible in a year of implementation only.The commitment of the actors including the Ministry of Agriculture and National Projects has animportant role in scaling up facilitating the farmers access to MIS technology. The strategy shouldtake in consideration the creation of new partnership with interested stakeholders.Bibliography:1- Recherche action participative et dynamisme des agriculteurs face aux changements climatiques : cas de la Région Analanjirofo (Est de Madagascar), 2010. Holy RAHARINJANAHARY, Nosy ALIZANY, Jeannin RANAIVONASY, Jean 77 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Chrysostôme RAKOTONDRAVELO, Rivo RABARIJOHN, Lilia RABEHARISOA, Mamy RAMPARANY, Anne-MarieTIANI2- Capitalisation d’expériences sur le développement de la petite irrigation privée pour des productions à haute valeurajoutée en Afrique de l’Ouest (PRACTICA Foundation). Moise Sonou, Stéphan Abric. Page
  • 9. Measuring the Scampis project change dimensionCecilia Ruberto, Monitoring Evaluation and Learning coordinator for the Scampis Project.; Skype: ceci1982liaTo understand and learn about the change dimension (quantitative) and colours (qualitative)perceived by the project beneficiaries and by the stakeholders involved, the SCAMPIS projectdeveloped a participatory and integrated, cross-countries (India, Guatemala and Madagascar)monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system.This M&E system allowed comparisons and showed the key differences between the strategiesimplemented in India Guatemala and Madagascar.To obtain comprehensive and equilibrated projects specificities understanding a qualitative M&Emethod Most Significant Change, has been introduced. This method has been applied in India andGuatemala. The results have been extremely interesting: the change dimension is in the quality oflife and in a behavioural change as response to the introduction of an innovation (MIS technologyand natural fertilization and pesticide) through innovative strategies.Kids belonging to the same village of the beneficiaries collected stories from Scampis beneficiaries who explained what happened since the first 78 SCAMPIS Learning Notes contact with Scampis until the day of the interview. The beneficiaries described problems, challenges and successfaced during the last 2 years and pointed out project weaknesses and strengthens from their own(fundamental) point of view. 15 Page15 Additional information about Scampis MSC:
  • The monitoring and evaluation system developed and promoted by IFAD staff is an innovativetool. It served multiple purposes:- It clearly looks and evaluates each SCAMPIS project implementation and evolution, understanding its sustainable future direction.- It promotes and improves a South - South collaboration. During the elaboration and the implementation of this tool, partner organizations established a dialogue and debated on the main issues of the project, its crucial aspects, goals, similarities and differences among countries. These collaboration and dialogue will continue throughout the project, thanks to M&E sharing and knowledge sharing activities (see 3.3).- It capitalizes achievements and problems faced, as a consistent basis for successful scaling up.The SCAMPIS quantitative M&E SystemOutputs macro areasEach output macro area collects a number of simple indicators that provide a quantitative analysis.This quantitative analysis will generate information on achievements and on the annual plannedtarget: - Beneficiaries - Distribution Chain - Technologies adoption - Subsidies - Natural fertilization and diseases control - Capacity building - Nutrition - Promotion activities 79 SCAMPIS Learning Notes - Technologies manufacturing - Sustainability and scaling upOutcomes macro areasIn the outcome macro areas, a number of composite indicators have been identified and agreed by all the partners to monitor crucial aspects related to the introduction and use of the micro-irrigation and natural fertilization: Page- Vegetable production (increase) - Work time (save time)
  • - Family income (increase) - Vegetables diseases control- Water consumption (decrease) - Women increased participation and- Soil fertility (improvement) involvement in productive activitiesImpactsThe impact of Scampis canbe stated after areasonable period afterthe project intervention.However, it can and mustbe monitored from DayOne. In fact, even if earlystages conclusions wouldbe unwarranted, impactindicators provide“pointers” on the effectsproject interventions may have. Among them the Scampis partners identified 3 main level ofpossible impacts: Beneficiaries level: livelihood improvement: among the various dimension thecommon for the 3 countries are: i) diet improvement thanks to better and longer vegetableproduction; ii) family income increase for the surplus sold at the local market; iii) longer availability 80 SCAMPIS Learning Notesof water resources (longer and for larger number of users); Private sector, micro-enterprice: development of a small private sector linked to theproduction and supply chain (as basis for project sustainability) Overall: various organizations and programmes learn about MIS and decide to integrate itin their strategies, scaling up the use of MIS in larger areas including larger number of Pagebeneficiaries.
  • Below a snapshot show the main outcomes achieved by Scampis India, Guatemala andMadagascar. The differences in the results are explained by different strategies, target groups andenvironmental context. Gender inclusionTraditionally work in commercial rain-fed and 81 SCAMPIS Learning Notesirrigated agriculture, especially for larger surface ofplots, was the main responsibility of men. Backyardgardening was, and is, a women’s job. However,agriculture is feminizing fast. The inclusion ofwomen depends very much to the type of technology offered (e.g. very small MIS technology likebucket kits is most likely adopted by women for backyard gardening) and the type of grouptargeted (e.g. Guatemala: big efforts in involving the schools and with groups of women; Indiatargets mixed SHG; Madagascar shows a different cultural pattern). Irrespective of context, PageScampis considers it a success to demonstrate higher than average inclusion rates for women.
  • Scampis Most Significant Change: qualitative M&EAfter the 1st year of analysis of quantitative M&E data which produced interesting insights therewas the fear to loose the most important achievement of the project, that wasn’t the goal of10.000 beneficiaries per country but: the improvement of the livelihood of vulnerable households.The Most Significant Change appered to be the most suitable methodology, even if somereadaptation has been introduced, due to contextual need. - Connect M&E data to reality of the field and of different stakeholders involved - Keep and compare the experiences in the 3 countries - Capitalize and Learn from the experiences. This process should happen at various level: people in the field, project staff, strategies implemented, organization aspects etc - Understand the effectiveness of each strategy and create solid basis for identifying the possible impacts of the projects Why we collect stories? • People tell stories naturally - indigenousThe SCAMPIS MSC phases • Stories can deal with complexity and context • People remember stories1st phase: stories • Stories can carry hard messages /undiscussablescollections16Collected by kids (age • But stories not known for accuracy/truthbetween 13-16 years) who will 82 SCAMPIS Learning Notescontemporaneously, as real reporters, film,photograph and ask questions to the project beneficiaries16 Guatemala photos here: ; and videos: Page
  • Why stories are collected by kids?? They are curious, they caneasily learn how to use the technology, they do not influencethe answers, the interviewed feel comfortable and can easilyexplain the reasons of what she/he is telling: kids are extremelyappropriate to preserve the stories authenticity. At the same time this newreporters enable the interviewed in telling “their stories to the whole world”, learnabout important life experiences and empathize with the interviewer. At the end of the day thebig learners are exactly the reporters. This aspect very important for the Scampis MSC.2nd phase: stories analysis national level(Direct analysis – each country analyse its stories)During a staff meeting all the interviews collected are reviewed and analysed by the field staff. Atthe end 6 videos are selected as most significant and a report with the key element of thediscussion is prepared to do not lose important key elements of the “most significant changeanalysis”. This type of analysis can be repeated at national level (integrating various externalorganizations and Hq staff).3rd phase: stories analysis international level(Indirect analysis – other institution and countries analyse the stories)The 6 stories selected are analysed by the other two Scampis partners, IFAD Scampis team andexternal stakeholders who, following the same method identify “the most significant change” fromtheir point of view. 83 SCAMPIS Learning Notes4th phase: connection of the qualitative analysis to the M&E quantitative dataIn this phase are created logic interconnection between M&E quantitative data and qualitativedata. The qualitative data take in consideration the various level of MSC analysis.As per today 32 stories have been collected in Guatemala (beneficiaries and project staff) and 24stories have been collected in India and the first analysis and selection has been conducted.Additional information is available at this blog page: Page
  • SCAMPIS M&E SCAMPIS Most Significant Change Focus on measurement (output and Focus on concrete life experience outcome data; simple and compositeM&E and MSC at glance for the SCAMPIS project indicators) Closed questions Open question Deductive Inductive Static Dynamic Objectivity is the driver of the analysis. Subjectivity is the driver of the analysis. Central tendencies (even if participatory) Decentralized tendencies: unexpected results  About ‘proving’  About learning  Looking of confirmation/not  Looking for unexpected effects, try confirmation of pre-established to understand than what caused indicators. Needed to see if the strategy implement Needed for improving and innovate is efficient or not. strategies at various levels Possible to see possible outcomes, but Help us to pre-view possible impacts not impacts of the project 84 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Page
  • Guatemala Story Aquí uno va a divagar penas! 17 Interview to Silvia Esperanza Peraza, Scampis GuatemalaInterviewer: Good afternoon we are here today with my friends Carlos, Joselyn, the engineers, Ms.Cecilia we are here to take some of your time to ask you a few questions, and could you tell usyour name? 2nd Farmer: It is ok; my name is Silvia Esperanza Peraza at your services and my Lord.Interviewer: Could you introduce the members of your group? 2nd Farmer: Well, there are 6 members but there is one missing, I am going to begin from my right to my left; she is Maria Luisa 85 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Martinez, Sayda Alvarez, Rosa Escobar at your service, Iris Escobar.Interviewer: Ok; where are you from? 2nd Farmer: from Caserio El Naranjo, Aldea La Montaña, Moyuta.17 “Here you go for distraction from concerns” Watch the video of the interview here: Page
  • Interviewer: How old are you? 2nd Farmer: Ill be 42 on November 15th if you want to bring me a gift.Interviewer: How many members do your family have? 2nd Farmer: 9, including my daughter in law we are 10.Interviewer: Which one is your occupation? 2nd Farmer: Housekeeping.Interviewer: Where do your incomes come from? 2nd Farmer: from my husband and my older children. (Third Farmer in the back asks: What does your husband do?) He is a builder. (And your children) They are also builders.Interviewer: Which one is your greater expenseduring the year? 2nd Farmer: School, clothing and feeding.Interviewer: In which area would you like to invest ifyou had more money? 2nd Farmer: Well if I had more money I would like to have a drugstore because we do not have one here.Interviewer: To help the community right? 2nd Farmer: Yes for the community and myself too.Interviewer: And if you had more money what would you like to do? 4th Farmer: Well here we need so many things, I would like to have a little store or something like what is it called, market. 86 SCAMPIS Learning Notes 5th Farmer: The same as them, I would like to have a business to help the community.Interviewer: And you? 6th Farmer: The same as them, some kind of business.Interviewer: Did you cultivate vegetable gardens before? 2nd Farmer: No, I did not only flowers.Interviewer: Did you buy them? 2nd Farmer: sometimes, but they are also sold to be planted.Interviewer: How did you plant them? Page
  • 2nd Farmer: Well the ones in the house around the patio, in little pots. (Another person asks in the back: but about the vegetable gardens?) No I am talking only about my flowers, before I did not plant any vegetable.Interviewer: Which one do you think has been the most significant change in your family and yourcommunity? 2nd Farmer: Well the first one is the time that I invested in this project, and in my family the support that we received through the trainings on how to cultivate the vegetables, and the money we could save from it.Interviewer: Which one was your first though about Scampis Project? 2nd Farmer: Well, first I had doubts on how it was going to be, how we were supposed to work, and it was very good for me, and it is because I hope that we keep working until they take the land from us (Did you enjoy it) Yes I did, very much.Interviewer: What motivated you to participate in this project? 2nd Farmer: Well as I already mentioned the enthusiasm and also the opportunity to work with my friends because through it we also release the stress that we have for the bad situations we experience.Interviewer: What did you like most of the project? 2nd Farmer: The production we had and also the trainings that we received (for example) well for example how nutritive vegetables are, that is something we did not know, also about the jelly like guisquil jelly which I had never tried, I used this vegetable only for soups before, for me it was very good.Interviewer: Do you think that you obtain what you expected from the project or do you think thatthere is something missing? 87 SCAMPIS Learning Notes 2nd Farmer: I believe that we achieved all not only with the support of the people who taught us but also with the work of my friends, without that it could not have been done.Interviewer: What would you add to the project? 2nd Farmer: in which way?Interviewer: what would you improve? 2nd Farmer: Oh, to improve it, let me think what I would like to be improved, maybe that our seeds be changed, because as we already used one now we want to use another one.Interviewer: Which activity from Scampi was the hardest? Page 2nd Farmer: (the Farmer ask that the question be repeated)
  • Interviewer: Which activity from Scampi was the hardest? The attendance to training, theelaboration of vegetable gardens, and the use of watering system or to get the seeds. 2nd Farmer: Well for me any of them, because we have had everything (what about the water many people ask in the back) Well the gathering of water during the summer, because for the trainings we are always present, wherever they call us we go.Interviewer: What do you expect to achieve in a near future? 2nd Farmer: Well I would like that more people join the group, and as well as we have done to feel motivated to work to help their families.Interviewer: How do you expect them to feel motivated? 2nd Farmer: trying to motivate them even if they do not want to.Interviewer: Did you enjoy this project? 2nd Farmer: Yes, I did a lot I wish that we have many more, and that they come to visit us and support us too, if it were possible, the use of filters too, we thank the engineer for training us in that area, and we also thank the institutions that provided the filters, and now we are used to take only water from the filters, not other, (someone in the back asks: I have a little question how did you begin working together here, did you organize before, did you know each other from before, is it the first time do you work together how did you do it) Well Ms. Let me tell you the first group that was gathered was a community bank we worked with Fis, thank to that project that gathered 39 women we got to meet each other as group, and in this project was different because I received a phone call asking if I wanted to gather a little group of women who wanted to work in vegetable gardens and I said Yes I will gather them I even put them in the list without even asking them and thank God their response was positive, and that is the reason we are here today and I hope to continue (did 88 SCAMPIS Learning Notes anybody had doubts in the beginning about the job) Yes, Ms, there were doubts when we saw the land, with the big trunks around, and trees, we wonder how are we going to work here, but thank God and to our husbands the ones who made time, they came with axes and motor sew to take away the trunks and coffee plants and then with our own effort we worked in this piece of land that has been given (do you think that it was worth it) Yes It was worth it. 4th Farmer: Yes, it was very worth it for all the things that we have learned and all the things that we harvested. Page
  • 2nd Farmer: It is sad that you did not come when we had all the harvest it was so big withthe radishes and cucumber, (I have another question if it is possible: At the time of theproduction when you actuallysaw the harvest what did youthink) Well we felt so happybecause we saw the result ofour hard work and thank Godeven though it was a littleharvest in the beginning weshared it among us.4th Farmer: And then the Ms.Came and showed us how tomake a dish with radish andthey were so delicious and theywere so good that she did nottry them, we did not want her to get fat.2nd Farmer: Well as I said before it was and is and will be a great experience and let’s hopethat it continues. 89 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Page
  • India Story By using this we can grow better crops. It will improve our livelihood Interview to Laxmi Bhuyan, Scampis IndiaInterviewer: Welcome, I am Raghunath Gaura, in Padasahi village of Raigarh Block, ready to takeinterview;Interviewer: As you are involved in SCAMPIS project, we want to know your life storyInterviewer: What is your name? Farmer: Laxmi BhuyanInterviewer: Where from you are? Farmer: PadasahiInterviewer: Who are there in your family? Farmer: My husband and three son 90 SCAMPIS Learning NotesInterviewer: When have you started using KB pump and Bucket Kit? Farmer: Since last three yearsInterviewer: Where did you see it first? Farmer: In Saturday market, There are announcing in loud speakerInterviewer: What did you think then? Farmer: By using this we can grow better crops. It will improve our livelihoodInterviewer: Which technology do you use? Farmer: KB pump & Bucket Kit PageInterviewer: Which is better? Farmer: I like both
  • Interviewer: Why? Farmer: Without any expenditure we can irrigate by KB pump Farmer: With less water, we irrigate by Bucket Kit Farmer: With few buckets of water we can grow cropsInterviewer: Do you grow crops alone? Farmer: My husband and sons are helpingInterviewer: How much quantity did you get? Farmer: After family consumption we sell 20-30 kg tomato, brinjal per weekInterviewer: Which crop do you grow? Farmer: Brinjal, tomato, chilli, ladies finger etc. Farmer: At the time of drought we irrigate rice crop by KB pumpInterviewer: Were you growing vegetable beforegetting this technology? Farmer: Yes, but not in improved method Farmer: After KB pump we have improved method of cultivationInterviewer: Was there in change with you? Farmer: YesInterviewer: What change has occurred after usingKB pump and Bucket Kit? 91 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Farmer: We get good yield, we get money to meet family expenditureInterviewer: What is major source of your income? Farmer: AgricultureInterviewer: Have you sole any vegetable? Farmer: Yes, we have soldInterviewer: How did you spend the money? Farmer: Children’s education, medical treatment Page Farmer: Purchase of input for agriculture, repayment of loansInterviewer: What change have occurred before and after implementation of project?
  • Farmer: We get good yield, get money to spend for fooding and educationInterviewer: Are the changes important? Farmer: YesInterviewer: How is it important? Farmer: We get good yield and fulfill the family needInterviewer: What was major difficulty after starting the work? Farmer: We were thinking how to use KB pump and Bucket KitInterviewer: What are the difficulties? Is it still there? Farmer: No, after training the problem was solved Farmer: We are explained how to use KB pump, how to lay the pipesInterviewer: Has all the problems solved? Farmer: Yes, solvedInterviewer: How was it solved?Interviewer: Has the officials of Krushak Bandhu solved the problem? Farmer: Yes, they have solved the problem through trainingInterviewer: After involvement in this project, which work you like most? Farmer: AgricultureInterviewer: Has your expectations fulfilled? Farmer: Yes, fulfilledInterviewer: Do you have any more expectations? Farmer: YesInterviewer: What is that? Farmer: To grow crop in more area, earn more income Farmer: Give education to children, construction of house, marriage of son Farmer: Our dream is to keep the family happyInterviewer: How can you achieve your goal? 92 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Farmer: By growing crops, getting good yield, we can achieveInterviewer: How to spend the additional income? Farmer: Construction of house, purchase of land, purchase of gold and silver Farmer: Purchase of clothes, do something for my familyInterviewer: Ever any Farmer has asked you about KB pump and Bucket Kit Farmer: Yes, where from you get this. Who gave it? Farmer: We told Krushak Bandhu officials have trained us Farmer: They have given KB pump and Bucket Kit. Trained about KB pump and Bucket Kit. Page Farmer: They have told about organic manure and organic pesticides
  • Farmer: Management of insect pests without expenditure Farmer: Use of organic manure instead of chemical fertilizer Farmer: With a organic manure we get more yield for vegetableInterviewer: Was it easy to the convinced? Farmer: YesInterviewer: Can you convince other Farmers about this pump and natural fertilizer? Farmer: YesInterviewer: Why will you convince? Farmer: I have learnt and done in field, so I can convinceInterviewer: Are other Farmers of the village using natural fertilizer? Farmer: YesInterviewer: Do you feel they are happy? Farmer: YesInterviewer: Is there any change with village people during last two years? Farmer: Yes, I have seen itInterviewer: What type of change? Farmer: Previously, due to lack of water they are not growing any crop Farmer: By using Bucket Kit they grow vegetables Farmer: Irrigate crop by using KB pump. Farmer: Persons having KB pump and Bucket Kit have improve financiallyInterviewer: Why there was change? Farmer: Change was due to cultivationInterviewer: In future, will you grow vegetable by using Bucket Kit and KB pump Farmer: YesInterviewer: Can you do this work without help of village mechanic? 93 SCAMPIS Learning Notes Farmer: Yes, we canInterviewer: Can you explain it to others? Farmer: YesInterviewer: What will you explain Farmer: Preparation of natural manure Farmer: Preparation of medicine to control insects Farmer: Setting of Bucket Kit and laying of pipes Farmer: Fertilizer application, Page Farmer: Spraying of medicine to control disease Farmer: Transportation of KB pump and its setting
  • Farmer: We can take water up to 50 feet distance Farmer: We use two numbers of 25feet pipe for the purpose Farmer: Officials told to take water from 25 feet Farmer: but we take up to 50 feet distance Farmer: We can train people accordinglyInterviewer: Do you need more training? Farmer: YesInterviewer: What type of training? Farmer: Improve method of cultivation with good variety Farmer: Use of new seedInterviewer: What is your goal for future? Farmer: To get good yield and more profit Farmer: To make our family happyInterviewer: What is your major concern for future?Interviewer: For marriage of son or any thing Farmer: Marriage ceremony of sons Farmer: Construction of house, to make them happy Farmer: So that they can care us during old ageInterviewer: What is your suggestion for future? Farmer: We have got training, we have gone exposure visit Farmer: We expect they should provide more training, arrange more exposure visit Farmer: They should always be with us to guide for better cropping practicesInterviewer: What is your advice for other Farmers? Farmer: They should follow us. They should grow better crops to earn more Farmer: They should live happily 94 SCAMPIS Learning NotesInterviewer: Thank you very much for giving valuable timeInterviewer: On behalf of videographer Chakradhar Dalai & cameraman H. Ramarao, I thank youvery much. Farmer: I also thank the Farmers. I thank you for making video of my success story Farmer: I thank the officials for providing me knowledge and selecting me for exposure visit Page
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