Outcomes of Planning and Design Cambridge, MA Zachary Kuegler, Michael Gangi, Javier Duluc, Juned Kastura and Charlie Cassone
Presentation Outline1. Planning Goals2. Results a. Quality of Life b. Climate and Environment c. Preserving the Roadway Capacity3. Successes and "Failures"4. Conclusion
Transportation Planning GoalsFrom the Cambridge CDD1. Improve the quality of life in the city2. To meet our climate and environmental goals3. To preserve our limited roadway capacity and parking supply
Improve Quality of Life• Pedestrian Plan o Provides design features that prioritize pedestrians o Highest percentage of pedestrians and cyclists o Named best walking city in 2008• 5 Year Reconstruction Plan o Focus on designing “complete” streets• CitySmart o Pilot Program o Provides accessibility to valuable resources and tools
Improve Quality of Life• Pilot Program began in 2009• 36% of respondents from Year 1 stated that they had made some trip change as a result of the program• 88% have stuck with that change over the past three years.
Climate and Environmental Have they met their environmental goals?Biking, walking and transit are much more environmentally friendly than individual car use How is it measurable?
Climate and Environmental Bicycling Trends: Number of Cyclists
Climate and EnvironmentalWalking and Biking: Compared to Other Cities 30.9% 11.7% 3.3%
Climate and Environmental20% of biking and walking trips are commuting80% of biking and walking is for other needs (shopping and personal business)This replaces many short car trips thus reducing emissions and non renewable energy useEvident of the quality of the system
Climate and Environmental Air Quality: Air Quality Index Trend
Preservation Roadway Capacity• How can we control parking behavior?• How do we limit roadway use for parking?• How do parking policies impact land use, air quality, and quality of street life/pedestrian environment?• Why is it important to limit on street parking?
Preservation of Roadway Capacity
Preservation of Roadway CapacityReasons to Minimize on Street Use• Blocking of transit• Maintains road capacity• Maintains pedestrian safety• Eliminates looping blocks for spaces• Construction• Snow removal & Street sweeping• Improves pedestrian environment.• Minimizes land use
Preservation of Roadway CapacityThe Main Idea• Parking policy exerts great influence on mode choice and urban design.• This directly impacts land use, air quality, and most importantly quality of street-life/pedestrian environment.• What ways can we control or change parking behavior or mode choice with policy?• What factors control our parking choices?• What tools do we have to implement?
Preservation of Roadway Capacity3 Main Factors1. Convenience2. Money3. Zoning/Policy
Preservation of Roadway CapacityTools for Success• What are the specific tools available for achieving control over parking behavior and preservation of road space?• Its as if the city of cambridge asked itself, "How can we make on street parking less desirable than off street parking?"• How can we encourage other modes?• Here are some examples!
Preservation of Roadway CapacityConvenience• Extensive effort to find spaces• Short time allocations for on street use• Time consuming to find and get into an on street space• Availability of off street parking• 2 Municipal Garages(green/1st st., 9 lots)
Preservation of Roadway CapacityOff StreetParkingMap
Preservation of Roadway CapacityConvienience• Think again next time you abuse on street parking!• Is it cheaper?
Preservation of Roadway CapacityRates/Fees• Our money is important to us.• With fees and steep rates, on street parking becomes very expensive!• Meters: $1/hour• Garages/off street lots:$1.50-$19/hour• Daily Rates:$13-$27• Charlie Card
Preservation of Roadway CapacityZoning/Policy• On street spaces dedicated to non profit car sharing programs.• Residential areas are off limits to commercial rideshare companies. But mixed use Zoning characteristics place non residential areas in close proximity!• Visitor requests
Successes and FailuresSuccesses Failures • The walking environment • Connectivity with surrounding cities/towns • Parking policies • Connectivity within city • Biking friendly • Priority on development of • Urban Development University areas • Development of Centers • Integration with Boston (Charlie Card)
Specific Example of a SuccessLafayette SquareIntersection of Mass. Ave and Main St.Traffic Calming Project Completed in 2009
Specific Example of a SuccessProject Started in 2006City recognized that the intersection was very high traffic and not pedestrian, bike or transit friendly
Specific Example of a SuccessProposed plan to reroute traffic at the intersection and create a park environment that is both walkable and bikeable
Specific Example of a SuccessThe result is an intersection that is much more pedestrian, bike, and transit friendly
Specific Example of a SuccessData shows that the program was successfulFrom 2004 to 2009• Average Daily Traffic Volume decreased 23%• Bike Ridership increased 102%• Pedestrian Travel increased 89%
Specific Example of a DeficiencyLack of transit access in western Cambridge
Future Planning The Urban Ring Project The Urban Ring strongly supports opportunities for transit oriented development and smart growth development.