Sec 4 the lithsphere and hydrospherePresentation Transcript
The Lithosphere and Hydrosphere
1.1 Minerals• Minerals are inorganic substances that exist naturally on Earth and have clearly defined composition and properties.• Minerals are not manufactured by man.• Inorganic means they were never living.• Most minerals have a very organized structure.• Minerals of the same type have identical structures.
• The atom structure of diamond• Contains carbon atoms, as does coal!!!!
• The chemical composition is also the same for each type of mineral.• May be a single chemical element such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), uranium (U), iron (Fe)…• Other minerals are made of “chemically bonded” elements: NaCl (salt), CuSO4 (copper sulphate)), SiO2 (quartz)…
Mineral Classification • Minerals are classified by the following 4 properties: – Colour – Transparency – Hardness – Streak
Colour • Many minerals have a characteristic colour. • Idiochromatic minerals – their color is pure and there are no impurities. • Allochromatic minerals – contain minute amounts of impurities which gives them variations in color depending on the percentage of impurities.
Transparency • Minerals that allow light to pass straight through are transparent. • Minerals that allow light through but do not allow objects to be distinguished are translucent. • Minerals that do not allow any light to pass through are opaque.
Hardness • Hardness depends on the strength of the bonds uniting the atoms in a mineral. • The Moh’s scale assigns a value from 1 to 10 to a mineral to indicate its hardness. • The hardness is measured by a minerals resistance to scratching. • 1 is soft like talc and 10 is hard like diamonds. • Higher numbers can scratch the minerals with smaller numbers.
Streak • When a mineral is rubbed on a surface of unglazed porcelain, it leaves a powder trace. • The powder left behind is always the same for a certain mineral – called the streak. • Idiochromatic minerals leave a brightly colored streak • Allochromatic minerals leave a white or pale powder streak
More Cool Mineral Info Fascinating Fact• The elements oxygen (47%), silicon (27), aluminum (8%), iron (5%), magnesium (2.1%), calcium (3.6%), potassium (2.6%), and sodium (2.8%) make up 98.5 percent of all minerals on Earth.
• Do you know the difference between a rock and a mineral?• Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Here are some of the basic characteristics of minerals to help you understand what they are:• Minerals are inorganic; they are not alive and they are not plants or animals. An example of a rock that is not a mineral is coal. Coal is a substance formed from decayed plants and animals. Therefore, coal is not considered a mineral.•
• Minerals are found in the earth or are naturally occurring substances. They are found in dirt, rocks, and water. They are not made by man.• Minerals are chemical substances. Some minerals like gold or silver are made of only one element. Other minerals, like quartz and calcite, are combinations of two or more elements.• Minerals always have the same chemical makeup. For example, quartz will always consist of one part silicon (an element) two parts oxygen (another element).
• There are 4400 minerals! Oxygen is part of many minerals. Minerals containing oxygen make up almost half of the earths crust. Quartz (SiO2) is a common mineral. Other common minerals are feldspar, mica, and horneblend. Many rocks are made of these common minerals.• Some minerals are rare and expensive. They are called gems . Diamonds, rubies, and emeralds are good examples of such minerals. Gold and silver are also minerals. Together, these natural substances are used to make beautiful jewelry.•
Do we have time for some strange science?• Copper• Magnesium• Calcium• Potassium
Reactivity increases for metals Reactivity increases for non-metalsmetals
Mining• Material extracted from the lithosphere are called ore - this is rock that contains the mineral.• A deposit is when there is a large enough mineral amount and concentration in one area.• Quebec has large deposits of gold, copper, zinc, nickel and iron.
• Mining is complex and costly!!• There are open pit mines for deposits located near the surface.• Mine drifts are the horizontal passages in underground mines. These areas have air ducts and water supply lines.• Extracting the minerals from the ore is different for each type of mineral.
Mineral Possible Uses Gold Jewellery Trade Electronic Equipment Copper Pipes for plumbing Electrical wiring Electronic equipment Construction (roofing) Zinc Galvanized steel (to prevent corrosion) Automotive parts Nickel Stainless steel manufacturing Coins Magnets Iron Steel manufacture• Be sure to know this chart!!
Rocks• Rocks are heterogeneous solids composed of many minerals.• The physical and chemical properties of rocks are not strictly defined because they are made of several minerals and not always the same percentage of each mineral.• Minerals are the building blocks of rocks.
• There are 3 types of rocks.1. Igneous – formed when magma cools and solidifies2. Sedimentary – formed by the accumulation and compaction of debris.3. Metamorphic – former igneous or sedimentary rock that has been transformed by heat or pressure. This process can take millions of years!!
More on igneous rocks… • Magma that cools in contact with air makes extrusive igneous rocks. • It cools rapidly and then solidifies. • Magma that solidifies before reaching the surface creates intrusive igneous rocks. • The same minerals are making different types of rock!!
• Intrusive Extrusive igneous – igneous – pumice and obsidian Devil’s Tower an intrusive pluton and granite
Uses of rocksRock Type Possible UsesGranite Intrusive igneous Ornamental stoneDiorite Intrusive igneous Ornamental stonePumice Extrusive igneous Light building material, cosmetic industryBasalt Extrusive igneous Insulation, floor tiles, road constructionSandstone Sedimentary Building materialsLimestone Sedimentary Cement, building materialsGneiss Metamorphic Building materialsMarble Metamorphic Interior design, decorative objects
A Quick Review• The main sources of natural energy are the sun, wind, water and earth.
Solar Energy • The sun provides a source of energy to the earth in the form of solar radiation. We can use this solar energy source to not only generate electricity but to also heat a water supply. • Solar energy is the most widely used natural energy source among homeowners.
Wind Energy • We can harness the energy of the wind in a variety of ways in order to produce not only electricity but also momentum. Both industrial and home wind turbines can be used to provide a renewable source of energy.
Water Energy• Water is the most diverse as it can be used in a variety of ways. The tides and waves of the sea can be used to generate electricity whilst rivers can be held back by a hydroelectric dam to provide power to the masses.
Renewable and Non-renewable• Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished).• Non-renewable are resources that are consumed much faster than nature can create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas), nuclear power (uranium) and certain aquifers are examples.• Resources such as timber (when harvested sustainably) or metals (which can be recycled) are considered renewable resources.
Forms of energy• Four forms to be aware of:1. Chemical2. Thermal3. Mechanical4. Radiation
Energy Transformation • Transforming energy is when the energy changes into another form. • There are many examples: – Chemical (gas) mechanical (car moves) thermal (engine heats)
1.5 Energy ResourcesFossil Fuels• Almost 2/3 of all electricity is produced from fossil fuels.• Includes coal, natural gas, and oil.• The energy from these fossil fuels is called fossil energy.
• Fossil fuels result from the transformation of organic residue into oil, natural gas and coal.• Oil and natural gas come from decaying marine animals and algae.• Coal is a result of terrestrial plants which grew in swamps.• All require layers to form above them and for a great amount of press to be on them for a very long time.
• When fossil fuels burn they emit, Thermal Energy, which can be converted into electrical energy or Mechanical Energy (make an engine work).• Burning fossil fuels is also the main way greenhouse gases are produced.• Greenhouse gases are the main cause of global warming.
• Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels.• However, methane (CH4), is 21 times more powerful as a greenhouse gas!!!!• Acid rain is also caused by the burning fossil fuels.• Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are gases which causes acid rain and are also produced by acid rain.
Uranium • A naturally occurring radioactive element. • Splitting the atom releases a large amount of energy –called nuclear energy. • A handful of uranium releases as much energy as 70 000kg of coal!!! • Does not release greenhouse gases!!
• Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the bonds between the particles in the nucleus of an atom.• Drawbacks: – Releases radioactivity so reactors must be kept enclosed in concrete and safe from earthquakes!! – The waste material is also radioactive for 100’s of years
Geothermal • This is the energy that comes from the internal heat of the Earth. • A fluid is circulated deep underground where it is heated by molten rock. Then rises to the surface again. • This energy is used to generate electricity or used to heat buildings.
What will our energy of the future be?• Fossil fuels will very likely run out.• Nuclear power has many drawbacks.• Geothermal is very expensive to obtain.• Your thoughts are more than welcome!!!?• What about Biofuels? Biofuels and biomass
The Hydrosphere• This is the Earth’s outer layer of water, uniting water in all its states.• Only 2.5 % of the water on Earth is fresh and 79% of this fresh water is frozen.• Includes fresh water held underground as well as in lakes and rivers.
2.1 Inland Water • This is all the freshwater bodies foud on continents, uniting rivers, lakes and groundwater. • A watershed or catchment area is the area that drains all precipitation received as runoff or groundwater. – Simply, the area of land from where all the inland water drains into a large body of water.
There are 3watershedareas we needto know:1. Ungava Bay Watershed2. Hudson Bay Watershed3. St. Lawrence River Watershed
Some factors that affect how water moves on awatershed:• Topography: shape, slope and terrain• Geology: type depth and structure of the rock• Climate: rain, snow, wind, temeperarure• Vegetation• Agriculture, industry and urban development
2.4 Energy Resources • The force of moving water is a source of great energy. • This is called Hydraulic Energy • Be sure to read page 209-210 on building a dam. We will not write it down but make sure you understand the concept. • Hydroelectric dams convert a river’s hydraulic energy into electrical power.
• Hydraulic power is also contained in waves and ocean currents.• Systems are too expensive at this time!• Read and understand but we will not take in note form.