Jainism

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Brief summary of the basic points of Jainism.

Jainism

  1. 1. Jainism<br />Alison, Briki and Claire<br />
  2. 2. Introduction to Jainisim<br />The Universe is eternal, but goes through a cycle continuously. <br />Time consists in 2 periods, ascending (Utsarpinee) and descending (Avasarpini). In each these 2 cycles (which are repeated over and over again), 24 Jinas have come into existence. <br />The first Jina is believed to have appeared about six trillion years ago. <br />The universe has living beings (Jiva) and non-living beings (Ajïva). Karma is based on a Jiva’s interaction with other Jiva and Ajïva. <br />
  3. 3. The Beginning<br />The history of Jainism can be traced back through 24 Jinas.<br />The first Jina was supposed to be a giant who lived 8.4 million years ago.<br />Recent and last Jina was Vardhamana, who was born 550 BCE. <br />
  4. 4. Vardhamana<br />Also known as Mahivira.<br />Founder of the Jain community.<br />Attained enlightenment after 13 years of deprivation.<br />Died after committing salekhana in 467 BCE.<br />“Conquered love and hate, pleasure and pain, attachment and aversion, and has thereby freed ‘his’ soul from the karmas obscuring knowledge, perception, truth and ability.<br />
  5. 5. Basic Beliefs<br />The universe is constructed from many layers, which are heavens and hells. It has no beginning and no ending.<br />Everyone is bound to the universe by karma-the accumulated bad deeds a person has done.<br />The endless cycle of reincarnation is only achieved after having reached enlightenment. <br />
  6. 6. The Layers of the Universe<br />Supreme abode-where liberated souls live, at the very top of the layers of the universe.<br />Upper world-where celestial beings live, also known as the 30 heavens.<br />Universe space-the cloud layers around the upper world<br />Middle world-consists of the Earth and the rest of the universe<br />Nether world-the 7 hells<br />The Nigoda-where all the lowest forms of life live. (The base of the universe.)<br />
  7. 7. The 3 Basic Principles, or The 3 Ratnas<br />Right faith<br />Right knowledge<br />Right action<br />
  8. 8. 5 Principles of Living (Vows)<br />Ahimsa: non violence<br />Satya: Only speak the truth<br />Asteya: Do not steal<br />Brahma-charya: Sexually monogamous<br />Aparigraha: Detach from material things, people, and places. <br />
  9. 9. Basic Practices<br />A vegetarian diet is followed, to prevent harm to any animal. <br />Sacred texts are often read daily.<br />The 4 stages of life are followed.<br />
  10. 10. 4 Stages of Life<br />Brahmacharya-ashrama: student life<br />Gruhasth-ashrama: family life<br />Vanaprasth-ashrama: social services and family life<br />Sanyast-ashrama: monk life (a period of renunciation)<br />
  11. 11. Groups of Jains<br />Shvetambaras-known for monks that wear white robes. <br />Digambaras-known for monks that do not wear anything.<br />Sadhu is a monk. Sadhvi is a nun. <br />
  12. 12. Cosmology<br />The universe goes through time cycles, called Kalchakra. Each Kalchakra consists of a Utsarpini and an Avsarpini. Each Utsarpini and Avsarapini is divided into 6 periods called Aras. <br />It is believed we are in our 5thAra of the Avarpini period. There are about 18,500 until the next Ara. <br />
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  15. 15. Diffusion<br />Jainism is practiced mainly in India, where there are about 10.2 million followers. <br />Relocation diffusion has occurred, bringing Jainism to North America, Western Europe, East Asia, and Australia. <br />
  16. 16. Organization of Jainism<br />The 2 sects of Jainism (Digambar and Svetambar) divided 200 years after Mahavira achieved enlightenment. <br />Svetambaras believe the split occurred when the chief monk AcharyaBhadrabahu predicted a 12 year famine, and lead 12,000 Digambar followers to southern India. <br />The followers who remained became the Svetambar sect.<br />
  17. 17. Differences between Digambar and Svetambar<br />Digmabars believed that women cannot attain enlightenment in the same birth.<br />Svetambars believe women may attain enlightenment, and that Malinath (a Jina, or Tirthankar) was in fact a woman. <br />Digambars also believe that Mahavir was unmarried.<br />Svetambarsbelive that Mahavir married a woman, and had a daughter.<br />
  18. 18. Impact on the Physical Environment<br />Jainas leave little or no imprint on the broader ecological system and hold an affinity for the ideals of the environmental movement<br />The path to reach the Siddha Locka entails great care in regard to how one lives in relationship to all other living beings that surround one in the earthly realm<br />Thus, they avoid activities associated with violence and follow a vegetarian diet<br />Jainism contains concepts that can lead to the enhancement of core human-earth relations<br />
  19. 19. The Five VowsIn Relation to the Physical Environment<br />Nonviolence: fosters and attitude of respect for all life forms<br />Truthfulness: a truthful person cannot easily dismiss the suffering caused by uncontrolled waste<br />Not Stealing: reflects on the world’s limited resources and prompt one to think of the needs of future generations<br />Sexual Restraint: minimizes population growth<br />Non possession: gives one pause to think twice before indulging in the acquisition of material goods, one of the root causes of current ecological concern<br />
  20. 20. The Peaceful Nature of Jainism<br />Jainism is often described as one of the most peaceful religions<br />There have been no wars fought in the name of Jainism<br />Jainism has been a major cultural, philosophical, social and political force since the dawn of civilization in Asia<br />The Jaina tradition has existed in tandem with Hinduism in India since at least 800 BCE<br />Today, the language remains at peace with other world religions<br />

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