4.hcp.uk.2013

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  • {"16":"Victoria's consort, Prince Albert: main organizer & supporter. encouraged a reluctant government to set up a Royal Commission\nThe Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was the first international exhibition of manufactured goods, effect on the course of art and design throughout the Victorian Age and beyond. modelled on successful French national exhibitions, but first international\nheld in Hyde Park; showpiece: Crystal Palace (architect: Joseph Paxton), a prefabricated steel and glass structure /gigantic greenhouse, housed the exhibits. disassembled after the Exhibition and moved to south London, where it burned down in 1936. (main building was 1848 feet long and 408 wide, enclosing 772,784 square feet (19 acres), an area six times that of St. Paul's Cathedral ); structure : 4000 tons of iron, 900,000 feet of glass, and 202 miles of sash bars to hold it together. \nbuilding ready on time and on budget\ndue to presale of tickets, the exhibition was ensured a profit before it even opened on May 1, 1851. There were 17,000 exhibitors from as far away as China, and over 6 million visitors viewed goods ranging from silks to clocks, and furniture to farm machinery.\nThe French were the big winners in terms of awards, a fact which did not go unnoticed by the British press. \nThe profit from the exhibition used to purchase land in Kensington, where several museums were built, including the forerunner of the Victoria and Albert Museum, which carries on the spirit of the exhibition in its displays devoted to art and design\n","5":"The Stuart era experienced many changes: theGunpowder Plot, civil and foreign wars, a regicide, a republic, the great plague, the Great Fire of London and the Glorious Revolution. \nThis was the era of Shakespeare, Wren, Galileo, Newton, to name but a few. \nThe era saw the settlement of the Americas, trade with the Spice Islands, the birth of steam engines, microscopes, coffee houses and newspapers.\nJames I of England, Scotlland and Ireland (1603-1625) absolute power of the monarchy, difficult relationship with an increasingly demanding Parliament (≠ democratic institution but a forum for the interests of the nobility and the merchant classes)\n1604: James was a firm protestant -> expelled all Catholic priests from the island ->\n1605 : Gunpowder Plot. Catholic plotters planned to blow up Parliament. Anonymous letter betrayed Guy Fawkes, captured in the Houses of Parliament with gunpowder. Most of the plotters captured and executed. \nRadical Protestantism (Puritans)popular, wanted to "purify" the church by paring down church ritual, educating the clergy, limiting powers of bishops. King James resisted this last (powers of the church and king closely linked. "No bishop, no king," he said). favoured thrift, education ,and individual initiative, -> great support among the new middle class of merchants (sat in the Commons). Charles I (1625-49) continued his father's acrimonious relationship with Parliament, squabbling over the right to levy taxes. Parliament responded with the Petition of Right in 1628: most dramatic assertion of the traditional rights of the English people since the Magna Carta = no taxes of any kind could be allowed without the permission of Parliament. 1629 : Charles dissolves Parliament, rules without it for 11 years. Some of the ways he raised money during this period were of dubious legality by the standards of the time. 1630s: large numbers of people emigrated when uniformity was imposed on the church. (60,000 people, 1/3 to the new American colonies. Some areas lost a large part of their populations. Laws to curb the outflow.1634: Ship Money. Charles attempted to levy a tax tpreviously applied only to ports, on the whole country. -> discontent. Finally Charles, desperate for money, summoned the so-called Short Parliament in 1640, refused to vote for more money until its grievances were answered. King dismissed it after only three weeks. Then a rebellion broke out in Scotland and Charles was forced to call a new Parliament, the Long Parliament, which officially sat until 1660. \n","11":"Queen Anne died without any heirs: nearest Protestant relative, George of Hanover -> George I of England, then II & III\nPolitical face of the realm changed because the first two Georges took little interest in politics -> ministers ruled on their behalf -> foundations of English political party system \nAbroad, the English aquired more and more territory through conquest and settlement
George I (1714-27): spoke no English; no interest for ruling, origin of the office of the Prime Minister and the cabinet system of government.\nGeorge II (1727-60) continued the Hanoverian rule. Early in his reign (1736) John Wesley began preaching in England. The subsequent Wesleyan societies and later Methodist churches acted as a conservative deterrent to the tide of social unrest and political radicalism that swept much of Europe during the 18th century\nyears between 1720-1780 were remarkable for their social stability: failure of the Stuarts to raise support for the '15 and '45 rebellions. 
The British Museum. 1753 saw the founding of the British Museum. private collections of Sir Hans Sloane and Sir Robert Cotton + library of the earls of Oxford and the old Royal library originally in Montagu House, purchased with the proceeds of a public lottery. By the mid 19th century the collection had outgrown Montagu House, so it was torn down and the present building erected under the supervision of Sir Robert Smirke. 
The Seven Year's War with France (1755-63). England was victorious just about everywhere, gaining territory in Canada, Florida, Grenada, Senegal, and in America east of the Mississippi. 
East India Company established trading posts at Calcutta and Madras. From there they fought with the French for trade supremacy in India. the English defeated a combined Indian and French force at Plassey in 1757, and the subcontinent was open to a monopoly by the East India Company\n","6":"English Civil War (1642-1646) Parliament made increasing demands, which the king refused to meet. Parliament : support from the middle classes/ the King by the nobility, the clergy, + peasantry. \nOliver Cromwell The war began as a series of indecisive skirmishes but Parliamentary general from East Anglia: Cromwell & his irregular volunteer troops disciplined as a New Model Army. Meanwhile, Charles established the royalist headquarters in Oxford, called his own Parliament, and issued his own money. He also allied himself with Irish Catholics, which alienated some of his supporters. \nFor most people, life during the Civil War went on as before. The poor bound by tradition and supported the king who encouraged poor relief, unemployment measures, price controls, and protection for small farmers.\n1644: Battle of Marston Moor: turning point of the war. Charles' troops beaten by Cromwell, giving Parliament control of the north of England. The Parliamentary cause became increasingly entangled with extreme radical Protestantism. 1645: Archbishop Laud was executed\n1645: Battle of Naseby = end of the royalist hopes. ; 1646: Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold last armed conflict of the war. 1949: death of Charles: stuck to his absolutist beliefs, refused every proposal made by Parliament and the army for reform. tried to play them against each other through intrigue, signed a secret treaty which got the Scots to rise in revolt to no avail. Radical core of Parliament, convinced that only the execution of the king could prevent the kingdom from descending into anarchy \n1649: King tried for treason in before a Parliament whose authority he refused to acknowledge\n","12":"Unlike his grandfather, George III (1760-1820) could at least speak the language of the country he ruled, but periods of insanity rendered him unfit to rule. Several times Parliament considered putting his son on the throne,\nLoss of the American colonies in the American Revolution (1775-83).\nGordon Riots of 1780 began as a protest against the spectre of Catholic emancipation and ended with London in the hands of an uncontrollable mob for three days \n1799: the United Irishmen rebelled on behalf of Irish autonomy, but they were defeated Two years later Ireland was officially unified with Great Britain to form the UK \nNapoleonic Wars (1793-1815) : sporadic fighting, punctuated by English naval victories at the Battle of the Nile (1798) and Trafalgar (1805), where England's one-armed naval commander, Horatio Nelson, died in action. On land the armies under the control of Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, gradually pushed Napoleon out of the Iberian peninsula and brought him to bay at Waterloo, near Brussels, Belgium.
The Luddite Protests. Industrial unrest grew as new machines threw manual labourers out of work. Agitators known as Luddites (after their imaginary leader, Ned Ludd), broke into factories and smashed machinery in an attempt to preserve their jobs. It was a vain attempt. The advantages of the new steam-driven machines were only too clear, at least to the factory owners.
The Early Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution intensified class distinctions. Under the Enclosure Acts of the late 18th century wealthy landowners built large farms and introduced improved farming methods. This meant that fewer agricultural workers were needed, so most moved to the towns and became the work force of the Industrial Revolution.
Social Unrest. Contrary to expectation the end of the Napoleonic Wars brought economic disaster, depression, and mass unemployment. The Corn Law of 1815 excluded foreign grain temporarily, which had the effect of driving up prices. Agitation for social reform grew. The government's response to the agitation was repression, and in 1819 at Peterloo, near Manchester, protests were answered by armed force, resulting in several dead and hundreds injured. This "Peterloo Massacre" was followed by the repressive Six Acts, aimed at squashing dissent. 
One result of these government moves was the "Cato Street Conspiracy", a rather far-fetched plot to assassinate the whole cabinet, occupy the Bank of England, and establish a new government. The plot was stopped, and when the details became known many moderates turned away from the reformers' cause.The Regency. It finally became clear that George III was no longer fit to rule, and his son was established as Prince Regent (1810-20). "Prinnie", as he was called by his intimates, was an impulsive, Bacchanalian character, given to extravagance and excess.\n"Prinnie"\nHowever, some of his excesses have become national treasures, such as the Brighton Pavilion, a ludicrously appealing taste of the Far East on the Channel coast. On a personal level the Prince Regent had several mistresses, one of whom, Mrs.Fitzherbert, he is alleged to have secretly married. An underground passage links the Brighton Pavilion with her house close by.When the Prince Regent finally became king (1820-30), he was at the centre of a public relations fiasco when he tried to prevent his estranged wife, Caroline, from attending the Coronation. Then came a messy and unsuccessful divorce trial, where Caroline came out much the better in popular opinion than the king.
Peel. Under the government of Robert Peel a move began towards legal and social reform. Peel was responsible for the establishment of the first regular police force in London, nicknamed "Peelers" or "Bobbies" after him. The new Corn Law of 1828 relaxed tariffs on foreign grain, and the Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829) gave Catholics the right to vote, sit in Parliament, and hold public office.
Following years saw the beginning of electoral reform. The abuses of previous generations had created a system which was ludicrously unfair and corrupt by modern standards. Voters' qualifications were different in different areas. Some "Pocket boroughs" returned whoever the local magnate nominated. Some "rotten boroughs" had as many members of Parliament as there were electors. This situation was slow to change.
Reign of George's brother, William IV (1830-37), \n","18":" A tale of Two Prime Ministers. This era could be subtitled 'The Gladstone and Disraeli Show' for the two politicians who dominated it. The two men, Gladstone and Disraeli, could not have been more dissimilar. Gladstone was liberal, humanitarian, and devout. Queen Victoria found him stuffy. Disraeli, on the other had, was imperialist, nationalistic, and charming to boot. The queen enjoyed his company, for he could make her laugh.\nThe Irish Question: whether or not the Irish should be allowed to rule themselves. Gladstone was a constant activist for increased Irish autonomy, but his views were not widely supported, and Irish extremists began a campaign of terrorism, the fruits of which are still with us today.\nLegal reform proceeded slowly. Education was made more accessible for the lower classes, and the Ballot Act of 1872 made voting a private affair for the first time. The Army Regulation Bill abolished the practice of purchasing commissions in the armed forces. Victorian literature. most common form of entertainment was reading aloud. Writers like Dickens, Tennyson, and Trolloppe were widely read and discussed. The advent of universal compulsory education after 1870 meant that there was now a much larger audience for literature. Disraeli himself, was a very popular novelist.Urbanization. On the home front the Industrial Revolution gathered steam, and accelerated the migration of the population from country to city. The result of this movement was the development of horrifying slums and cramped row housing in the overcrowded cities. By 1900 80% of the population lived in cities. These cities were 'organized' into geographical zones based on social class - the poor in the inner city, with the more fortunate living further away from the city core. This was made possible by the development of suburban rail transit. Some suburban rail companies were required by law to provide cheap trains for workers to travel into the city centre.Seaside Resorts. The growth of rail transit also gave birth to that Victorian mainstay, the seaside resort. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, working hours decreased, and the introduction of Bank Holidays meant that workers had the time to take trips away from the cities to the seaside. The seaside resorts introduced the amusement pier to entertain visitors. Some of the more famous resorts were at Blackpool and Brighton.The new aristocracy. The Industrial Revolution also meant that the balance of power shifted from the aristocracy, whose position and wealth was based on land, to the newly rich business leaders. The new aristocracy became one of wealth, not land, although titles, then as now, remained socially important in British society.\n","7":"1649-60: Commonwealth\n1653-58: Protectorate under Cromwell; Charles' son lands in Scotland, declares himself Charles II, invades England but defeated by Croat Worcester (1650) and forced to hide in a tree to avoid capture, before successfully fleeing to France. \nRadical protestantism: public morality : Church attendance compulsory. Horse racing & cockfights banned, plays & gambling prohibited, brothels closed, as many alehouses. Drunkenness and blasphemy harshly dealt with -> extremely unpopular\n1658: Cromwell dies and his son tries to succeed him\n","13":"English society underwent a revolution in art and architecture: age of the grand country house, when many of the great stately homes that we can visit today were built. \nlandscape gardens ≠ Formality of the great gardens of the 17th century (ornate, extravagant, precisely laid out mathematical patterns). "ultra-civilised" style were the Italians and the French, Andre Le Notre, Versailles for Louis XIV. In response (or reaction) to this continental style, English critics, began to agitate for a change to a more "natural" nature in gardens. As it happened, many of the voices clamoring for a new vision, a less rigorous, gentler style of garden, were Whigs. Gardening, of all things, became a political football, the battleground for philosophy and a statement of political affiliation. Castle Howard, Stowe (Lord Cobham). Lancelot Brown: "Capability" Brown, most influential landscape gardener in Britain. Told potential clients that their site had "great capabilities »\nCountry house = a mansion built in the country – as a style of building rose up in the relative peace and prosperity of the Tudor age. There was no longer a pressing need for defense in domestic buildings, so the aristocracy began lavishing their money on houses designed to impress. The heyday of the country house was the 18th century, and most of the examples that survive are from this period. Many of these houses were built expressively to provide a showplace for the art collections of the owners, and subsequent generations of collectors have filled them to overflowing with marvelous collections of art of all sorts (including family portraits).\n","2":"The Tudors: Welsh-English family that ruled England and Wales from after victory during war of roses\nFrom feudalism & anarchy of dynastic wars to Tudor England: mostly peace, as Hernry 7 was clever enough to marry Elizabeht of York, thus uniting the two warring factions (Lancaster – red rose / French ties / York – white rose), , blossoming of the arts\nbirth of the merchant class & colonialism, ish of a global dynasty attemps at alliances with Spain (Ferdinand of Aragon)\nHenry 8\nHenry had a charming, fun and sporty characters which made him popular after his father’s Henry 7th serious and sober years\nHer was feared and admired in the kingdom but would go down in history as a tyrant, having married 6 wives in the desperate attempt to have a son:\nCatherine of Spaint (Ferdinand of Aragon) gave birth to Mary, girl when Henry refused the idea of a Queen succeeding him – after several miscarriages, he decided to try and obtain a divorce\nWhat he wanted as annulment on the grounds he should not have been able to marry his dister in law – the bible states such a marriage will be childless / gilr!\nThe pope, Clement 7 refused to grant Henry his wish as he was under the control of Charles 5 of Spain Catherine’s nephew and political ally\nHenry thus decided England must no logne be subejcted to a spiritual authority open to the manipulation of foreign rivals. A schism between Engalnd and Rome helped Henry marry again\nAnne Boleyn girl Elizabeth then several miscarriages – so Henry was probably the cause, but accused of adultery and executed\nJane Seymour – son Edward and died giving birth \nAnne of Cleves (portrait by Hans Holbein – flattering) but « mare » demanded annulment\nCatherine Howard – unfaithful sent to execution\nKaterine oulived him – tendancies towards protestantism but avoided scandal\nLegacy: Churgh of England\nDuring the English Reformation, Parliament in permanent session enatcitng hte supremcay laws and discussing king’s personal life, marriages, so precedents were set and future monarchs would find it impossible to revert to the precious monarch /parliament relationship\n","19":"if you're interested in our industrial heritage don't miss Derwent Valley Mills, Saltaire, Ironbridge or the Cornwall and West Devon mining Landscape from where mining technologies spread across the world.\nIn December 2001, the Derwent Valley Mills in Derbyshire was inscribed on the World Heritage List. This international designation confirms the outstanding importance of the area as the birthplace of the factory system where in the 18th Century water power was successfully harnessed for textile production.\nStretching 15 miles down the river valley from Matlock Bath to Derby, the World Heritage Site contains a fascinating series of historic mill complexes, including some of the world's first 'modern' factories.\nIronbridge is known throughout the world as the symbol of the Industrial Revolution. It contains all the elements of progress that contributed to the rapid development of this industrial region in the 18th century, from the mines themselves to the railway lines. Nearby, the blast furnace of Coalbrookdale, built in 1708, is a reminder of the discovery of coke. The bridge at Ironbridge, the world's first bridge constructed of iron, had a considerable influence on developments in the fields of chnology and architecture.\nSaltaire, West Yorkshire, is a complete and well-preserved industrial village of the second half of the 19th century. Its textile mills, public buildings and workers' housing are built in a harmonious style of high architectural standards and the urban plan survives intact, giving a vivid impression of Victorian philanthropic paternalism.\nFurther north, Liverpool is recognised as a ‘supreme example’ of a British port at the time of Britain’s greatest global influence and it's here where you can see the towering Liver Building, the Albert Dock and take a ferry across the Mersey river.\n","8":"1660: the Restoration\n1665: Great Plague\n1666: Great Fire in London\nWren / St. Paul’s totally mwell rebuilt after the fire\nChanges in Government. Under Charles II -> cabinet style of government. Groups formed which were the fore-runners of the later Tories (the court party, supporting royal prerogative), and the Whigs (the country party, supporting Parliamentary rights in moderation). The name "Whigs" came from the Whiggamores, Scottish rebels against the king, while the "Tories" were named after Catholic royalist rebels in Ireland. revealing the Popish Plot \n1678 : Popish Plot: one of a series of alleged Catholic plots to murder Charles and establish Catholicism. Catholics excluded from Parliament, some arrested, some killed. \n1679: Habeus Corpus Act: justice officials responsible for the welfare of prisoners, speedy trial, illegal to be tried twice for the same crime. \n17th century: harsh social conditions & laws; religious non-conformists and Catholics faced heavy discrimination. But better in England than elsewhere in Europe : example of model government to continental commentators as Voltaire and Montesquieu. Perspective is everything.\n","3":"Mary I (Tudor) 1553 – 1558 (Queen of the Scots, catholic, executed 1587) –Bloody Mary\nMary was almost certainly the most trafic of the Tudor monarchs, her mother had been publicly humiliated and she had been rejected by her father\nShe was a stounch catholic and close friend of the Spanish monarchs.\nHer immediate action was to overturn what her father has reformed in the religiton and to return to Rome\nRestoring the Catholic doctrine was largely popular but resusrrectined the authority of Rome was less so, as intererence from outside foreign powers had long been unwelcome by the English nobility. \nBut it was Mary’s decision to persecture the English protestatns which really sealed her « bloody reputation. She has 300 protestants burnt, which, althoug little compared to continental history, shocked the English, especially as these were common people who were not a political threat to her.\nThis turned them into martyrs in the eyes of ordinary people.\nHowever, it was Mary’s foreign policy which brought her eventual downfall and provoked a crisis in the Tudor Dynasty\nShe insisted upon marrying Philipp II of Spain, which was unpopular as it was felt England would because the puppet to Spanish imperial designs, and that Philipp could even claim the English throne if Mary remained childless. Also, in support of Spain, England became involved in a disastrous war with France during which the port of Calais was lost to the French.\n1558 Mary died childless \nElizabeth I\nA true product of the Renaissance: she spoke several foreign languages, plus greek and latin, played serveral musical instruments, loved the theatres and poetry, incl. William Shakespeare\nShe was intelligent and politically gifted as she knew how to select trusted advisors and rewarded them\nThe question of religion was the most important one in 1558: unlike her brother and sister, she had no strong religious faith that she wished to impose on her poeple – to her, religion was simply a branch of politics, which she proposed to settle with two acts of parlaiment: Act of Supremacy: re-established her as head of anglican chcuhc and re-established the split with Rome\nAct of uniformity: reintroduced the 1552 protestant english preayer book with modifications – freedom with interpretation of the doctrine was permtted \nTurned a blind eye to catholic churches continuing their service\n1568 elizabeth’s cousin, mary stuart, queen of scots, forced to felle scotland after implication in the murder of her husband, but then became central in extremist catholic plots\n1570 Papal Bull excommunited elizabeth and called upon faithful catholics to depose heretic elisabeth\nMary Stuart executed in 1587\nPhilipp II sapin has proposed to elisabeth who refused, this angered him, all the more so as spanish treasure ships returning form south american were unders continual attacks of English pirates like Francis Drake who were unpunished – so under the pretext of a religiuos crusade her orgnaised an invsaions force: Spanish Armada -but The English defeat it in the English Channel in 1588 greatest power in the world with the greates navy\n","15":"The generally uneventful reign of George's brother, William IV (1830-37), was followed by that of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). movement was taken over by radical reformers and was dealt with very harshly by the authorities. \nThe Anti Corn Law League was another voice for social reform. advocated total free trade, but it was not until 1846 that the Corn Laws were completely repealed.\nThe Crimean War (1854), which was notable only in that it provided evidence of military incompetence One positive that came out of the war was the establishment of more \nOnly 18 when she came to the throne, Victoria oversaw England at the height of its overseas power. The British Empire was established in her reign & reached its greatest expanse under her. \nBut difficult start:\nThe Chartist movement began in 1839 with demands for electoral reform and universal male suffrage. The humane nursing practices 
The Indian Mutiny (1857) India had been administered by the East India Company with government co-operation. The spark for the Mutiny was provided when the army introduced new rifle cartridges which were rumoured to have been greased with lard. Any Hindu who bit off the end of the cartridge, which was essential practice when loading a gun, was committing sacrilege. The army rebelled and massacred many British officers, administrators, and families. After the Mutiny was put down the administration of India was taken over by the government of Britain.\nLEGACY\nVictoria's Empire. Much of the attention of the country was focussed abroad during this era. In 1876 Victoria was declared Empress of India and the English Empire was constantly being expanded. The prevailing attitude in Britain was that expansion of British control around the globe was good for everyone\n"}
  • 4.hcp.uk.2013

    1. 1. British History & Heritage 1485-now http://www.enjoyengland.com/Things-to-do/Historic-England/
    2. 2. Tudor England (1485 to 1603) The Tudors merchant class & colonialism http://britishempire.co.uk/timeline/16century.htm Henry VII 1485 – 1509 1497: John Calbot discovers North America Henry VIII 1509 – 1547 (large navy) 1513 : English defeat the Scots 1529-1540 English Reformation 1534: Henry VIII forms Church of England 1536: Act of Union joining England & Wales by and from and Hans Holbein, the Younger Around 1497-1543 20/10/13 2
    3. 3. Tudor England - 2 Crisis in the Tudor Dynasty – 3 children from Henry VIII Reformation and Counter Reformation Edward VI 1547 – 1553 (9-15 years old – died) (Lady Jane Grey 1553 – 1553 (17 years old - 9 days - executed) Mary I (Tudor) 1553 – 1558 Elizabeth I 1558 – 1603 / Elizabethan Times 1570: Sir Francis Drake discovers West Indies 1588: Spanish Armada 1600: East India Company Stratford upon Avon William Shakespeare’s birthplace (1st play: 1591) 20/10/13 3
    4. 4. Nicholas Hilliard https://www.artfinder.com/work/portrait-of-queen-elizabeth-i-nicholas-hilliard-1/in 20/10/13 4
    5. 5. Early Stuarts James I of England, Scotland and Ireland (1603-1625) 1605 : Gunpowder Plot Guy Fawkes Puritans Charles I (1625-49) Petition of Right in 1628 Coffee houses 1629 : Charles dissolves Parliament - 11 years. 1634: Ship Money 1640 : Short Parliament Long Parliament, -> l 1660 20/10/13 5
    6. 6. the English Civil War English Civil War (1642-1646) Oliver Cromwell - New Model Army. 1644: Battle of Marston Moor The Parliamentary cause became increasingly entangled with extreme radical Protestantism 1645: Battle of Naseby 1646: Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold 1949: death of Charles 20/10/13 6
    7. 7. Stuart England 2 1649-60: Commonwealth 1653-58: Protectorate under Cromwell - Radical protestantism 1658: Cromwell dies Whitehall Palace from the River Thames by Wenceslaus Hollar, c1650, showing the Banqueting House and, to its right, the Tudor great hall. http://www.hrp.org.uk/BanquetingHouse/ By Robert Walker, 1649; National Gallery 20/10/13 7
    8. 8. Stuart England 1660: the Restoration 1665: Great Plague 1666: Great Fire in London Wren / St. Paul’s totally rebuilt after the fire Changes in Government. Under Charles II 1678 : Popish Plot 1679: Habeus Corpus Act 17th century 20/10/13 8
    9. 9. English Commercial influence - 1625 Britain = from 1707 - period of 1497 to 1707 = English Empire - although Wales was part of it 20/10/13 http://britishempire.co.uk/timeline/17century.htm 9
    10. 10. 1713 Treaty of Utrecht http://britishempire.co.uk/timeline/18century.htm 20/10/13 10
    11. 11. Georgian England (1714-1837) - 1 Georgian England 1 (1714-1760) 1714-27 1727-60 1753 1755-63 George I . . . 20/10/13 11
    12. 12. Georgian England - 2 Georgian England 2 (1760-1837) 1760-1820 1793-1815 George III . Early industrial revolution & social unrest (luddite protest) 1815, 1828 Corn Laws 1829 Catholic emancipation bill 1830-37 William IV http://britishempire.co.uk/timeline/18century.htm http://britishempire.co.uk/media/biography/madnessofkinggeorge.htm 20/10/13 12
    13. 13. Country houses & landscape Gardens revolution in art and architecture: age of the grand country house landscape gardens Castle Howard, Stowe (Lord Cobham). Lancelot Brown: "Capability" Brown Country house = a mansion Harewood house, Yorkshire Stourhead (Henry Hoare, 1741) (between Bristol & Bournemouth) 20/10/13 13
    14. 14. XVIIIth c. portrait & caricature painting In 1743–1745 William Hogarth six pictures of Marriage à-la-mode National Gallery, London Mr and Mrs Andrews, Thomas Gainsborough, about 1750 Leading portraitists: Thomas Gainsborough; Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the Royal Academy of Arts; George Romney Joseph Wright of Derby well known for his minute candlelight pictures, George Stubbs for his animal paintings. 14 http://nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/explore-the-paintings/3020/10/13 highlight-paintings
    15. 15. Victorian Times (Queen Victoria 1837-1901) But difficult start: The Chartist movement 1839The Anti Corn Law League The Crimean War (1854) The Chartist movement The Indian Mutiny (1857) LEGACY Expansion of British Empire 1876 Empress of India Victorian values 20/10/13 15
    16. 16. The Great Exhibition, 1851 Victoria's consort, Prince Albert The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations Hyde Park showpiece: Crystal Palace (architect: Joseph Paxton) 1848 feet long and 408 wide, enclosing 772,784 square feet (19 acres) area six times that of St. Paul’s structure : 4000 tons of iron, 900,000 feet of glass 202 miles of sash bars 17,000 exhibitors 6 million visitors 20/10/13 16
    17. 17. 20/10/13 17
    18. 18. Late Victorian England A tale of Two Prime Ministers Gladstone and Disraeli The Irish Question Legal reform proceeded slowly Ballot Act of 1872 Victorian literature Urbanization & Industrial Revolution British pop 1801 16M -> 1901 40 M. – urbanisation Over London by rails Gustave Doré 1870 Seaside Resorts: Blackpool and Brighton The new aristocracy 20/10/13 18
    19. 19. North England: WHC listed Ironbridge Saltaire 20/10/13 19
    20. 20. Arts & Architecture Gothic revival new Palace of Westminster, 18371867, Charles Barry http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/g/gothi c-revival Arts and Crafts movement http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articl es/t/the-arts-and-crafts-movement/ New Raphaelites http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/p aintings/glossary/pre-raphaelite http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tatebritain/exhibition/pre-raphaelitesvictorian-avant-garde 20/10/13 20
    21. 21. Colonial past Areas of the world that were at one time part of the British Empire 20/10/13 21
    22. 22. British Empire 1915 20/10/13 22

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