Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • {"16":"1215 Civil War\n1215 The Magna Carta is signed by King John\n1220 Work starts on Salisbury Cathedral\n1282 - 1283 King Edward conquers Wales. Llewellyn ab Gruffydd, the country's last prince is killed\n1296 King Edward invades Scotland and takes the Stone of Destiny from Scone to Westminster\n1297 The Battle of Stirling Bridge - The Scots under William Wallace defeat the English\nThe Battle of Falkirk. King Edward defeats Wallace.\n","11":"Julius Caesar had paid earlier visits to England in 55 and 54 BC \n43 AD the emperor Claudius ordered the invasion of England: the Romans quickly established control over the tribes of southeastern England: Londinium (London), Verulamium (St. Albans) and Camulodunum (Colchester). One British chieftain of the Catuvallauni tribe known as Caractacus, who initially fled from Camulodunum (Colchester) to south Wales, stirred up some resistance until his defeat and capture in 51 AD\nquiet for ten years or so until Prasutagus the king of the Iceni tribe, died.  His queen, Boudicca, a little upset at having her lands taken from her by the Romans and her two daughters raped, opted for action rather than diplomacy. The Iceni together with their southern neighbours the Trinovantes revolted, burning to the ground Londinium (London), Verulamium (St. Albans) and Camulodunum (Colchester).  Boudicca poisoned herself after her army was virtually annihilated by Roman legions returning from active service in North Wales. \n70's and 80’: under the command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, extended their control into northern and western England.  Legions were located at York, Chester, defeating the Caledonian tribes in Scotland.\nThe Romans gradually gave up their conquests in Scotland until in 122 AD the emperor Hadrian ordered the construction of Hadrian's Wall (80 miles) from to Carlisle to Newcastle. Designed to mark the boundaries of the Roman Empire, much can still be seen today.  When Hadrian died in 138 AD his successor Antonius Pius abandoned the newly completed wall and again pushed northwards.  A new frontier, the Antonine Wall was established between the Forth and Clyde rivers in Scotland.  Around 160 AD it was abandoned and thereafter Hadrian's Wall again became the northern boundary of the Roman Empire.\nResistance to Roman rule continued in Wales, particularly inspired by the Druids, the priests of the native Celtic peoples.\nIn Britain, the Romans always had to maintain a significant military presence to control the threat from the unconquered tribes. But most people in England settled down to Roman order and discipline.  Towns appeared for the first time across the country, including York, Chester, St. Albans, Bath, Lincoln, Gloucester and Colchester. All of these major centres are still linked today by the system of Roman military roads radiating from the great port of London such as Ermine Street, Watling Street and the Fosse Way. These roads also allowed for the distribution of Roman luxuries such as spices, wines, glass etc. brought in from other regions of the Empire. \nIt is likely that the Romanisation of Britain principally affected only the rich.  This aristocracy may have increased status by adopting Roman ways and practices such as regular bathing. The vast majority of the populace would remain relatively untouched by Roman civilisation, living off the land.\n","6":"Rillaton Gold Cup\na burial cairn (grave) on Bodmin Moor, at Rillaton (Cornwall). In the mound (round barrow): a stone-lined vault, 2.4 m long and 1.1 m wide containing a human skeleton accompanied by this gold cup, a bronze dagger and other objects\nThe main body of the cup was beaten out of a single lump of gold of high purity. The corrugated profile would have required great skill to achieve. In addition to being aesthetically pleasing, it added strength to the thin sheet metal.\nThe Mold gold cape (preh.)in burial mound, remains unparalleled to this day. around remains of a skeleton. \nStrips of bronze, quantities of amber beads but only one of the beads reached the British Museum.\nThe cape would have been unsuitable for everyday wear severely restricts upper arm movement -> ceremonies (religious authority?)\nOne of the finest examples of prehistoric sheet-gold \nworking : quite unique in form and design labouriously beaten out of a single ingot of gold, then embellished with intense decoration of ribs and bosses to mimic multiple strings of beads amid folds of cloth. bronze strips may have served to strengthen the adornment\n","12":"Vindolanda:\none of the main roman military posts on the northern frontier of Britain before the building of Hadrian's Wall. \nExcavations (1973) uncovered writing tablets which had been preserved in waterlogged conditions in rubbish deposits in and around the commanding officer's residence. - oldest surviving handwritten documents in Britain.\nMost tablets: official military documents relating to the auxiliary units stationed at the fort\nsome private letters sent to or written by the serving soldiers. \n-> The content is fascinating, giving us a remarkable insight into the working and private lives of the Roman garrison. They also display a great variety of individual handwriting, which adds to our knowledge of Roman cursive writing around AD 100.\nThe tablets are not made of wood and wax, previously thought to be the most popular medium for writing in the Roman world apart from papyrus. Instead they are wafer thin slices of wood, written on with carbon ink and quill-type pens. Even after specialised conservation the exacavated tablets are fragile and require a carefully controlled environment.\n","7":"Hill Forts - these hilltop enclosures are the youngest of the prehistoric remains to be seen. defensive structures enclosing high places with rings of ditches and banks. \nex: Maiden Castle in Dorset \nThe Iron Age is the age of the "Celt" in Britain. Over the 500 leading up to the first Roman invasion a Celtic culture established itself throughout the British Isles. \nWarring tribes ≠ one people at the time\nThe "Celts » exist largely in the magnificence of their art and the reports of the Romans who fought them: mix of reportage and political propaganda (barbarians /a great civilizing force). history written by the winners …\n","13":"The Anglo-Saxons (410-793)\nvery little known, primarily because the invaders (Germany, Denmark, Holland) were an illiterate & pagan people.\n7 separate kingdoms: the Saxons (south and west), the Angles (east and north), and the Jutes (Isle of Wight + mainland opposite, today around Southampton). Never conquered Cornwall, Wales or Scotland\nprobably thought of themselves as separate peoples, but shared a common language and similar customs (warfare). \n597: St Augustine returns from Rome and christianizes Britain\n664: Synod of Whitby : the Roman church is chosen over Celtic faith\nThe Viking Age (793-1055)\n1042-1066: Edward the Confessor: last Anglo-saxon King\n1055: Westminster Abbey is completed\nHeritage\nFew surviving Anglo-Saxon buildings: violent invasions (Vikings).\nThe Danes burned and destroyed most of the settlements for plunder and martial glory. Surviving examples of Anglo-Saxon architecture date from either 600-725 or 900-1050. \nMost Saxon buildings were constructed of wood with wattle and daub walls. The only buildings the Anglo-Saxons tended to build in more permanent stone were their monasteries and churches\n","8":"11 hoards of torcs, ingots and coins found at Snettisham since 1948 (3 hoards were ploughed to the surface, now in Norwich Castle Museum, \nHoards D and E, found while ploughing in 1950, were acquired by the British Museum.\nIn 1990 a huge deposit of broken torcs, bracelets, ingots and coins (Hoard F) was discovered, prompting the British Museum to organize an archaeological excavation: 5 more hoards were found: G, H, J and K and the more impressive Hoard L: silver and bronze but mainly gold torcs.\nMost of the hoards were buried about 70 BC, and the entire collection is the largest deposit of gold and silver from Iron Age Europe, weighing in at around 20 kg of silver and 15 kg of gold.\n","3":"a simple bank and ditch enclosing an area of land. The bank is outside the ditch, so they would not have been defensive enclosures, but were more likely a form of religious and ceremonial gathering place. The henges are younger than causewayed camps -oldest built about 3300 B.C\n","20":"597 AD : St Augustine, sent by the Pope as a missionary, established his seat in Canterbury.\n1170: Archbishop Thomas Becket murdered in the Cathedral -> pilgrims (Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, 1387)\n","9":"Roman Baths \na public bathing complex constructed over a geothermal spring - early centuries A.D. \nUnesco world heritage city of Bath\n","15":"The Normans built castles, imposed a feudal system and carried out a census of the country\nThe Battle of Stamford Bridge: Saxon victory over invading Vikings\nThe Battle of Hastings: The invading Normans defeat the Saxons (French Norman Conquest)\nWilliam of Normandy defeats Harold and becomes King of England\n1070 Work starts on Canterbury Cathedral\n1078 Work starts on The Tower of London\n1080 - 1100 Great monastery and cathedral building begins\nThe Domesday Book is compiled (complete inventory of Britain)\n1154 Work starts on York Minster (cathedral)\n1167 Oxford University Founded\nArchbishop of Canterbury, Thomas a Becket is murdered\nby the knights of Henry II\nPopulation of London exceeds 30,000 for the first time\n","4":"Standing stone circles are found throughout the British Isles\nStonehenge, England.\n(henge 2008 BC) 2500 B.C. : earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones with several hundred burial mounds.\nsuggested functions : an astronomical observatory, a religious site, a domain of the dead, or a place of healing. It has also been connected to Arthurian legend.\n"}
  • 3.hcp.uk.2013

    1. 1. Lecture 3 THE UNITED KINGDOM Geography, history, culture & heritage
    2. 2. TIMELINE http://www.enjoyengland.com/Things-to-do/Historic-England/ http://www.visitbritain.com/fr/FR/ 14/10/13 2
    3. 3. Prehistoric Britain THE NEOLITHIC ERA (4000 - 2000 B.C.) + BRONZE AGE BRITAIN (2500 - 600 B.C.) Silbury Hill Earth Mound 4600 BC (Wiltshire) The largest man-made prehistoric mound in Europe 40 m. high x 167 m. diameter barrows / barrow mounds (tumuli tombs) stone circles (3300 BC, 900) henges 14/10/13 3
    4. 4. The Neolithic & Bronze Age heritage The Standing Stones of Callanish (Isle of Lewis, Scotland) 2900-2600 B.C. Stonehenge, England 14/10/13 4
    5. 5. http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/online_tours/britain/our_top_ten_british_treasures/our_top_ten _british_treasures.aspx 14/10/13 5
    6. 6. n°1: Rillaton Gold Cup, Bronze Age 8,5 cm (¼ existing) N° 2 The Mold gold cape (preh.) 14/10/13 6
    7. 7. IRON AGE (700 B.C. TO 50 A.D.) Hill Forts AD commonly refers to Anno Domini, Latin for "In the Year of (Our) Lord", applied to years following 1 BC in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. 14/10/13 7
    8. 8. n°3 British Treasure at the British museum: the snetthisham hoard (Norfolk) Iron Age Europe Gold Torc, 1kg (Hoard L) 14/10/13 8
    9. 9. Roman England (43-410 AD) (end 476 in Europe) BC 55-54 The Roman Baths (Bath, England) http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/ http://www.thermaebathspa.com/ 122 – 410 AD Hadrian’s wall 14/10/13 9
    10. 10. 14/10/13 10
    11. 11. AD 43-51 : Caractacus 61 : PrasutagusBoudicca 70-80s 122-138 Hadrian 160 14/10/13 11
    12. 12. n° 4 British Treasure at the BM: The Vindolanda tablets a business letter from Octavius, an entrepreneur supplying goods on a considerable scale to the Roman army 14/10/13 12
    13. 13. Anglo-Saxon & Viking Britain Bradford Church, Wiltshire (about 705) The Anglo-Saxons (410-793) very little know 597 664: Synod of Whitby The Viking Age (793-1055) 1042-1066: Edward the Confessor: last Anglo-saxon King 1055: Westminster Abbey is completed Heritage wattle and daub walls Westminster Abbey 14/10/13 13
    14. 14. 14/10/13 14
    15. 15. The Middle Ages: 1066-1485 1066 The Battle of Stamford Bridge 1067 The Battle of Hastings 1070 Canterbury Cathedral 1078 Tower of London 1080 - 1100 monastery and cathedral 1086 The Domesday Book 1154 York Minster (cathedral) 1167 Oxford University 1170 Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas a Becket 1171 London Bayeux tapestry (70 m. long) 14/10/13 15
    16. 16. The Middle Ages: 1066-1485 1215 1282 - 1283 1298 Civil War - Magna Carta Salisbury Cathedral King Edward conquers Wales. Llewellyn ab Gruffydd, The Battle of Falkirk. King Edward defeats Wallace. 1306 Robert Bruce 1337 - 1453 Hundred Years' War with France 1348 - 49 The Black Death 1415 Azincourt 1453The Hundred Years War ends 1455 Dynastic Civil War: The War of the Roses starts (rival houses of Lancaster and York) 14/10/13 16
    17. 17. http://www.warwickcastle.com/ 14/10/13 17
    18. 18. 14/10/13 18
    19. 19. http://www.hrp.org.uk/ 14/10/13 19
    20. 20. Canterbury Cathedral (1070-) 597 AD : St Augustine 1170: Archbishop Thomas Becket 14/10/13 20
    21. 21. Vocab upland: plateaux, hauteurs, hautes terres moor: lande / more, maure/amarrer, mouiller cairn: manmade pile of stones, often in a conical form. They are usually found in uplands, on moorlands, on mountaintops or near waterways)/ terrier (= cairn / terrier) ingots : lingots torcs : a rigid piece of personal adornment made from twisted metal. It can be worn as an arm ring or necklace that is open-ended at the front. Smaller torcs worn around the wrist are called bracelets instead. Torcs are a type of celtic jewellery, produced in the European Iron Age (8th century BC - 3rd century AD.), torque waterlogged: imprégné d’eau, imbibé, détrempé (sol) wafer: gaufrette, hostie, cachet (seal), silicon wafer: tranche de silicium; wafer-thin / wafery: fin comme du papier à cigarette/une pelure d’oignon 14/10/13 21