Lecture 1
ANGLO-SAXON COUNTRIES
AN INTRODUCTION
Dr. Cécile Doustaly
30/09/13 1
The most spoken languages in the world
30/09/13 2
•o0
•0o
•0o
•0oo
•0o
•0o
•oo0
•0
English is now the third most spoken language
in the world (2008)
30/09/13 3
English
30/09/13 4
« English is far more world wide in its distribution than all other spoken languages.  It is
an officia...
List of English speaking countries
30/09/13 5
• Antigua &
Barbuda
• Australia*
• Bahamas (the) *
• Bangladesh *
• Barbados...
I. THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS
30/09/13 6
Since 1949: 54 countries spread on the 6 continents and
five oceans
http://www.t...
The « old Commonwealth » /
The British Commonwealth
30/09/13 7
1931 United
Kingdom,
Canada,
Australia, New
Zealand, South
...
30/09/13 8
The end of the British Empire
30/09/13 9
"There go my footholds.. », In March 1956, the cartoonist Behrendt gives his view...
Caption: "One shotgun wedding is enough, but two at once"
The British cartoonist, Michael Cummings, portrays the dilemma f...
The New Commonwealth
30/09/13 11
How many other members are there?
How can we describe them?
Which percentage of the world...
30/09/13 12
Members of the New Commonwealth
Date of Commonwealth membership
30/09/13 13
1957 Ghana, Malaysia (formerly Malaya)
1960 Ni...
Commonwealth in 2013
30/09/13 14
• 32 of the 54 Commonwealth States are "small states"
and 25 are small island nations
• T...
The Commonwealth: history and definitions
30/09/13 15
The Commonwealth of Nations, created in 1949
(formerly British Commo...
The Commonwealth: organization
30/09/13 16
The members of the Commonwealth acknowledge the British monarch as symbolic
hea...
The Commonwealth: purpose
30/09/13 17
The association does not have a written constitution, but it does have a
MISSION STA...
II. THE ANGLOSPHERE
30/09/13 18
Population in million (2013 estimate - Censuses)
FIGURES ROUNDED
United States 317 Puerto ...
The Anglosphere: definition
30/09/13 19
The concept refers to a group of English-speaking nations
sharing characteristics ...
The Anglosphere: exceptions…
30/09/13 20
. Political:
The United States, South Africa, and Ireland have republican
systems...
Cooperation and alliances
30/09/13 21
The anglosphere counts various networks:
- military alliances and intelligence arran...
The UKUSA Community
30/09/13 22
- alliance of English-speaking nations led by the US & UK to gather
intelligence via signa...
Differences with other English-speaking
international groups
30/09/13 23
- military power
- economic prosperity
- traditio...
An anglospheric model ?
30/09/13 24
A 6-country model: the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland, Australia, New
Zealand
• With 3 r...
James C. Bennett,
THE ANGLOSPHERE CHALLENGE
(2004)
30/09/13 25
“Despite repeated predictions of the demise of
America and ...
The Third Anglosphere Century
30/09/13 26
Subtitle
The English Speaking World in
an era of Transition
2007
Online:
http://...
America 3.0: Rebooting American Prosperity in
the 21st Century-Why America's Greatest Days
Are Yet to Come
30/09/13 27
Jam...
America 3.0 - Summary
30/09/13 28
“America’s greatest days are yet to come.
We are in a painful transition period. Our gov...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

1.markets.2013

735 views
526 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
735
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1.markets.2013

  1. 1. Lecture 1 ANGLO-SAXON COUNTRIES AN INTRODUCTION Dr. Cécile Doustaly 30/09/13 1
  2. 2. The most spoken languages in the world 30/09/13 2 •o0 •0o •0o •0oo •0o •0o •oo0 •0
  3. 3. English is now the third most spoken language in the world (2008) 30/09/13 3
  4. 4. English 30/09/13 4 « English is far more world wide in its distribution than all other spoken languages.  It is an official language in 52 countries as well as many small colonies and territories.  In addition, 1/4 to 1/3 of the people in the world understand and speak English to some degree.  It has become the most useful language to learn for international travel and is now the de facto language of diplomacy.  In 2001, the 189 member countries in the United Nations were asked what language they wish to use for communication with embassies from other countries.  More than 120 chose English, 40 selected French, and 20 wanted to use Spanish.  Those who wanted English to be the common language included all of the former Soviet republics, Viet Nam, and most of the Arab world.  English is also the dominant language in electronic communication, particularly on the Internet.  However, the percentage of Internet users who are not native English speakers is increasing rapidly, especially in Asia.  In fact, China estimated in 2008 that there are now more people who have online access in their country than in the U.S., which had been the global leader in Internet access.In reality, the distribution of languages globally is very complex and difficult to easily describe.  Numerous migrations of people over the last several centuries have resulted in most large nations now having many different languages.  There are at least 165 languages spoken in the United States today.  Consequently, it is somewhat misleading to describe the U.S. as being an English speaking country.  The same caution applies to other multicultural nations as well  http://anthro.palomar.edu/language/language_1.htm
  5. 5. List of English speaking countries 30/09/13 5 • Antigua & Barbuda • Australia* • Bahamas (the) * • Bangladesh * • Barbados * • Belize * • Bermuda • Botswana* • Brunei* • Cameroon* • Canada * • Cayman Islands • Liberia • Malawi • Malta * • Mauritius • New Zealand * • Nigeria * • Pakistan • Papua New Guinea * • Philippines • Seychelles * • Sierra Leone • SouthAfrica * * Commonwealth countries • Dominica * • Fiji * • Gambia,The • Ghana * • Gibraltar • India * • Ireland • Jamaica * • Kenya * • Lesotho * • Sri Lanka * • Swaziland * • Tanzania * • Trinidad and Tobago * • Uganda * • United Kingdom* • United States • Zambia * • Zimbabwe
  6. 6. I. THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS 30/09/13 6 Since 1949: 54 countries spread on the 6 continents and five oceans http://www.thecommonwealth.org/
  7. 7. The « old Commonwealth » / The British Commonwealth 30/09/13 7 1931 United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa (left in 1961; rejoined 1994) 1947 India, Pakistan (left in 1972; rejoined 1989) 1948 Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)
  8. 8. 30/09/13 8
  9. 9. The end of the British Empire 30/09/13 9 "There go my footholds.. », In March 1956, the cartoonist Behrendt gives his view of the decline of the former British colonial empire.
  10. 10. Caption: "One shotgun wedding is enough, but two at once" The British cartoonist, Michael Cummings, portrays the dilemma facing the United Kingdom: remain faithful to the Commonwealth or join the European Economic Community. (BLIESENER, Erich. Europische Integration als Thema der Karikatur. Heidelberg: Moos, 1962, p. 90.) 30/09/13 10
  11. 11. The New Commonwealth 30/09/13 11 How many other members are there? How can we describe them? Which percentage of the world population?
  12. 12. 30/09/13 12
  13. 13. Members of the New Commonwealth Date of Commonwealth membership 30/09/13 13 1957 Ghana, Malaysia (formerly Malaya) 1960 Nigeria 1961 Cyprus, Sierra Leone, Tanganyika 1962 Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Jamaica 1963 Kenya, Zanzibar 1964 Malawi, Malta, Zambia, Tanzania (union of Tanganyika with Zanzibar) 1965 The Gambia, Singapore 1966 Guyana, Botswana, Lesotho, Barbados 1968 Mauritius, Swaziland, Nauru (full member since 1999) 1970 Tonga, Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) 1971 Fiji (left in 1987; rejoined 1997) 1972 Bangladesh 1973 The Bahamas 1974 Grenada 1975 Papua New Guinea 1976 Seychelles 1978 Solomon Islands, Dominica, Tuvalu (full member since 2000) 1979 Kiribati, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (full member since 1985) 1980 Vanuatu 1981 Belize, Antigua and Barbuda 1982 Maldives (joined as special member; full member since 1985) 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1984 Brunei 1990 Namibia 1995 Cameroon, Mozambique 2009 Rwanda http://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries
  14. 14. Commonwealth in 2013 30/09/13 14 • 32 of the 54 Commonwealth States are "small states" and 25 are small island nations • The population of the Commonwealth represents almost 30% of the world’s population (= 2.3 billion people out of 7.1 billion inhabitants) • About half of the Commonwealth population is under 18, 60% under 30 http://thecommonwealth.org
  15. 15. The Commonwealth: history and definitions 30/09/13 15 The Commonwealth of Nations, created in 1949 (formerly British Commonwealth of Nations, 1931–49) is a voluntary or "free" association of 54 independent ("sovereign ") states comprising the United Kingdom and a number of its former dependencies who have chosen to maintain ties of friendship and practical cooperation in the common interests of their peoples and in the promotion of international understanding and world peace. The members of the Commonwealth are all former territories of the British empire, except Mozambique & Rwanda They therefore share a common history, language and culture.
  16. 16. The Commonwealth: organization 30/09/13 16 The members of the Commonwealth acknowledge the British monarch as symbolic head of their association although Queen Elizabeth II has no political power. A few members (16 Commonwealth Realms) recognize her as their head of State. The Commonwealth differs from other international bodies in that it has no formal constitution or bylaws. The members have no legal or formal obligation to one another: they are held together by shared history, traditions, similar institutions as well as by economic self-interest. The Commonwealth Secretariat, established in 1965, is the main intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth, facilitating consultation and co-operation among member governments and countries. The Headquarters of the Commonwealth, Malborough House, London
  17. 17. The Commonwealth: purpose 30/09/13 17 The association does not have a written constitution, but it does have a MISSION STATEMENT "We work as a trusted partner for all Commonwealth people as a force: - for peace, democracy, equality, and good governance; - a catalyst for global consensus building; - and a source of assistance for sustainable economic and social development and poverty eradication. » (Commonwealth Secretary, 2008) READ New Charter in 2012 : http://thecommonwealth.org/our-charter Governance Commonwealth action is based upon consultation between members and the UK has the same voice as the other countries.
  18. 18. II. THE ANGLOSPHERE 30/09/13 18 Population in million (2013 estimate - Censuses) FIGURES ROUNDED United States 317 Puerto Rico 4 United Kingdom 63.5 Ireland 5 Canada 34.5 South Africa 4.5 Australia 22 New Zealand 4.5
  19. 19. The Anglosphere: definition 30/09/13 19 The concept refers to a group of English-speaking nations sharing characteristics rooted in or attributed to the historical experience of the British people: - political and judiciary: British-inspired democratic political institutions (legislative houses, regular elections, strong executive branch, respect for the rule of law) / common law legal system (trial by judge and/or jury, etc) - ideological and economic liberalism, capitalism, free market economies - cultural common artistic references (writers, philosophers, artists, complementing the native cultural corpus (celtic and aboriginal cultures, Hollywood…) BUT THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS …
  20. 20. The Anglosphere: exceptions… 30/09/13 20 . Political: The United States, South Africa, and Ireland have republican systems of government while the others are ruled by constitutional monarchies . Legal: - Quebec and Louisiana do not use Common Law - Scotland and South Africa use hybrid legal systems etc. ->> The concept of the anglosphere is therefore a useful tool to understand common points and strengths, but should not lead to oversimplifications, hence the importance of studying regional and national units separately
  21. 21. Cooperation and alliances 30/09/13 21 The anglosphere counts various networks: - military alliances and intelligence arrangements (the UKUSA Community runs Echelon) Especially between the US, the UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand - some free trade areas
  22. 22. The UKUSA Community 30/09/13 22 - alliance of English-speaking nations led by the US & UK to gather intelligence via signals intelligence (Echelon network) - Constituent agencies: . Australia (Defense Signals Directorate, DSD) . Canada (Communications Security Establishment, CSE) . New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau, GCSB) . United Kingdom (Government Communications Headquarters, GCHQ) . United States (National Security Agency, NSA)
  23. 23. Differences with other English-speaking international groups 30/09/13 23 - military power - economic prosperity - traditional and established civil rights and personal freedoms - high global cultural influence FREE ALLIES OFTEN ALLIES: military allies in major world conflicts in the 20th century (WWI, WWII, Cold War) the US, the UK, and Australia co- operated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq / other NATO allies of the US did not BUT SOMETIMES DIVIDED 1950s, 1960s: divided during the Suez crisis and the Vietnam War 1980s: New Zealand declared a nuclear-free zone around the country
  24. 24. An anglospheric model ? 30/09/13 24 A 6-country model: the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand • With 3 regions: – North America: United States of America + Canada – Europe: United Kingdom + Ireland – Australasia: Australia + New Zealand • 3 "core" nation states dominating: – 3 smaller "satellite" states – 3 entire cultural region » • The 3 satellite states have developed foreign policies that place a greater emphasis on multilateral rather than unilateral institutions – Ireland: first a neutral nation, then a member of the EU – 2003 invasion of Iraq: refusal of Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand to involve themselves
  25. 25. James C. Bennett, THE ANGLOSPHERE CHALLENGE (2004) 30/09/13 25 “Despite repeated predictions of the demise of America and the English-speaking nations as the world's predominant culture, James C. Bennett believes that this gap will widen in the coming decades. Coining the term anglosphere to describe a loose coalition based on a common language and heritage, Bennett believes that traits common to these countries--a particularly strong and independent civil society; openness and receptivity to the world, its people and ideas; and a dynamic economy--have uniquely positioned them to prosper in a time of dramatic technological and scientific change. In a wide-ranging exploration back to the Industrial Revolution and into the future, The Anglosphere Challenge gives voice to a growing movement on both sides of the Atlantic.”
  26. 26. The Third Anglosphere Century 30/09/13 26 Subtitle The English Speaking World in an era of Transition 2007 Online: http://explorersfoundation.org/archive/be nnettjc_third_anglosphere.pdf
  27. 27. America 3.0: Rebooting American Prosperity in the 21st Century-Why America's Greatest Days Are Yet to Come 30/09/13 27 James C. Bennett is a writer and entrepreneur. He was co-founder of two private space transportation companies and other technology ventures. He has written extensively on technology, culture, and society. He is best known for his writing on the concept of the Anglosphere, the emerging global community of English-speaking peoples. He is the author of The Anglosphere Challenge (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), The Third Anglosphere Century (Heritage Foundation, 2007), a former columnist for United Press International, and has contributed to The New Criterion, National Review, The National Interest, The New Atlantis, National Post (Canada), and The Daily Telegraph (London). Michael J. Lotus writes as “Lexington Green” for the Chicago Boyz blog, on history, politics and books. He is the editor and lead contributor to The Clausewitz Roundtable (Ever Victorious Press, 2013). He is the 2012 winner of the Explorer’s Foundation Cobden- Bright award for his contribution to the Anglosphere. He has a BA in economics from the University of Chicago, and a JD from Indiana University, Bloomington. He practices law in Chicago.
  28. 28. America 3.0 - Summary 30/09/13 28 “America’s greatest days are yet to come. We are in a painful transition period. Our government is crushingly expensive, failing at its basic functions, and unable to keep its promises. It does not work and it cannot continue as it is. But the inevitable end of big government does not mean the end of America. It only means the end of one phase of American life. America is poised to enter a new era of freedom and prosperity. The cultural roots of the American people go back at least fifteen centuries, and make us individualistic, enterprising, and liberty-loving. The Founding generation of the United States lived in a world of family farms and small businesses, America 1.0. This world faded away and was replaced by an industrialized world of big cities, big business, big labor unions and big government, America 2.0. Now America 2.0 is outdated and crumbling, while America 3.0 is struggling to be born. This new world will bring immense productivity, rapid technological progress, greater scope for individual and family-scale autonomy, and a leaner and strictly limited government. America has made one major transition already, and industrial America became an economic colossus. We are now making a new transition, which will surprise many Americans, and astonish the world. “

×