II. THE ANGLOSPHERE

Population in million (2013 estimate - Censuses)
FIGURES ROUNDED
United States
United Kingdom
Canada
...
The Anglosphere: definition
The concept refers to a group of English-speaking nations sharing
characteristics rooted in or...
The Anglosphere: exceptions…
. Political:
The United States, South Africa, and Ireland have republican
systems of governme...
Cooperation and alliances
The anglosphere counts various networks:
- military alliances and intelligence arrangements (the...
The UKUSA Community

- alliance of English-speaking nations led by the US & UK to gather
intelligence via signals intellig...
Differences with other English-speaking
international groups
- military power
- economic prosperity
- traditional and esta...
An anglospheric model ?
A 6-country model:
the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand
• With 3 regions:
– No...
NAFTA
The North American Free Trade Agreement (1992)

The NAFTA Secretariat, comprised of a Canadian Section, a Mexican Se...
The APEC

21 countries representing approximately (2007):
- 49% of world trade
- 55% of world GDP
- 49% of world trade
III. ANGLO-SAXON COUNTRIES
IN THE WORLD ECONOMY

Source: CIA World Factbook 2008 – 2008 estimates
The anglo-saxon model of capitalism

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

The philosophical origins
Free trade & competition
Investmen...
International organizations

20/10/13

12
The World Trade Organization (WTO)
GATT 1947 -> WTO 1995, OMC in French
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) (1961)

OECD member states (2008)
Original members are in da...
G8

(G 6 1973, G7 1976)

Dark green: countries which belong to the G 8 (Group of Eight).
Blue : countries which do not but...
The G 20 of industrial nations

The G20 of industrial nations is an economic forum of 20 countries, formed in 1999
(G8 + A...
Another G 20 ?

G 20 is also a trade negotiations bloc of 20 developing nations
What are the major
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
involved in culture and tourism?
http://www.unesco.org
The Organization
Introducing UNESCO
Governing bodies
Director General
Secretariat
Main Programming D...
Unesco:
the International Decade for Rapprochement of Cultures
CULTURE / UNESCO: 2013-2022 set as the International Decade...
Article on Unesco
(photocopy given out)

20/10/13

21
World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible
for the promotion o...
Current developments & forecasts
International tourist arrivals grew by nearly 4% in 2011 to 983 million;
International to...
Why tourism?
“Why Tourism?
Tourism – an Economic and Social Phenomenon
Over the decades, tourism has experienced continued...
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  • {"16":"The G-20 was established to bring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy. It is an informal forum that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability. By contributing to the strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions, the G-20 helps to support growth and development across the globe.\nThe G-20 was created as a response both to the financial crises of the late 1990s and to a growing recognition that key emerging-market countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance.\nThe members of the G-20 are the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries +the European Union, represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central Bank. To ensure quality, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the President of the World Bank, plus the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank, also participate in G-20 meetings\n","22":"As the leading international organization in the field of tourism, UNWTO promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge and tourism policies worldwide. \nUNWTO generates market knowledge, promotes competitive and sustainable tourism policies and instruments, fosters tourism education and training, and works to make tourism an effective tool for development through technical assistance projects in over 100 countries around the world. \n"}
  • 1.b.hcp.uk.2013

    1. 1. II. THE ANGLOSPHERE Population in million (2013 estimate - Censuses) FIGURES ROUNDED United States United Kingdom Canada Australia 317 63.5 34.5 22 Puerto Rico Ireland South Africa New Zealand 4 5 4.5 4.5 20/10/13 1
    2. 2. The Anglosphere: definition The concept refers to a group of English-speaking nations sharing characteristics rooted in or attributed to the historical experience of the British people: - political and judiciary British-inspired democratic political institutions (legislative houses, regular elections, strong executive branch, respect for the rule of law) / common law legal system (trial by judge and/or jury, etc) - ideological and economical: liberalism, capitalism, free market economies - cultural: common artistic references (writers, philosophers, artists, complementing the native cultural corpus (celtic and aboriginal cultures, Hollywood…) BUT THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS …
    3. 3. The Anglosphere: exceptions… . Political: The United States, South Africa, and Ireland have republican systems of government while the others are ruled by constitutional monarchies . Legal: - Quebec and Louisiana do not use Common Law - Scotland and South Africa use hybrid legal systems etc. ->> The concept of the anglosphere is therefore a useful tool to understand common points and strengths, but should not lead to oversimplifications, hence the importance of studying regional and national units separately
    4. 4. Cooperation and alliances The anglosphere counts various networks: - military alliances and intelligence arrangements (the UKUSA Community runs Echelon) Especially between the US, the UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand - some free trade areas
    5. 5. The UKUSA Community - alliance of English-speaking nations led by the US & UK to gather intelligence via signals intelligence (Echelon network) - Constituent agencies: . Australia (Defense Signals Directorate, DSD) . Canada (Communications Security Establishment, CSE) . New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau, GCSB) . United Kingdom (Government Communications Headquarters, GCHQ) . United States (National Security Agency, NSA)
    6. 6. Differences with other English-speaking international groups - military power - economic prosperity - traditional and established civil rights and personal freedoms - high global cultural influence FREE ALLIES OFTEN ALLIES: military allies in major world conflicts in the 20th century (WWI, WWII, Cold War) the US, the UK, and Australia co-operated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq / other NATO allies of the US did not BUT SOMETIMES DIVIDED 1950s, 1960s: divided during the Suez crisis and the Vietnam War 1980s: New Zealand declared a nuclear-free zone around the country
    7. 7. An anglospheric model ? A 6-country model: the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand • With 3 regions: – North America: United States of America + Canada – Europe: United Kingdom + Ireland – Australasia: Australia + New Zealand • 3 "core" nation states dominating: – 3 smaller "satellite" states – 3 entire cultural region » • The 3 satellite states have developed foreign policies that place a greater emphasis on multilateral rather than unilateral institutions – Ireland: first a neutral nation, then a member of the EU – 2003 invasion of Iraq: refusal of Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand to involve themselves
    8. 8. NAFTA The North American Free Trade Agreement (1992) The NAFTA Secretariat, comprised of a Canadian Section, a Mexican Section and a United States Section, is responsible for the administration of the dispute settlement provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    9. 9. The APEC 21 countries representing approximately (2007): - 49% of world trade - 55% of world GDP - 49% of world trade
    10. 10. III. ANGLO-SAXON COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD ECONOMY Source: CIA World Factbook 2008 – 2008 estimates
    11. 11. The anglo-saxon model of capitalism 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The philosophical origins Free trade & competition Investment Flexible labour markets Social costs and the question of the minimum wage Welfare Regulation A non-interventionist State
    12. 12. International organizations 20/10/13 12
    13. 13. The World Trade Organization (WTO) GATT 1947 -> WTO 1995, OMC in French
    14. 14. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (1961) OECD member states (2008) Original members are in dark blue
    15. 15. G8 (G 6 1973, G7 1976) Dark green: countries which belong to the G 8 (Group of Eight). Blue : countries which do not but are represented by the EU Yellow: O 5 (Outreach five) countries
    16. 16. The G 20 of industrial nations The G20 of industrial nations is an economic forum of 20 countries, formed in 1999 (G8 + Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey + current European Union presiding country)
    17. 17. Another G 20 ? G 20 is also a trade negotiations bloc of 20 developing nations
    18. 18. What are the major INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS involved in culture and tourism?
    19. 19. http://www.unesco.org The Organization Introducing UNESCO Governing bodies Director General Secretariat Main Programming Documents Medium-Term Strategy (2008 - 2013) Programme and Budget (2012 - 2013) Global Priorities Africa Gender Equality Overarching Objectives Culture of Peace Sustainable Development Priority Groups Youth Small Island Developing States Least-developed Countries Thematic Issues HIV & AIDS Re-thinking the Development Agenda 20/10/13 19
    20. 20. Unesco: the International Decade for Rapprochement of Cultures CULTURE / UNESCO: 2013-2022 set as the International Decade for Rapprochement of Cultures Following a suggestion from the Republic of Kazakhstan, the UNESCO General Conference gather in Paris in October and November 2012 during its 36th session, that the period 2013-2022 be proclaimed as the International Decade for the Rapprochement of Culture (36C/Resolution 40). UNESCO is expected to mobilize a variety of actors, at all levels and in all regions, to help build bridges and promote mutual understanding conducive to harmonious coexistence among the peoples and countries of the world. According to UNESCO the new International Decade proves a unique occasion to reaffirm the ideals of a plural humanity where cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue are mutually reinforcing, and where international cooperation can be enhanced through education, the sciences, culture and communication and information, bringing about a real rapprochement of cultures and countries. Activities during this period expected to nurture social inclusion and intercultural dialogue in order to improve the world’s global understanding. Special emphasis will be placed on the role and empowerment of young women and men who have enormous possibilities or access to, and participation in, global conversations. A broad range of stakeholders are called upon to participate actively in the International Decade: Member States, National Commissions for UNESCO, organizations of the United Nations system, other intergovernmental and international organizations, NOGS, Goodwill Ambassadors and Artists for peace, the world of culture and many more. For more information about the background behind the International Decade for the Rapprochement of Cultures: http://kazworld.info/?p=29723 20/10/13 20
    21. 21. Article on Unesco (photocopy given out) 20/10/13 21
    22. 22. World Tourism Organization World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. UNWTO encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, to maximize tourism’s socio-economic contribution while minimizing its possible negative impacts, and is committed to promoting tourism as an instrument in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), geared towards reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development. UNWTO’s membership includes 156 countries, 6 Associate Members and over 400 Affiliate Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities. Source: http://www2.unwto.org (22/09/2013) 20/10/13 22
    23. 23. Current developments & forecasts International tourist arrivals grew by nearly 4% in 2011 to 983 million; International tourism generated in 2011 US$ 1,032 billion (€ 741 billion) in export earnings; UNWTO forecasts a growth in international tourist arrivals of between 3% and 4% in 2012. Tourism Enriches Tourism: Millions of travelers, spending billions of dollars, creating millions of jobs. http://vimeo.com/51920578 20/10/13 23
    24. 24. Why tourism? “Why Tourism? Tourism – an Economic and Social Phenomenon Over the decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and deepening diversification to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Modern tourism is closely linked to development and encompasses a growing number of new destinations. These dynamics have turned tourism into a key driver for socio-economic progress. Today, the business volume of tourism equals or even surpasses that of oil exports, food products or automobiles. Tourism has become one of the major players in international commerce, and represents at the same time one of the main income sources for many developing countries. This growth goes hand in hand with an increasing diversification and competition among destinations. This global spread of tourism in industrialised and developed states has produced economic and employment benefits in many related sectors - from construction to agriculture or telecommunications. The contribution of tourism to economic well-being depends on the quality and the revenues of the tourism offer. UNWTO assists destinations in their sustainable positioning in ever more complex national and international markets. As the UN agency dedicated to tourism, UNWTO points out that particularly developing countries stand to benefit from sustainable tourism and acts to help make this a reality.” 20/10/13 24
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