How to Search theInternet Effectively Unit 3 Scenario Cheryl Gross American InterContinental University
Agenda • Introduction • Effective Searching • Types of Sources • Wikipedia as a Source • Source Verification • Strategies for Tracking Sources Fluidity • Conclusion • References
Introduction• Educators must rethink and revisit how students learn and how research is performed (Parker, 2010).• Significant change in learning and research.• Explosion of available information – Internet.• Important to filter and weed information.• Information must accurate, relevant, verifiable, and from credible sources.
Effective Searching Methods• Search – using a reputable search engine.• Identify – desired information.• Evaluate – fact or fiction, relevance or insignificance.• Cite – giving credit where credit is due.
Effective Searching Methods (cont’d) –Search• Use a reputable search engine, subject directory, or subject specific resources. – About - www.about.com – Google - www.google.com – Bing - www.bing.com – Yahoo - www.yahoo.com – U.S. government information and services - www.usa.gov, www.irs.gov, www.usps.gov, www.fedstats.gov – Library of Congress - www.loc.gov – Internet Public Library - www.ipl.org
Effective Searching Methods (cont’d) –Search• Use key words or phrases. – cherry (487 million results) – “cherry wood” (1.7 million results) – “quality cherry wood dining tables” (3 results).• Use Boolean commands (“AND”, “OR, and “AND NOT”).
Effective Searching Methods (cont’d) –Identification• Identify – desired information.• Know its source.• Know its author(s) and their credentials.• Know the recency of the information.• Know the frequency of the updates.
Effective Searching Methods (cont’d) –Evaluation• Evaluate – examine, determine and judge. – Fact or fiction. – Relevant or insignificance. – Vital or useless.• 1st two pages of search results should yield best matches.• Narrow your search with other keywords that can be included or excluded. Exploring for data on roses, exclude results that have information on Rose Kennedy.
Effective Searching Methods (cont’d) –Citation• Citation – giving credit where credit is due.• Avoid plagiarism – use of others’ words and works as your own without proper citing.• Intentional or unintentional has consequences.• Resources available to ensure proper citation. – www.citationmachine.net, www.easybib.com, www.workscited4u.com, and www.apastyle.org.
Effective Searching Methods (cont’d) –Things to Avoid with Query Keywords• Use nouns, not verbs.• Use 6 or more words.• Use phrases with quotation marks (“prenatal vitamins”).• Spell cautiously, considering alternative spellings of the word.
Effective Searching Methods (cont’d) –Things to Avoid with Query Keywords• Do not use articles (“the,” “a,” or “an).• Do not use pronouns (”it," ”he,” or “she”).• Do not use conjunctions ("or,” "and,” or “but”).• Do not prepositions (”from," ”in,” or “to”).
Types of Sources• Source – origin or provider of information.• Three types of reliable and credible sources. – Primary – original works created at a period in time. – Secondary – are works created after the original works, about them. – Tertiary – information about or collection of primary and secondary sources.
Types of Sources - Examples Primary Sources• Articles published in peer- • Period newspaper articles; reviewed journals; • Photographs and patents;• Artifacts from time period • Proceedings of meetings, (furniture, clothes, money, conferences and symposia; jewelry, fossils, and tools); • Records of symposia,• Audio and video recordings; conferences, meetings,• Diaries and journals; government agencies, and organizations;• Email communications, interviews, and websites; • Surveys results and speeches;• Letters and original • Works of architecture, music, documents; art, and literature.
Types of Sources – Examples (cont’d) Secondary Sources Tertiary Sources• Biographies and histories; • Almanacs and fact books;• Bibliographies and references; • Chronologies and• Criticisms and commentaries; bibliographies;• Encyclopedias and • Encyclopedias and dictionaries; dictionaries;• Journal, magazines, and • Directories and guidebooks; newspaper articles; • Abstracts, indexes, and• Monographs, except bibliographies for locating autobiographies and fictional secondary and primary works; sources;• Textbooks and websites. • Manuals and textbooks.
Wikipedia as a Source• Online encyclopedia• Contributed to by unpaid volunteers• Anyone can create and revise content• Collector of information• Not a primary source
Source Verification• Should be reliable, credible, trustworthy, and accurate.• Domain address is the key to who is sponsoring the website. – .gov, .us, and .mil are federal, state, or military sites in the United States. – .com and .net are commercial sites. – .edu are academic institution sites. – .org are usually represent nonprofit organizations.
Source Verification (cont’d)• High level of trust can been bestowed on data from: – Recognizable news media websites (NBC, ABC, CBS, CNN, FOX, etc.) – Newspaper and magazine websites (AJC, Chicago Tribune, Wall Street Journal, Time, etc.)• Check the credentials of the author(s) (degrees, honors, published, referenced, and contact information).• Is the information being sold or is there free access?
Strategies for Tracking Sources Fluidity• Information must be current and relevant to be useful in research unless classical like Bloom’s Taxonomy or Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development.• Information changes constantly.• Use of RSS feeds assist with tracking changes to information. – Google Reader, Diigo, news groups and outlets, weather sites, search terms, and weblogs.
Conclusion• Students must use accurate, trustworthy, reliable, and current information to perform research.• Correct methods must be utilized to search, identify, evaluate, and properly cite data found.• Sources used must be obtained from primary sources with secondary and tertiary sources as support that can be checked for accuracy.• Verification of those sources are essential to ensure acceptance.• Use of RSS Feeds can assist in keeping students abreast of the most current information available.
ReferencesMedia Awareness Network. (2010). How to search the internet effectively. Retrieved from http://www.media- awareness.ca/english/resources/special_initiatives/wa_resources/wa_t eachers/tipsheets/search_internet_effectively.cfm.Pacifici, S. I. (2002). Features - getting it right: Verifying sources on the net. Retrieved from http://www.llrx.com/features/verifying.htm.Parker, J. K. (2010). Teaching tech-savvy kids. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, A SAGE Company.
ReferencesRichardson, W. (2010). Blogs, wikis, podcasts and other powerful web tools for classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, A SAGE Company.South Seattle Community College Teaching and Learning Center (SSCCTLC). (2002). Teaching students to effectively use the internet. Retrieved from http://dept.sccd.ctc.edu/tlc/resources/teach.html.University of Maryland University Library. (2010). Primary, secondary and tertiary sources. Retrieved from http://www.lib.umd.edu/.
ReferencesWikipedia. (2011). Ten things you may not know about wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Ten_things_you_may_ not_know_about_Wikipedia.