GeographyAncient Sparta was built on the banks of the Evrotas Riverthe main river of Laconia which provided it with a source offresh waterThe valley of the Evrotas is a natural fortress, bounded to thewest by Mt. To the north, Laconia is separated from Arcadia byhilly uplands reaching 1000 m in altitude.These natural defenses worked to Spartas advantage andcontributed to Sparta never having been sacked.Sparta had a harbor, Gytheio, on the Laconian Gulf.
Sparta Religion•Regular worships of Gods surviving to unify the people•common goal to please the Gods•was ritual based, practicing a flexible set of beliefs•worshiped many god which made them polytheistic•believed that these gods and goddesses controlled everything•Each god or goddess controlled one or two major aspects of life•Temples were large and “beautiful” buildings to pray or sacrifice animalsFESTIVALS:•Eleusinia – festival of games held at Eleusis’s•Panathenaea•Anthesteria – festival of Dionysus and the new wine•Thesmophoria – festival o Demeter celebrated by women, and manyothers In these festivals everyone, whether reach or poor, could participate– though usually there have been limitations for women.
Gods1. Aphrodite ,the goddess of love2. Apollo , the god of the sun and of music3. Ares , the god of war4. Artemis , the goddess of the hunt5. Demeter , the goddess of the harvest6. Athena ,the goddess of wisdom7. Dionysus , the god of high spirits and of wine8. Hephaestus , the god of fire and of the forge9. Hera ,the queen of gods10. Hermes ,the god of travel and the messenger of the gods11. Poseidon ,the god of the sea12. Zeus ,the lord of the gods, most powerful and ruler of MountOlympus and the sky
ArtSculpted the ideal human, men and woman only sculpted skinny women and muscled men.Only used Marble and Limestone because that’s all they had.They were all white and were ideal beautyHad lots and lots of poets and poetryTwo Poets:AnacreonNonnusAh tell me why you turn and fly,My little Thracian filly shy?Why turn askanceThat cruel glance,And think that such a dunce am I?O I am blest with ample witTo fix the bridle and the bit,And make thee bendEach turning-endIn harness all the course of it.But now tis yet the meadow freeAnd frisking it with merry glee;The master yetHas not been metTo mount the car and manage thee.
More Art Pottery: Everything from wheat to wine was stored in pottery. Pottery was made by shaping clay on a wheel, decorating the pot, and then heating the clay in a kiln Clay was a very important of their culture. Back then they did not have glass or plastic to make containers out of. Luckily clay was easy to find around the area. Once clay is fired it is almost indestructible (unless broken) and also fairly waterproof. These features made clay a perfect material to make containers out of. It was used for big storage containers, buckets, cups, perfume bottles, wine bottles, jewelry boxes, and any other type of container for storing things in. All of these uses made the potters in ancient Greece very busy. Their skills became so refined that they were just as important as the clay itself, although they were often poor people or even slaves.
Government The Great Rhetra was the orally established constitution of Ancient Sparta, as set by the lawmaker. Lycurgus It was one of the two greatest bodies of classical Greek direct democracy an oligarchy, which is a government controlled by a small group of people. In this case power was in the hands of a few aristocrats. Often times at meetings the group that was able to shout the loudest would be the ones who won a vote or had their policy accepted. headed by two kings who ruled jointly. They served as high priests and as leaders in war. Each king acted as a check on the other There was a sort of cabinet composed of five ephors, or overseers, who exercised a general guardianship over law and custom and in later times came to have greater power. The legislative power was vested in the assembly of Spartan citizens and in a senate, or council, of 30 elders consisting of the two kings and 28 other men chosen from the citizens who had passed the age of 60.
Society was mainly broken up between Free people and Slaves, who were owned by the free people. Slaves were used as servants and laborers, without any legal rights. Sometimes the slaves were prisoners of war or bought from foreign slave traders. Although many slaves lived closely with their owners, few were skilled craftsmen and even fewer were paid. The state determined whether children, both male and female, were strong when they were born; weakling infants were left in the hills to die of exposure. At the age of seven, every male Spartan was sent to military and athletic school, after thirteen years of training they soldiers go off into the war. athletic school these schools taught toughness, discipline, endurance of pain and survival skills
Ancient Writing Roman Alphabet, was the result of nearly 4000 years of transformation. They were the first Europeans to learn to write with an alphabet, and from them writing was brought to the rest of Europe, eventually leading down to all modern European alphabets. The ancient writings were based on music and harmony The Greek alphabet has been in continuous use for the past 2,750 years or so since about 750 BC. The original Canaanite meanings of the letter names was lost when the alphabet was adapted for Greek Canaanites was the creator of the alphabet