11.01.24 ruminant intro 2011

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11.01.24 ruminant intro 2011

  1. 1. VTMED 6102 - Anatomy of the Ruminant Spring - 2011 Linda A. Mizer, D.V.M., M.Sc., Ph.D. Department of Biomedical Sciences
  2. 2. Course Introduction <ul><li>objectives </li></ul><ul><li>plan </li></ul><ul><li>assessments </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. Course Introduction <ul><li>objectives </li></ul><ul><li>-develop an understanding of practical ruminant anatomy using our foundation of canine anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>plan </li></ul><ul><li>assessments </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul>
  4. 4. Course Introduction <ul><li>goal </li></ul><ul><li>general schedule </li></ul><ul><li>-3 dissection periods a week, by body region </li></ul><ul><li>-neck -thorax </li></ul><ul><li>-head -abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>-thoracic limb -pelvis </li></ul><ul><li> -pelvic limb </li></ul><ul><li>-lectures to supplement laboratory material </li></ul><ul><li>course materials </li></ul><ul><li>grade breakdown </li></ul>
  5. 5. Course Introduction <ul><li>goal </li></ul><ul><li>general schedule </li></ul><ul><li>assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- midterm 30% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-final 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-project 20% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> course materials </li></ul>
  6. 6. Course Introduction <ul><li> course materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-handouts (laboratory/lecture notes combined) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-dissection cadavers (cow, calf, goat, sheep, alpaca) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-skeletons (cow, small ruminant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-museum materials (on dry table in lab) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-wet specimens (current region on wet table, remainder lab storage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-handout with all specimens/dissected structures listed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-bone cupboards (in hallway, one group per cubby) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ruminant A ruminant is an animal that digests its food many times. This food is usually tough plant material like grasses. Ruminants include cows, sheep, antelopes, and camels. An animal that chews its cud ; having even toed hooves and a four-chambered stomach, such as a cow, buffalo, goat, deer or llama. Animals having four stomach compartments - rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums - through which food passes in digestion. These animals chew their cud or regurgitate partially digested food for further breakdown in the mouth. Ruminant animals include cattle, sheep, goats, deer and camels.
  8. 8. Ruminant An herbivore which uses gastric, as opposed to intestinal, fermentation to digest cellulose. See Artiodactyla for figure and further explanation. A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud , then eating the cud. Ruminants include cows, goats, sheep, camels, llamas, giraffes, bison, buffalos, deer, wildebeest, and antelope. The suborder Ruminantia includes all those except the camels and llamas, which are Tylopoda. Ruminants also share another anatomical feature in that they all have an even number of toes.
  9. 9. Artiodactyla The even-toed ungulates form the mammalian Order Artiodactyla . They are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. Noun 1.Artiodactyla - an order of hooved mammals of the subclass Eutheria (including pigs and peccaries and hippopotami and members of the suborder Ruminantia) having an even number of functional toes.
  10. 10. Ruminant Phylogeny Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Artiodactyla Suborder Ruminantia Family Bovidae Genus Bos Species taurus Capridae Genus Caprin Species aegagrus Ovidae Genus Ovis Species aries
  11. 11. Ruminant Phylogeny Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Artiodactyla Suborder Tylopodia Family Camelidae Genus Lama Species glama (llama) guanicoe (guanaco) Vicugna Species pacos (alpaca) vicugna (vicuña)
  12. 12. F. Bovidae F. Ovidae vs. Capridae F. Camelidae Representative “Ruminants” vicuña alpaca guanaco llama
  13. 13. F. Bovidae - meat breeds Angus cow and calf Hereford cow Murray Grey bull Charlais cow and calf
  14. 14. F. Bovidae - meat breeds Belgian Blue bull Beefmaster bull Blonde cow Longhorn cow and calf
  15. 15. F. Bovidae - dairy breeds Holstein Jersey Guernsey Ayrshire
  16. 16. F. Bovidae - dairy breeds Brown Swiss Shorthorn
  17. 17. F. Bovidae - draft animals
  18. 18. F. Ovidae - meat breeds Barbados Dorper Katahdin Texel
  19. 19. F. Ovidae - wool breeds Hampshire Icelandic Corriedale Swedish
  20. 20. F. Ovidae - wool breeds
  21. 21. F. Ovidae - hair breeds Barbados Wiltshire St. Croix Katahdin
  22. 22. F. Ovidae - milk breeds
  23. 23. F. Capridae - meat breeds Boer Kiko Tennessee Tennessee X Boer
  24. 24. F. Capridae - dairy breeds Nubian Saanan Toggenburg LaMancha
  25. 25. F. Camelidae
  26. 26. Fiber
  27. 27. External Features Fig. 2.2, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials , 1999
  28. 28. External Features Fig. 4.1 and 4.2, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  29. 29. External Features Fig. 5.2, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  30. 30. External Features
  31. 31. Position of Cervical Vertebrae Fig. 5.4 modified, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999. Fig. 2-4, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  32. 32. Palpable Structures Fig. 5.4 modified, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999. Fig. 2-4, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  33. 33. Initial Dissection
  34. 34. Cutaneous fascia & muscles Fig. 2.5, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  35. 35. Cutaneous trunci m.
  36. 36. Deeper mm. Fig. 2.6, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  37. 37. Deeper mm. Fig. 2.6, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  38. 38. Deeper mm. 1. omotransversarius m. 2. brachiocephalicus m. 2a. cleidobrachialis m. 2b. cleidomastoideus m. 2c. cleidooccipitalis m. 3. sternocephalicus m. -sternomandibularis m. -sternomastoideus m.
  39. 39. Jugular Groove boundaries of jugular groove 1. cleidomastoideus m. 2. sternomandibularis m. 3. sternomastoideus m.
  40. 40. Jugular Groove boundaries of jugular groove 1. cleidomastoideus m. 2. sternomandibularis m. 3. sternomastoideus m.
  41. 41. Trapezius muscle - Accessory nerve Key - Trapezius m. a. cervicalis m. b. thoracis m.
  42. 42. Accessory Nerve <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>1. omotransversarius m. (reflected) </li></ul><ul><li>2. brachiocephalicus m. </li></ul><ul><li>sternocephalicus m. </li></ul><ul><li>4. rhomboideus cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>5. serratus ventralis cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>6. superficial cervical lymphocenter </li></ul><ul><li>7. accessory nerve (XI) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Superficial Cervical Lymph Node <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>1. omotransversarius m. (reflected) </li></ul><ul><li>2. brachiocephalicus m. </li></ul><ul><li>sternocephalicus m. </li></ul><ul><li>4. rhomboideus cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>5. serratus ventralis cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>6. superficial cervical lymphocenter </li></ul><ul><li>7. accessory nerve (XI) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Hemal Lymph Nodes
  45. 45. Nuchal Ligament Exposure <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>1. rhomboideus cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>2. omotransversarius m. </li></ul><ul><li>serratus ventralis cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>splenius m. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Nuchal Ligament Exposure <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>1. rhomboideus cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>2. omotransversarius m. </li></ul><ul><li>serratus ventralis cervicis m. </li></ul><ul><li>splenius m. </li></ul><ul><li>5. funicular portion of lig. nuchae </li></ul>
  47. 47. Nuchal Ligament Exposure Key 1. rhomboideus cervicis m. 2. omotransversarius m. 3. serratus ventralis cervicis m. 4. splenius m. 5. funicular portion of lig. nuchae 6. semispinalis capitis m.
  48. 48. Nuchal Ligament - Comparative dog ox Figs.299 & 300. The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals, Vol 1, The Locomotor System of the Domestic Mammals, by R. Nickel, A. Schummer, E. Seiferle, H. Wilkens, K.-H. Wille, J. Frewein, Springer Verlag, 1985
  49. 49. Nuchal Ligament - Dorsal View Key 1. spinous processes, thoracic 2. semispinalis capitis m. 3. funicular portion of lig. nuchae
  50. 50. Nuchal Ligament - Laminar Component Key 1. spinous process, thoracic 2. semispinalis capitis m. 3. funicular portion of lig. nuchae 4. laminar portion of lig. nuchae
  51. 51. Ventral Neck <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>1. sternothyrohyoideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>2. sternohyoideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>3. sternothyroideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>carotid sheath </li></ul><ul><li>5. trachea </li></ul><ul><li>6. thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>7. common carotid a. </li></ul><ul><li>8. vagosympathetic trunk </li></ul>
  52. 52. Ventral - Lateral Neck <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>1. sternothyrohyoideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>2. sternohyoideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>3. sternothyroideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>carotid sheath </li></ul><ul><li>5. trachea </li></ul><ul><li>6. thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>7. common carotid a. </li></ul><ul><li>8. vagosympathetic trunk </li></ul>
  53. 53. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>1. sternothyrohyoideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>2. sternohyoideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>3. sternothyroideus m. </li></ul><ul><li>carotid sheath </li></ul><ul><li>5. trachea </li></ul><ul><li>6. thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>7. common carotid a. </li></ul><ul><li>8. vagosympathetic trunk </li></ul>
  54. 54. Thymus - Calf Fig.2.20modified, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  55. 55. Ventral-Lateral Neck Key 1. serratus ventralis m. 2. longissimus cervicis m. 3. longissimus atlantis m. 4. longissimus capitis m. 5. semispinalis capitis m.
  56. 56. Alpaca Neck Highlights
  57. 57. Alpaca Neck Highlights
  58. 58. Alpaca Neck Highlights
  59. 59. Alpaca Neck Highlights Fig. 5.12, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials, by T.O. McCracken, R.A. Kainer & T.L. Spurgeon, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.
  60. 60. Alpaca Neck Highlights
  61. 61. Alpaca Neck Highlights Key 1. trapezius m. 2. brachiocephalicus m. 3. rhomboideus m.
  62. 62. Alpaca Neck Highlights
  63. 63. Specimen Storage
  64. 65. Alpaca Neck Highlights Key 1. trapezius m. 2. brachiocephalicus m. 3. rhomboideus m.
  65. 66. Alpaca Neck Highlights Key 1. trapezius m. 2. brachiocephalicus m. 3. rhomboideus m. 4. ligamentum nuchae 5. epaxial mm .
  66. 67. Alpaca Neck Highlights Key 1. trapezius m. 2. brachiocephalicus m. 3. rhomboideus m. 4. ligamentum nuchae 5. epaxial mm .
  67. 68. External Features Fig. 2.1, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials , 1999
  68. 69. Body Regions Fig. 2.3, Spurgeon’s Color Atlas of Large Animal Anatomy: the Essentials , 1999
  69. 70. F. Camelidae

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