Personality & Transformational Leadership


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Personality & Transformational Leadership

  1. 1. CHRISSY DELLA CORTE HRE 7723 NOVEMBER 15, 2011 Personality & Transformational Leadership
  2. 2. What is personality? <ul><li>Personality is 'the sum total of all the biological innate dispositions, impulses, tendencies, appetites & instincts of the individual and the acquired dispositions and tendencies’ (Prince, 1924). </li></ul><ul><li>The more or less stable and enduring organization of a person's character, temperament, intellect, and physique determines his unique adjustment to the environment (Eysenk, 1947, p.21). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theory of Personality <ul><li>Personality is mostly biological but can be influenced by environment </li></ul><ul><li>Biological view validated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same three personality orientations are found universally regardless of social and cultural factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These traits show stability within individuals over long periods of time in the face of differing experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence supported by twin studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on three dimensions (Types or Superfactors): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion / Introversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism / Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoticism / Superego </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Personality of Leaders <ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul><ul><li>Extraverted </li></ul><ul><li>Sociable </li></ul><ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>High self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally balanced </li></ul><ul><li>Innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-takers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Personality, cont. <ul><li>Personality is just one of the (highly) complex variables that need to be correlated among many others in order to do a &quot;deep evaluation&quot; of ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>How we behave depends on the situation. Our situation at any given moment must always be taken into consideration, as well as the many dimensions of self, or individual. </li></ul><ul><li>So, we have both the individual structure (the personality, self-needs, abilities, satisfaction, goals, etc.) and those of the organization (boss, colleagues, reward system, tasks, their personalities, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>People with similar styles problem-solve well together. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality distinguishes humans from other species, and oneself from other humans. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is temperament? <ul><li>Temperament is about individual differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament is composed of the traits, with which a person is born, which are genetic in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>It differs from personality, which is a combination of person’s temperament and life experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament is &quot;the stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction&quot; and is present at birth (Berk, 1998). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Temperament, cont. <ul><li>McCall (1984) defined temperament as “biologically based individual differences in reactions to the world”. </li></ul><ul><li>He also described further that these reactions are relatively stable over time and it is not personality but is one of the bases of later personality traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality characteristics are based on traits and behaviors which are normally acquired after infancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the personality characteristics are not influenced by the biological factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament traits are not completely inherited. </li></ul><ul><li>The key aspects of people’s personalities are habits, goals, and self-perceptions which are not considered as temperament traits. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is a learning style? <ul><li>Learning Style: A consistent way an individual responds to, and uses stimuli in the context of learning. (Claxton & Ralston, 1978). </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style: The consistent individual differences found in ways of organizing and processing information and experience. (Messick, 1984). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Learning Styles <ul><li>MBTI – Jung (1960) </li></ul><ul><li>GEFT – Witkin etc. (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>KAI– Kirton (1976) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences – Gardner (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>LSI – Kolb (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>VAK – Fleming (2001) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why study learning styles? <ul><li>People learn better when info is presented in their own learning style. </li></ul><ul><li>For every study that finds this to be true, there is another study finding it false. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Experiential Learning
  12. 12. <ul><li>Starting Point— What are we doing? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Must incorporate the here and now </li></ul><ul><li>Gets you ready to learn (gives motivation) </li></ul><ul><li>In a sense, a controlled failure… </li></ul><ul><li>Must anticipate things go wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Making products or models </li></ul><ul><li>Solving problems or analyzing case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating or bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Guided imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul>Concrete Experience
  13. 13. <ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Three Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Return to the experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote positive feelings and remove obstructing feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-evaluate the experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Videotaping and reviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Private discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Art (singing, painting) </li></ul>Reflection
  14. 14. <ul><li>WHAT DID YOU DO? </li></ul><ul><li>WHY DID YOU DO IT? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DID IT MAKE YOU FEEL? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT DID YOU LEARN? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT CAN BE DONE TO IMPROVE? </li></ul>Reflection Questions
  15. 15. Abstract Conceptualization <ul><li>So, what do I conclude? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher applies conceptual knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects book learning to real-life learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or Theory to Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can be concluded? </li></ul><ul><li>What have I learned about this experience, about myself, about my team? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Active Experimentation <ul><li>Now what do I do? </li></ul><ul><li>Application of new knowledge (requires a plan) </li></ul><ul><li>A chance to do better </li></ul><ul><li>Reach level of expertise desired by teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Provides another opportunity for a concrete experience </li></ul><ul><li>Again, needs pre-teaching </li></ul>
  17. 17. Experiential Learning
  18. 18. Kolb’s Learning Styles <ul><li>Diverging: Having many points of view concerning concrete situations with an approach of observe rather than to take action. </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilating: Being able to take a wide range of information and put it into concise logical form. </li></ul><ul><li>Converging: Being able to find practical uses for ideas and theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating: Having the ability to learn from hands-on experiences. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Kirton’s Adaption Innovation Theory <ul><li>In problem-solving… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL PEOPLE ARE CREATIVE!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some people are more adaptive. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people are more innovative. </li></ul><ul><li>Both adaptors and innovators are needed to solve complex problems. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Adaptors </li></ul><ul><li>Innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Produce few ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Expect high rate of success </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as dull & boring </li></ul><ul><li>Produce many ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate high failure rate </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as illogical & random </li></ul>Adaptors & Innovators-- Originality
  21. 21. <ul><li>Adaptors </li></ul><ul><li>Innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Precise with detail </li></ul><ul><li>Welcomes change as an improver </li></ul><ul><li>Makes things better </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as narrow minded </li></ul><ul><li>Sees the larger picture </li></ul><ul><li>Welcomes change as a mould breaker </li></ul><ul><li>Makes things different </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as inefficient </li></ul>Adaptors & Innovators-- Efficiency
  22. 22. <ul><li>Adaptors </li></ul><ul><li>Innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems using rules </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely challenges the rules </li></ul><ul><li>Prudent with authority </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as over-cautious </li></ul><ul><li>Solves problems by altering rules </li></ul><ul><li>Always challenges rules </li></ul><ul><li>Radical </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as reckless or rude </li></ul>Adaptors & Innovators— Rules/Structures
  23. 23. Coping Behavior <ul><li>Your preferred problem-solving style is determined early in life and does not change. </li></ul><ul><li>We learn to cope in situations that do not match our preferred style. </li></ul><ul><li>Coping behavior is psychologically expensive. </li></ul>
  24. 24. A-I in groups & teams <ul><li>Diversity of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Gap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A gap of 20 points is significant and causes problem-solving difficulty if not addressed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridgers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who has a score between extreme scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who is willing and able to act as a bridger </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Homogenous Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone thinks the same </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Can solve a narrow range of problems </li></ul><ul><li>Think differently </li></ul><ul><li>Can have conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Can solve a broad range of problems </li></ul>A-I in groups & teams
  26. 26. <ul><li>Everyone is Creative! </li></ul><ul><li>Your Preferred Creative Style </li></ul><ul><li>All make decisions and solve problems; in the brain, this is creative activity </li></ul><ul><li>Your creative style or preference is based on how your brain functions </li></ul><ul><li>Creative style is NOT the same as level </li></ul><ul><li>Probably genetically determined (a component of personality) </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot choose or change your style </li></ul><ul><li>Can be measured at an early age </li></ul><ul><li>Remains stable with age, experience </li></ul>Final Points on A-I Theory
  27. 27. Which style is better? <ul><li>Neither style is inherently better at solving problems & making decisions; there is no “right” or “wrong” score. </li></ul><ul><li>In specific situations, different degrees of adaptation and/or innovation may be seen as more appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a tendency to feel comfortable with and value our own style. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences or gaps do exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between groups or teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between people/teams and the requirements of the task </li></ul></ul>