Samurai and knights dbq-Answers to PacketPresentation Transcript
Samurai & knights: Werethe similarities Greater than the Differences?
Answers to Background Essay Questions
1.) What Conditions led to the development of feudalismin both western Europe and Japan? Strong central governments lost power, and warlords and invaders threatened peace and stability. People agreed to exchange services for protection.
2.) IN the feudal system in both Europe and Japan,what did lesser nobles give to lords in exchange forgrants of land? Nobles gave loyalty and military service
3.) What military figure existed in japan,but not in europe? The Shogun, a powerful general who became ruler of the country.
4.) What religious figure existed ineurope but not in japan? The Pope, who headed the Catholic Church.
5.) What different religions or beliefsystems influenced people in the tworegions? Roman Catholic Christianity influenced Europeans. Confucianism and Buddhism influenced the Japanese.
Define these terms:
ClanA group of people, sometimes in the hundreds or thousands,who are descended from a common ancestor.
Feudalisma political and economic system in which lords gave lands tonobles in return for military service and loyalty.
knightSometimes high-born, sometimes merely tenant farmers,knights exchanged loyalty and military service to a lord for apiece of land called a fief.An European horseman warrior
SamuraiMilitary group in feudal JapanMilitary, horseman warrior in Japan
shogunA supreme military ruler in Japan
ChivalryThe ideal code of conduct for medieval knights.
bushidoThe code of honor and conduct for samurai
Understanding the Question & Pre- Bucketing
1.) What is the analytical question asked by this Mini-Q? Samurai and Knights: Were the Similarities Greater than the Differences?
2.) What terms in the question need to be defined? Samurai and Knights
3.) Rewrite the question in your own words Were the Japanese samurai and European knights more alike or more different?
DocumentsDocument A: Two Feudal Class SystemsDocument B: Loyalty to the Feudal Lord in Japan & EuropeDocument C: Military Training of Samurai & KnightsDocument D: Armor of Japanese & European WarriorsDocument E: Codes of HonorDocument F: Feelings About Death
Documents Documents Documents A&B C&D E&FComparison Point #1 Comparison Point #2 Comparison Point #3 Social Position Military Role Ideas About Honor & Death
Document ATwo Feudal Class Systems
1.) What is the purpose of drawing asocial pyramid? The purpose of the social pyramid is to show which groups of people have more power, wealth, and social standing than the other groups. It gives you a quick picture of who is at the top, middle, and bottom of a society.
2.) What group in Japan was like lords ineurope? The daimyos were like the lords in Europe.
3.) In Japan, what was the relationshipbetween samurai and daimyos? The samurai were the warrior class and the daimyos were the lords and landowners. The daimyos hired the samurai for protection and making war. In return, the samurai received land or payment for their services.
4.) IN Europe, what was the relationshipbetween knights and lords? It was similar to the daimyos and samurai. The lords were the wealth landowners and the knights were the warrior class. The knights would receive land or payment from the lords for the knights’ loyalty and military service to the lords.
5.) Based JUST on this document, were the similarities between samurai andknights greater than the differences? Provide evidence that supports your answer. My Opinion: There were great similarities between knights and samurai. In the social pyramid, they were both in the same position in the social hierarchy and they both received some sort of payment (land/fee) for their loyalty and military service to their lord/daimyo.
Document Bloyalty to the feudal lord in japan & Europe
1.) Where was the relationship between lord andwarrior hereditary? What does thaT mean? There was a hereditary relationship between lord and warrior was in Japan. It means that a child MUST follow the same relationship that their parents had before them.
2.) What evidence is there that the bondbetween lord and samurai in japan wasstroNg? In the document it states that the samurai’s allegiance to his lord lasts the duration of three lives.....his past existence, his present one, and the next life. This shows that the bond is forever lasting!
3.) About how many acres might berequired to support a knight in westernEurope? FYI: You can find this answer in the Document NOTE It took about 600 acres to enable a knight to support himself, his horses, his armor, his squire, and his family if he had one.
4.) Based on the document what was an importantsimilarity between samurai and knights? Similarity: Both the knights and samurai had to show a sense of loyalty to both of their lord in order to receive payment. They both had to give their lord military service as well.
5.) Based on the document what was an importantdifference between samurai and knights? Difference: Samurai’s bond to his lord was hereditary and it was passed down from generation to generation. A samurai’s child will always be a samurai. Knight had to show allegiance by a contract. A knight’s child doesn’t have to become a knight and could stop the contract that his father had “signed”.
Document C Military training ofsamurai and knights
1.) What are three examples of the kind of trainingreceived by young samurai hopefuls? Physical Training: Kendo (art of fencing with bamboo sticks) Moral Training: Zen Buddhism Mental Training: poetry
2.) What are three examples of the kind of trainingreceived by pages hoping to become knights? Horseman Training: refining his horse skills Religious Training: some training in religious instructions Physical Training: wooden swords
3.) In what ceremony and at what age was a japanesetrainee inducted into the samurai class? At the age of 14, Japanese trainee became a samurai in a ceremony called genpuku.
4.) At What age did a european page become a squire?when did a squire become a knight? European Pages became a squire at 14. At the Age of 21, a squire became a knight.
5.) Based on the document what were the main differencesbetween samurai and knights? Differences: Training: Samurai trained in studies as well as in fighting and sometimes Japanese girls received warfare instruction. There were many different levels of a knight’s training unlike that of the Samurai. Samurai may have gone into battle at a much younger age since they became a samurai at the age of 14 & a knight didn’t become “knighted” until the age of 21 where he would be in battle alone.
6.) Based on the document what were the mainsimilarities between samurai and knights? Similarities: Both samurai & knights began their training in their childhood. Both trained for many years before they became warriors. Both used some sort of fake weapon to train. Both received some religious or moral instruction. Eventually they both studied poetry.
Document DArmor of Japanese and European Warriors
1.) What was the main purpose of suits of armor? The purpose for these suits of armor was to protect the warrior in battle.
2.) Both the samurai and knights generally fought on horseback. Who would have beenin the most trouble if he was knocked from his horse or his horse was killed? explainyour thinking. The European knight would be in the most trouble because of the weight of his armor which ranged anywhere from 40- 60 pounds. His horse meant that he was able to be move about freely and without his horse, he was basically an open target. The Japanese samurai’s armor allowed for more hand to hand fighting.
3.) Military historians speak of the difference between shock warfare (striking theenemy with weapons like swords, lances or axes) & projectile warfare (shooting orthrowing arrows, javelins, and bullets). Judging from the armor, which kind ofoffensive warfare was fought by the samurai and knights? In each case, explain yourthinking. Shock warfare: The knights were better suited for this type of warfare because his armor allowed the knight to ride up to his enemy and make a direct hit. It DIDN’T allow for the knight to throw things at his enemy because of its rigidness. Projectile warfare: The samurai were better suited for this type of warfare because their armor had the right arm free which allowed the warrior to THROW things at his enemy or use his bow & arrow.
4.) Based on the document, what was an importantsimilarity between samurai and knight armor? Similarities: Both warriors had some type of iron plate armor. Both warriors’ armor was head to toe...full body.
5.) Based on the document, WHAT was an importantdifference between samurai and knight armor? Differences: The major difference had to be the free arm of the samurai armor. This allowed the samurai to fight from either point whether it was farther away using a bow and arrow or up close using swords and having the ability to move around and attack.
Document ECodes of Honor
1.) What are the main characteristics of bushido? whatare the main characteristics of chivalry? Bushido: To be loyal to the master, upholding moral principles, ways of peace and be ready to use your weapon at all times. Chivalry: Loyalty to the king, mercy, courtesy, helpfulness, honor, strength, and bravery.
2.) Which code of honor was written first? what is the difference in years between thewriting of these codes? The Knights Code was written in 1470. The Samurai Code was written in 1600s. The difference is about 130 years.
3.) What should a samurai do if there is a conflict between dealing with a familyproblem and one involving the people he serves? The samurai’s main concern is to always be loyal to his lord and serve his lord even before his own family’s problems.
4.) Based on this document, what were the mainsimilarities between samurai and knights? Similarities: The samurai and the knight both have to responsibility to be loyal to his lord and to live a honorable life.
5.) Based on the document, WHAT were the maindifferences between samurai and knights? Differences: The samurai’s code seems more loyal and devoted to his lord even before his family. The knight’s code states that he must be loyal to his lord, but also pay attention to being courteous to the ladies, not to fight for worldly gain, give mercy to those asking for it.
Document FFeelings about death
1.) What is the main idea of the first samurai poem? One day you are here and the next you are not. It seems like the poem expresses the beauty of it all through the mention of twilight and autumn breezes.
2.) what is the main idea of the secondsamurai poem? Death is like any other day. It really is no big deal.
3.) How would you describe the french knight’s view oflife? It seems like Roland is a bit afraid of death and asking forgiveness for the sins that he has created. Roland begs for mercy and it seems like he is fearful of not being accepted into heaven.
4.) In general, were the responses to death of the samuraiand the knight similar or different? explain Opinion: The responses were very much different. It seems like the Samurai never questioned his after life and it was as if he knew his place in the after life. The samurai had been honorable to his master as well as his ancestors so there was no need for fear. Whereas with Roland, a French knight, there were evident signs of worry through the beating of his chest, the reaching to God as well as the asking for mercy. This shows that Roland was not certain that he would be offered a place in heaven.