1. Mid-Term Study Guide
Chapters 1-9~ 2014 Exam
2. Chapter 1
3. 1. What does Stoic mean?
• Believed that a divine intelligence ruled
all of nature.
• Brave, courageous, smart, good
4. 2. Three Economic Reasons why
Roman Empire Collapsed.
• 1. Unemployment
• 2. Taxes
• 3. Decline in Trade
5. Chapter 2
6. 3. Three Facts about Charlemagne
• 1. Crowned Holy Roman Emperor
• 2. Ruled the Franks from 768 to 814 c.e.
• 3. United the Christian lands of Europe.
7. 4. What is the main job of a vassal?
• Protection to a lord and promises to be
loyal to that lord. Gave the lord money
and food as well as knights in times of
8. 5. Know the dates of the following:
• Fall of Rome: 476 c.e.
• Clovis rules the Franks: 481 c.e.
• Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor: 800 c.e.
• Feudalism established in England: 1066 c.e.
9. 6. Why did the Roman Empire Fall?
• Political instability (no central
government), economic problems
(money issues) and weak frontiers
10. Chapter 3
11. 7. Three Facts about Catholic Church
• 1. Largest land holder in Europe. Owned
valuable property & land.
• 2. Everything evolved (centered) around the
• 3. Church Officials were leaders in the
• 4. 1/10 (tithe) of someone’s earnings went to
12. 8.Where might a Christian pilgrim
go during the Middle Ages?
• A cathedral or any other sacred place
known to Christians.
13. 9. Why was the Catholic Church so
• Has the power to excommunicate (kick
out someone from church), to abolish
(get rid of) selling of official positions
and prohibiting (not allowing) bishops
electing kings to powerful positions
within the church.
14. 10. Why would a church official need
to be educated?
• To read from the Bible. To teach others
about religion and to help with
15. Chapter 4
16. 11. Why were many medieval towns
built by rivers & trade routes?
• By River: for protection and trade
• By Trade Routes: to help their towns
prosper through traveling merchants.
17. 12. What group of people continued to
thrive not only in politics, but also
18. 13. What does “Specialization” mean
in the world of trade?
• It allows a craftsperson of a certain area
to concentrate in one thing so they are
known for that craft.
19. Chapter 5
20. 14. What was the key event for
commoners to have a voice in
• King Edward’s I model parliament.
21. 15. What document gave power to the
nobles that a king could not take
• Habeas corpus
• Magna Carta
22. 16. Why did commoners have a voice
in many areas after the black plague?
• The plague caused many workers to
demand for more money and power
since too many people had died. These
people were also able to acquire land
that was left abandoned after its owner
23. 17. During the Hundred Years’ War,
which group lost the most power and
which group gained the most power?
• Lost: Lords
• Gained: Commoners & Monarchs
24. Chapter 6
25. 18. What was the capital of the
26. 19. What is Justinian’s Code?
• He took many laws from the Romans
and changed them to fit his Empire in
the Western world.
• Systematic Body of Law
27. 20. What is the significance of the
dome in many of the churches in the
• The dome represents heaven.
28. 21. Give three examples of the
• 1. It is surrounded on three sides of water.
• 2. It was located at the crossroads of Europe
• 3. It had a harbor that could easily be blocked
against enemy ships.
29. 22. Who was responsible for
rebuilding Constantinople after a riot
that was meant for its emperor?
30. Chapter 7
31. 23. Although Arabs living on the
Arabian peninsula were not united as a
nation, they were in what two ways?
• 1. Cultural
• 2. Language
32. 24. Who are the “people of the book”
according to Muslims and why?
• Jews and Christians because they also
believed in one God.
33. 25. Muhammad taught that the rich
should share their wealth with the
poor, why did this upset leaders in
• Leaders in Mecca were controlling the wealth
and didn’t want to give any to the poor.
34. 26. What does the word “Muslim”
• Muslim means one who surrenders to God.
35. 27. Explain who the Sunni & the Shi’a
Muslims felt should be the next
“leader” of the Islamic religion.
• Sunnis believe that the best “man” for the job
should be the next leader. A Council should
pick the leader.
• Shi’a believe that only descendants (relatives)
of Muhammad should be the next leader.
36. Chapter 8
37. 28. Explain why Islam is considered
more than a religion, but rather a way
of life for Muslims.
• Muslims have to follow the rules of Islam
throughout their lives. For instance, they
can’t gamble, eat pork, or drink alcohol.
• They must also follow the 5 Pillars of
38. 29. What is jihad?
• Jihad means to overcome struggle and to
strive to overcome challenges.
39. 30. What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
Make sure you explain what each
means as well.
1st Pillar: Shahadah: Declaring Faith
2nd Pillar: Salat: Daily prayer
3rd Pillar: Zakat: Giving Charity to the Poor
4th Pillar: Siyam: Fasting during 9th month of the
• 5th Pillar: Hajj: Pilgrimage to Makkah.
40. 31. What standards did the Qur’an and
Muhammad set for Muslims’ conduct
• Muslim fighters must not mutilate (remove or
destroy) the dead bodies of enemies, nor harm
women, children, the elderly, and civilians.
41. 32. What values does Shari’ah
• The Shari’ah promotes obedience to the
Qur’an and respect for others.
42. 33. How are these behaviors regulated
in the Islamic religion?
(Can’t eat pork, drink alcohol, gamble)
• These are forbidden in the Islamic religion.
43. 34. What does Ramadan encourage?
• Ramadan encourages generosity, equality, and
charity within the Muslim community.
44. Chapter 9
45. 35. What three cities became center of
Islamic culture and learning?
• 1. Cairo, Egypt
• 2. Cordoba, Spain
• 3. Baghdad, Iraq
46. 36. Why was learning important to the
• Learning is important because Muhammad
stated, “The ink of scholars is more precious
than the blood of martyrs.” Meaning it is more
important to learn than it is to be good a
47. 37. What does Islamic art include?
What does it NOT include?
• Includes: calligraphy, geometric shapes
• Does Not Include: animals or humans because
only God can create something that is alive.
48. 38. How did Muslims accept other
Muslims accepted and embraced other
culture’s ideas. They often spread
other’s ideas ways of life to other
49. Vocabulary Review
50. 39. Natural Law
• The concept that there is a universal order
built into nature that can guide moral
51. 40. serf
• A peasant bound to the land and subject to
the will of its owner
52. 41. Vassal
• A person under the protection of a feudal lord
to whom he has vowed homage and fealty
53. 42. crusader
• A person who fought during the crusades to
win back the Holy Land from the Muslims.
• A crusader would wear a tunic (covering)
which a red cross on it.
54. 43. pilgrim
• A person that goes on a sacred journey
for penance (forgiveness), to cure the sick
or to worship at different holy sites.
55. 44. monk
• A man who has taken a solemn vow to devote
his life to prayer and service in a monastery.
56. 45. feudalism
• The economic and political system that
developed in Europe during the Middle Ages.
57. 46. Magna Carta
• A written agreement from 1215 that limited
the English king’s power and strengthened
the rights of nobles.
58. 47. guild
• An organization of people who work in the
same craft or trade.
59. 48. charter
• A written grant of rights and privileges by a
ruler or government to a community, class of
people, or organization.
60. 49. hierarchy
• A system of organizing people into ranks,
with those of higher rank having more power
61. 50. pilgrimage
• A journey to a holy site.
62. 51. heretic
• A person who holds beliefs that are contrary
to the teachings of a church or other group.
63. 52. philosophy
• The study of wisdom and knowledge
• A scholar or thinker (philosopher)
64. 53. persecute
• To cause a person to suffer because of his or
65. 54. excommunicate
• To formally deprive a person of membership
in a church
66. 55. habeas corpus
• The principle that accused persons cannot be
held in jail without the consent of a court
67. 56. Mecca
• Birthplace of Muhammad
• Location of the Ka’ba
68. 57. chivalry
• The medieval knight’s code of ideal behavior,
including bravery, loyalty, and respect for
69. 58. polytheist
• A person who believes in more than one god
70. 59. caliph
• A title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed
religious authority to rule
71. 60. monarch
• A ruler, such as a king or a queen
72. 61. barter
• To buy and sell by trading goods or services
rather than money
73. 62. trade
• The business of buying and selling or
74. 63. monotheist
• A person who believes in a single god
75. 64. prophet
• A person who speaks or interprets for God to
76. 65. Ka’ba
• A cube shaped shrine located in Mecca.
• Built by Abraham to honor one god.
77. 66. scribe
• A person trained to write or copy documents
78. 67. economic
• Relating to, or based on the production,
distribution, and consumption of goods and
79. 68. military
• Of or relating to soldiers, arms, or war
80. 69. political
• Of or relating to government, a government,
or the conduct of government
81. 70. social
• Of or relating to human society, the
interaction of the individual and the group, or
the welfare of human beings as members of
82. 71. peninsula
• A portion of land nearly surrounded by water
and connected with a larger body by an
isthmus; also : a piece of land jutting out into
the water whether with or without a welldefined isthmus
83. 72. nomad
• A person who moves from place to place,
often in search of water and vegetation.
84. 73. hajj
• A pilgrimage to the Ka’ba located in Makkah.
85. 74. Salat
• The 2nd Pillar which means that Muslims
must prayer 5 times a day and face towards
86. 75. Siyam
• This is the 4th Pillar which is the ritual fast.
During the Siyam, Muslims do not eat from
sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.