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Final exam vocabulary


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  • 1. Final Exam Vocabulary Review
  • 2. Agriculture • the business of farming
  • 3. alchemy • A combination of science, magic, and philosophy that was practiced in medieval times
  • 4. Anti-Semitism • prejudice toward Jews.
  • 5. apprentice • A person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in a return for training A person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in a return for training
  • 6. aristocracy • a ruling class of noble families
  • 7. barter • to buy and sell by trading goods and services rather than money.
  • 8. Bubonic plague • a deadly contagious disease caused by bacteria and spread by fleas
  • 9. bureaucracy • a highly organized body of workers with many levels of authority
  • 10. caliph • a title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule.
  • 11. charter • A written grant of rights and privileges by a ruler or government to a community, class of people or organization
  • 12. chivalry • the medieval knight's code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for women.
  • 13. commerce • the buying and selling of goods
  • 14. commoner • a person who is not of noble rank
  • 15. crusades • a series of religious wars launched against Muslims by European Christians.
  • 16. cultural diffusion • the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
  • 17. currency • the form of money used in a country
  • 18. domain • the land controlled by a ruler or lord
  • 19. elements of culture • objects, ideas, and customs of a particular culture
  • 20. excommunicate • To formally deprive a person membership in a church
  • 21. feudalism • the economic and political system that developed in Europe during the Middle Ages
  • 22. fief • land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
  • 23. genealogy • an account of the line of ancestry within the family
  • 24. griot • A West African Story Teller
  • 25. habeas corpus • The principle that accused persons cannot be held in jail without the consent of a court.
  • 26. heretic • a person who holds beliefs that are contrary to the teachings of a church or other group
  • 27. hierarchy • a system of organizing people into ranks, with those of higher rank having more power and privileges
  • 28. imperial • China under the rule of emperors
  • 29. inoculate • to protect against disease by transmitting a disease-causing agent to a person, stimulating the body's defensive reactions
  • 30. inquisition • a judicial body established by the Catholic Church to combat heresy and other forms of religious error.
  • 31. Jerusalem • a sacred city to Muslims, Jews & Christians.
  • 32. Magna Carta • A written agreement from 1215 that limited the English king's power and strengthened the rights of nobles.
  • 33. manor • a large estate, including farmland and villages, held by a lord
  • 34. mass-produce • to make similar items in quantity using standardized designs and dividing labor among workers
  • 35. matrilineal • based on a woman's family line
  • 36. meritocracy • rule by officials of proven merit
  • 37. millets • communities can rule themselves under their own system of government
  • 38. monarch • A ruler, such as a king or queen
  • 39. monotheism • belief in a single God.
  • 40. noble • a person of high rank by birth or title
  • 41. nomad • A person who moves from place to place often in search of water and vegetation.
  • 42. patrilineal • based on a man's family line
  • 43. persecute • To cause a person to suffer because of his or her beliefs
  • 44. philosophy • The study of wisdom, knowledge, and the nature of reality.
  • 45. pilgrimage • a journey to a holy site
  • 46. polytheist • A person who believes in more than one God.
  • 47. proverb • A popular saying that is meant to express something wise or true.
  • 48. province • a division of a country or an empire.
  • 49. regent • one who rules in the name of another
  • 50. relic • an object that is considered holy because it belonged to, or was touched by, a saint or holy person
  • 51. rhetoric • the study of persuasive writing and speaking
  • 52. schism • a formal division in a church or religious body
  • 53. scribe • A person trained to write or copy documents by hand.
  • 54. sedentary • Permanently settled in one place. The person DOES NOT move from place to place.
  • 55. segregation • the forced separation of one group from the rest of a community
  • 56. siege • an attempt to surround a place and cut off all access to it in order to force a surrender
  • 57. Silk Road • Camel caravan routes crossing the deserts of Central Asia to Europe. Silk was not the only thing traded along this route.
  • 58. succession • inheritance of the right to rule
  • 59. sultan • the sovereign ruler of a Muslim state
  • 60. tribute • a payment made by one ruler or country to another for protection or as a sign of submission
  • 61. truce • an agreed-upon halt (stop) in fighting
  • 62. urbanization • the growth of cities
  • 63. Kowtow • When ambassadors from tributaries come before an emperor, they kneel before him three times and each time touch their heads to the floor.