1. Where was Muhammad born?
•Muhammad was born in Makkah. (Mecca)
2. Why was Makkah thought as a
trading center as well as a religious
•Makkah was a trade center because it had many
trade routes that went through the city.
•Makkah was a religious center because the Ka’ba
was located there.
3. Even though arabs lived in arabia did not have a unified
government, what was the one thing that they all had in
common? How did this one thing help Makkah as a trading
•Arabs living in Arabia shared cultural ties,
especially their language which was Arabic.
•Speaking all of the same language was beneficial
in helping Makkah as a trading center because
they could all understand one another.
1. Birth, Orphan, trader, marriage
•Birth: Muhammad was born in Makkah.
•Orphan: Parents died when he was young. He
lived with his grandfather.
•Trader: He learning how to be a trader by his
•Marriage: He married Khadijah at the age of 25.
1. cave, gabriel, allah, qur’an
•Cave: Muhammad went to a cave to pray.
•Gabriel: Angel Gabriel visited Muhammad in a cave
and told him that he was chosen as the messenger of
•Allah: Arabic word for God, same God as the Christians
and the Jews.
•Qur’an: All of Muhammad’s teachings are written in the
Qur’an (Koran)...the holy book of Islam. It wasn’t
written until after Muhammad’s death by some of his
1. reject, followers, boycott, night
•Reject: Many of the people in Makkah believed in many
gods so they rejected Muhammad’s
•Followers: Muhammad’s first follower was his wife.
People who followed his teachings were called Muslims.
•Boycott: The leaders of Makkah boycotted or refused to
do business with anyone that was a Muslim. For three
years, these followers suffered from this boycott.
•Night Journey: Muhammad went on a winged horse to
Jerusalem and met other prophets then went through the
seven level of heaven and met God. Jerusalem is holy to
Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
Madinah to the end
of his life.
1. Madinah, People of the book, battles,
• Madinah: Muhammad went to Madinah (Medina) because
Makkah wasn’t treating Muslims well. Madinah accepted
Muhammad and it means City of the Prophet.
• People of the Book: Muslims believe in one God just like
Christians and Jews.
• Battles: Muslims battled with Makkans and Muslims
finally won. Muhammad smashed all of the idols in the
Ka’ba to prove to people of Makkah that there was only
• Last Sermon: In March 632, Muhammad made his last
sermon in Makkah and died shortly after returning to
1. Who was abu bakr?
•Abu Bakr was Muhammad’s friend and father-inlaw.
•Abu Bakr became the next Muslim ruler after
Muhammad died. He was known as a caliph or
2. What is the caliphate?
•Caliphate is made up of Muslim rulers that
followed Muhammad because they followed the
Qur’an and the examples set forth by
•The Muslim government led by the caliphs was
called the caliphate.
1. Who are the sunnis?
•Sunnis are people who believe that the best person
for the job should be chosen by a council to
become the next ruler of Islam or the next caliph.
2. Who are the shi’ah?
•The Shi’ah (shiites) believe that ONLY people
who are related to Muhammad should be the next
Muslim ruler or caliph.
•Note: The Sunnis and Shi’ah still “battle” over
this belief to this day.
3. The Umayyads used the Arabic language
to unify the Muslim empire. what else did
they introduce that made trading in the
Muslim empire easier for non-Arabs?
•The Umayyads introduced new Arab coins
(money) that made trading easier because they all
had the same money system.
4. What was the significance of cordoba,
spain and how did this help the muslim
•Cordoba, Spain became known as a learning
center where Muslim, Jewish, and Christian
scholars shared ideas.
•Muslim culture thrived in the arts, science,
technology and literature.