1.) What was the Magna Carta? A written agreement that limited the king’s power and strengthened the rights of nobles. It was also known as the Great Charter.
2.) What was the bubonic plague? Called the Black Death and it swept across Asia in the 1300s and reached Europe in 1347. This disease killed millions of people in Europe.
3.) Explain the Hundred Years’ War Between 1337 and 1453, France and England fought several wars that were known as the Hundred Years War. This war shifted power from the feudal lords to monarchs and common people.
4.) Looking at the picture on page 53, how does this illustrate the three key events discussed above? Answers will Vary: My Opinion: The document signifies the Magna Carta, the skeleton represents the bubonic plague and the soldier with the cannon represent the hundred years war. The broken down castle is a visual sign to signify that the feudal lord is no longer in power.
1.)What was the main outcome of Henry II’s Legal Reforms?Feudal lords weren’t needed as much anymore because King Henry II insisted thata jury had to find a person guilty in a royalcourt instead of on a feudal manor.
2.)How did Henry II’s reforms lead to Thomas Becket’s, the Archbishop of Canterbury, death? Henry had gotten into a “fight” with the church and he was also in an argument with archbishop Becket. Four knights who wanted to look good for the king killed the archbishop in front of the altar. Canterbury is now a place where people go on a pilgrimage!
3.)Which actions of King John made the lords/barons upset with him?King John lost many of England’s landsto France and he taxed the lords/baronsheavily to make up for this loss.He also became excommunicated from thechurch!
4.)Do you feel the Magna Carta was justified due to King John’s actions? Please use evidence from the text to explain your answer. My Opinion: Yes. Since King John was excommunicated from the church and everyone within England had to pay the price of his excommunication. It was important for King John to have to follow rules of the land so England wasn’t lost forever or so it wouldn’t sink deeper into further financial ruin!
5.)What was the main outcome of the Magna Carta?The Magna Carta stopped King Johnfrom acting impulsively such as raisingtaxes, fighting with the church or throwingpeople into jail for no apparent reason.He had to discuss all of these issues withchurch officials as well as barons.
6.)What was different in King Edward I’s model parliament?In the model parliament, King Edwardincluded more people in the government.He allowed commoners as well as lower-ranking clergy part of the government.
7.)What were the two ways that these political developments in England help bring down feudalism? Some developments strengthened royal authority at the expense of the nobles. Other developments weakened feudalism by shifting power to common people!
1.) Where do historians believe the plague originated? Historians believe that it started in Central Asia, probably China.
2.) Looking at the map on page 56, where do they think the plague entered Europe? 1346-1348: Plague enters and spreads through Europe. Kaffa which is on the coast of the Black Sea.
3.) What type of “job” helped spread this disease? What “road” helped spread this disease? Merchants helped spread this disease either through the Silk Road or on trade ships.
4.) List at least three symptoms of the Black Plague: Fever, vomiting, fierce coughing and sneezing fits, and egg-sized swellings or bumps.
5.) What is the theory of why the plague spread violently throughout Europe? Hint: Living conditions & people’s hygiene People had no idea where or how the plague spread. City streets were covered in garbage. People blamed the plague on many different things.
6.) Which group was blamed for the spread of the disease? Jews were blamed for the spread of the disease because they weren’t struck with the plague as much because they lived in cleaner conditions.
7. What actually spread the disease? People lived in disgusting living conditions which attracted rats that had infected fleas on them. These fleas would jump from rats to humans in search of a new host.
8.) What are the statistics of those who perished in Europe from the plague? Historians believe that 24 million Europeans died as a result of the plague- about 1/3 of the population.
9.) Why did the plague shift change in Europe economically and socially? Many of the commoners were able to ask for higher wages and better working conditions because the plague left little or no workers in society. Workers were high in demand.
10.) When the plague eventually left Europe, why did the plague give the common people a sense of new found freedom? The commoners were now able to advance economically which would lead to advancing socially. They were able to control their own destiny.
1.) Why was the Hundred Years’ War fought? Between 1337 and 1453, England and France fought a series of wars over teh control of lands in France.
2.) Why were the English war tactics better than the French? The English army were lighter and faster on their feet because the French wore heavy armor and couldn’t move as quickly. The English had a paid army that recruited commoners to fight.
3.) What weapon helped the English to succeed in the Battle of Crecy? The Longbow helped the English defeat the French in the Battle of Crecy. The Longbow was lighter, faster and more accurate than the crossbow used by the French.
4.) How did the sense of national identity help the French fight against the English in later battles during the Hundred Years’ War? Joan of Arc brought about a sense of unity or Nationalism. The modern tactics used by the French as well as people feeling a part of the France, made them want to succeed and fight for their country.
5.) How did paying the common people to fight help bring down feudalism in Europe? Paying commoners to fight created a more professional and organized army. This also released the monarch’s ties to the feudal lords since the monarch didn’t have to rely on the lord to supply him with knights.
6.) How did the following help bring down feudalism in Europe? New military technology: The introduction of the cannon which brought down castles helped feudalism decline in Europe.
6.) How did the following help bring down feudalism in Europe? Nationalism: A sense of Unity especially in France helped bring down feudalism. People rallied together in order to protect their rights.
6.) How did the following help bring down feudalism in Europe? Common People: Commoners became professional armies and the monarchs did not have to rely on the feudal lords to supply knights in times of need.