SaharaDesert3,500,000 square milesSand dunes cover 1/4 ofof the SaharaVery dryHas some scattered oaseshas bare, rocky plains aswell as mountains.
Sahelshort grasses, small trees,small brush grows in the sahel.south of the SaharaKnown as the semidesertNot as dry as the Sahara
SavannaTall grasses, trees and grainsgrow in the savannaSahel merges into theSavanna.Has a long rainy seasonNiger River help make landfertile and also provide fish foreating.
ForestTrees, shrubs, oil palms, yams,kola trees, mahogany, teak treesgrow in the West African forests.Wetter than the savannaNorthern part: is the woodlandforest.Southern part: is the rainforest(rains year round)
2. Trade: Why was trade so important toWest African communities?• 2. Different resources are found in thedifferent areas. People had to trade inorder to get the resources that they didnot have in their region.
1. What is an extended family? How manymembers would be part of an extendedfamily?• An extended family includes closerelatives such as grandparents as wellas aunts, uncles and their children.• An extended family may have about 15-20 members.
2. List three things that an extended familymay do together.• Extended families formed villages tocontrol flooding• mine for iron or gold• or for protection.
3. Who made decisions in a family-basedcommunity?• One of the male elders probably madedecisions for the community.
1. What were the two reasons why Africanvillages eventually grew into Towns and Cities?• Growth of ironworking.• Expansion of trade
2. How did the introduction/discovery of ironinfluence the transformation from villages intotowns and cities?• Farmers could clear land and grow more crops.• This gave an abundance of food available to people andgave people a chance to make other things.• They could trade their supplies for goods they could notproduce themselves and this created trading sites. Thesesites grew richer and became towns & cities due to ahigher population of people settling there.
2. How did the location along trade routes affectdevelopment of cities?• Villages located along rivers or othertrade routes became trading sites. Bytaxing traders, villages became wealthy.Wealth led to an increase inpopulation, and villages often grew intotowns and cities.
3. Why were archaeologists fascinated withthe city of Jenne-jeno?• Jenne-jeno was located at the intersection of theNiger and Bani Rivers. This ideal location forfarming, fishing, and trade allowed it to becomea large city.• Historians did not think that cities did not existin West Africa until they discovered Jenne-jeno.
4. Why were blacksmiths at a higher status level than othersin the city of Jenne-jeno?• People were amazed that blacksmiths couldmake iron useful and iron was more valuable tothem than gold.• People thought that blacksmiths hadsupernatural powers.• Blacksmiths were similar to political leaders,judges, doctors, and other important positions.
1. According to History Alive, trading cities developed intokingdoms/empires because of taxes collected from tradinggoods. Why would money be a factor in creating a largerkingdom/empire?• With the increase of money, these areas couldafford to have larger armies, which would inturn allow them to conquer other tradingcities/towns.
2. Explain how a tribute worked and why wasit an important gesture to a new king?• After a place was conquered, a tribute was paidto the new “owner” of the land.• This tribute was a way to show the new“owner” that you will obey his rules.• Tributes helped pay for more protection thatwas needed from outside attackers.
3. Disadvantages of being a partof a kingdom?• People living in conquered areas had topay tribute• men had to serve in the army.
3. Advantages of being a part of a kingdom?• Armies made sure trade routes weresafe.• They kept out foreign armies andraiders.• Wars between small cities ended.• Kings passed out the luxury goodsfairly throughout the kingdom.