Baghdadone of the mostglorious MuslimcitiesAbbasid capitallocated between theTigris and Euphratesriverswas a crossroads oftrade routesconnecting distantparts of the empire
Mosques muslim house of worship has a small balcony for the muezzin chanted the call to prayer. has a fountain for washing before prayers.
Astronomycompass and astrolabes could beused to locate Makkah.figured out exact times for prayerand length of Ramadan.realized earth rotated like aspinning top.thought that the sun and starstraveled around the earth.
Scholarship and LearningArabic languagebecame thelanguage ofscholarship andscience.Muslims builtschools, colleges,libraries and centersof learning.
Zoology wrote books describing structure of animals’ bodies. represented theories about evolution of animals. established zoos where exotic animals were displayed. learned how to make medicines from animals.
Irrigation and Wellsrestored old irrigationsystems and designed newones.built dams and aqueductsto provide water forhouseholds, mills andfields.improved existing systemsof canals and undergroundwells. (some wells reacheddown 50 feet.)
Geography and Navigationdivided the world into differentclimate region.realized that the earth was round.calculated the earth’scircumference within nine miles ofthe correct value.created extremely accurate maps.made books of different countrieslisted useful facts about the landsunder Muslim rule.
Mathematics created algebra. created Arabic numerals. spread the Indian concept of zero. Zero means “something empty” in Arabic.
Medicinemade their mostimportant contributions inmedicine.established the firsthospitals.Pharmacists madehundreds of medications.created various surgicalprocedures
Bookmaking and Literature learned the art of paper making from the Chinese. began making bound books - growth of Muslim literature. famous story called Arabian nights.
Geometric and Designrejected the use of images ofhumans or animals in their visualart - only God can createsomething that is alive.artists turned to shapes andpatterns found in nature andgeometry to create designs anddecorations.used a design called arabesque,which is a natural pattern that isrepeated over and over again.
Calligraphy(means beautiful handwriting) highest form of decorative art. felt that only calligraphy was worthy to record the words of God in the Qur’an. honored calligraphers over all other artists.
Textileshad been important tothe Arab people aspractical items and astrade goods.clothes showed rankand served as statussymbols in the Muslimworld.
Music established the first conservatory (music school.) singing was an essential part of their culture. hired as entertainers. musicians and poets worked together to create songs.
Pololearned the game fromthe Persians.looked at horses asstatus symbols.became popular withthe wealthy.began to raisechampion Arabianhorses to play polo.
Chess was probably invented in India. Persians introduced to the Muslim world in mid 600s. became popular for all levels of society. players enjoyed the intellectual challenge that chess presented. Muslims introduced the game of chess to Europe.
Which one do you think is themost important invention ?