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Richard P. Gabriel                                             Kevin J. Sullivan                         Dream Songs, Inc....
Only mystery enables us to live.                             –Federico Garcia Lorca
Only mystery enables us to live.         Only mystery.                             –Federico Garcia Lorca
Prefrontal lightningbolt too lazy to chew the sphinxs loudest eyelashNot even if it shushes you with a mast of sneersDown ...
Φ;∆     T okΦ     ; ∆;Γ     e∈S    Φ; ∆;Γ       x ∈ Γ(x) [GT-Var]                                             [GT-Cast]   ...
–source code visualization
–Jackson Pollock
–coding sheet
–messy notes
–Sanda Illescu
void Step1() {    selectDrawing(firstDrawing);    if (isNewDrawing(firstDrawing))     writePoem(firstDrawing);    else     re...
Science: Traditional View   Scientists   create knowledge   study the world as it is   are trained in scientific method   ...
Engineering: Traditional ViewEngineersapply that knowledgeseek to change the worldare trained in engineering methoduse tac...
Engineering: Traditional ViewEngineersapply that knowledgeseek to change the worldare trained in engineering methoduse tac...
Art: Traditional View Artists create artifacts study the world as it appears are trained in a creational skill use aesthet...
The “Cleanliness” of         Science• The Demarcation Problem• Positivism• Elitist authoritarianism• Epistemological• Anar...
DemarcationDemarcation problem: When is one theorybetter than another, where science is at one endof the scale and pseudos...
PositivismPositivism: “the view that serious scientific inquiryshould not search for ultimate causes derivingfrom some out...
Elitist AuthoritarianismThe idea that the demarcation problem isfor a jury of accepted scientists to judge;that is, judge ...
Inductivism• A statement is scientific only if it is provable from facts• Need to go from a fact (this is a computer) to a...
Probabilism• A statement is scientific only if it can be shown to be probable (and therefore one scientific theory is “bet...
Conventionalism• The idea that a scientific theory is a convention or a means people agree to in order to make certain cal...
Falsification• A statement is scientific if an experiment can be stated that could falsify it.• Suppose a statement requir...
FalsificationAt any given time, every theory has numerous“anomalies” that are considered either theresult of “disturbing f...
Research Programmes• A research programme is a series of “progressive” theories; a theory is progressive (over the last) w...
Epistemological          Anarchism• There are no demarcation lines.• There is no such thing as progress, only fashion.• An...
Bruno Latour• Scientific “fact” is determined by a jury.• Science is the set of things constructed in a laboratory.• Scien...
Art & Engineering           Precede Science...our testaments to physical work are so oftenfocused on the values such work ...
Art & Engineering          Precede ScienceSkilled manual labor entails a systematic encounterwith the material world, prec...
Art & Engineering          Precede Science...in areas of well-development craft practices,technological developments typic...
Art & Engineering          Precede ScienceThe steam engine is a good example. It wasdeveloped by mechanics who observed th...
Science & Engineering:            Realistic ViewScientists                            Engineerscreate knowledge           ...
DiscoveryIn the scientist’s house are many mansions....Outsiders oftenregard science as a sober enterprise, but we who are...
Discovery...But we believe that science is also poetry, and—perhaps evenmore heretical—that discovery has its reasons, as ...
Art as Exploration &             Discovery• Exploration: “some combination of premeditated searching and undisciplined, pe...
• Understand: Only after discovery can the work      be properly structured, can the selection and      organization of th...
Artistic CreationArtistic creation is a voyage into the unknown. In our owneyes, we are off the map. The excitement of pot...
Artistic CreationSome of the oldest stories we know, including creationmyths, were attempts to make sense of the world. Th...
Artistic CreationSometimes it’s very tempting to be satisfied with what’seasy, particularly if people tell you it’s good.....
Art:            Realistic ViewArtistscreate knowledge, language, alternative realityare image or “piece” drivenseek to und...
Invented LanguagesThe 900 languages, over 900 years,we do have evidence for suggest thatthe urge to invent languages is as...
Invented LanguagesIt is at least as old and persistent as the urge tocomplain about language. The primary motivationfor in...
Advantages of Natural          Languages...natural language and the messy qualities thatgive it so much flexibility and po...
Advantages of Natural          LanguagesAt the same time natural language still works as aninstrument of thought transmiss...
void foo(int x[], int y, int z){ if (z > y + 1) { int a = x[y], b = y + 1, c = z; while (b < c) { if (x[b] <= a) b++; else...
void foo(int x[], int y, int z){ if (z > y + 1) { int a = x[y], b = y + 1, c = z; while (b < c) { if (x[b] <= a) b++; else...
void quicksort(int array[], int begin, int end){ if (end > begin + 1) { int pivot = array[begin], l = begin + 1, r = end; ...
void quicksort(int array[], int begin, int end){ if (end > begin + 1) { int pivot = array[begin], l = begin + 1, r = end; ...
better watchoutbetter !cry !poutlpr whysanta claus <north pole > towncat /etc/passwd > listncheck listncheck listcat list ...
better watchoutbetter !cry !poutlpr whysanta claus <north pole > towncat /etc/passwd > listncheck listncheck listcat list ...
better watchoutbetter !cry !poutlpr whysanta claus <north pole > towncat /etc/passwd > listncheck listncheck listcat list ...
Stopping by http://babelfish.altavista.com on a Snowy EveningHere is a task whose outcome is certain:Thinking of someone’s...
There is only one other sound,a different sound like a clay tone,but only to the extent of a thin layer or a languid ribbo...
There is only one other sound,a different sound like a clay tone,but only to the extent of a thin layer or a languid ribbo...
Stopping By Woods on a Snowy EveningWhose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not se...
Stopping By Woods on a Snowy EveningWhose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not se...
Stopping By Woods on a Snowy EveningWhose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not se...
Experimental vs          Conceptual• This is a distinction like that between artistic and scientific• Or iterative versus ...
Experimental ArtistsArtists who have produced experimental innovations havebeen motivated by aesthetic criteria: they have...
Conceptual ArtistsIn contrast, artists who have made conceptual innovationshave been motivated by the desire to communicat...
Conceptual ArtistsFor conceptual artists, planning is the most important stage.Before he begins working, the conceptual ar...
Experimental ArtistsFor experimental artists, planning a painting is unimportant.The subject selected might be simply a co...
Conceptual Artists...extreme practitioners...make all the decisions for a workbefore beginning it. It is unclear, however,...
Professional vs            Compulsive           Programmers• Joseph Weizenbaum• Computer Power and Human Reason• 1976• Eli...
The ordinary [professional] programmer will...generally dolengthy preparatory work, such as writing and flow diagramming,b...
The compulsive programmer is usually a superbtechnician,...one how knows every detail of the computer heworks on, its peri...
The compulsive programmer...calls what he does “hacking.”...Hecannot set before himself a clearly defined long-term goal a...
Concept              Experiment          mathematicians                                             CraftspeopleScience   ...
Concept     ExperimentScience  Art      Software            Project           more dimensions?
Concept     ExperimentScience    Software            Project  Art           more dimensions?
“Intellectuals” cannot     observe art in actionIf you give a somewhat complex knot to an adult whohas developed all the r...
“Intellectuals” cannot    observe art in actionBy contrast, if you give the same knot to a child whohasn’t developed the s...
How Knots are Really          UntiedAre you looking for an easier way to untie jammed-upknots? Most people know the standa...
How Knots are Really        Untied• You don’t sit there analyzing the problem. You start  playing with it to see if there ...
Paul Cezanne               A Modern Olympia
Paul CézanneFor him as I understand his work, the ultimatesynthesis of a design was never revealed in aflash; rather he ap...
Pablo Picasso            Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
Pablo PicassoI can hardly understand the importance given tothe word “research” in connection with modernpainting. To find...
Pablo Picasso cannot                  observe art in action                 During the winter 1906–7, he filled a series o...
Three Modes of          Reasoning• deduction• induction• abduction
Now, that the matter of no new truth cancome from induction or from deduction,we have seen. It can only come fromabduction...
DeductionDefinition: a and b are factors of c if a·b=c. In thiscase we say that c is composite.Definition: P is prime if i...
InductionFrom observing a number of occurrences of αaccompanied by occurrences of β in the rightcircumstances, we can conc...
AbductionBeing presented with a circumstance, β, which is asort of mystery, we guess that α could be its cause,and so we t...
–Thomas TPunkt / Thomas Teufel
In science, the obvious role of imagination is in the contextof discovery. Unimaginative scientists don’t produceradically...
Anything else is known as “guessing”   and is quite unscientific.  –Mark McIntyre                                     spac...
In general, we look for a new law by thefollowing process. First we guess it.Then we compute the consequences ofthe guess ...
Can Art Improve     the Process of Science?Until the Florida Department of Education places anemphasis on art and music—th...
Can Art Improve the Process of Science?Proulx, Travis; Heine, Steven J.“Connections From Kafka: Exposure toMeaning Threats...
!   !
!
Can Art Improvethe Process of Science?
Can Art Improvethe Process of Science?                          VTVTRTTVM      M                          XMMMXRVTM       ...
VTVTRTTVM   XXRTTVM     XXRVTRVMXMMMXRVTM   XMXRVM      VVTRVMXXRTTTVM    XMXRTVM     VTTTTVMXMXRTVTM    XXRTVTRVM   VTTTT...
Can Art Improvethe Process of Science?                   XMTRRM                   VTRRRM                 VVRMTRRM         ...
VVRXRRM     XXRRRM      VTTVTMVVRXRM      VVTTRMTM    VVRMVRXRMVVTRTTVM    VVTTRXM     VTVTRVMXXRTTTVM    VTTVTRVM    XMMM...
The strings of letters you just copiedcontained a strict pattern. Some of the letterstrings below follow the same pattern....
Reading Kafka Improves   Implicit Learning• 26% more accurate• 33% more strings identified
Reading Kafka Improves   Implicit Learning• 26% more accurate• 33% more strings identified      From: "Debra Allbery" <da@...
Scientific ProcessesScientific processes, whether for productdevelopment, manufacturing, or servicedelivery, seek to minim...
Scientific ProcessesThousands of manufacturing companies haveachieved tremendous improvements in quality andefficiency by ...
Artistic ProcessesAn artistic process is one that tolerates or even welcomes avariety of inputs and works to produce the b...
Scientific ProcessesThe idea that some processes should be allowed tovary flies in the face of the century-old movementtow...
Programmers’ CycleIf we look closely at how software developers spendtheir time, we see that they do these things insequen...
Richard P. Gabriel                                             Kevin J. Sullivan                         Dream Songs, Inc....
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
Better Science Through Art
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Better Science Through Art

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Common wisdom says that science and art are entirely different beasts; moreover, a similar source of wisdom tells us that
science is valuable to society while art is a luxury. Why else would schools drop art from their curricula over the past 20 years?
But artists and scientists approach their work in similar if not identical ways.

This presentation was created by Richard P Gabriel and presented at IME-USP - São Paulo on 31/Mar/2011 sponsored by CCSL


Richard's Bio
Richard P. Gabriel (Ph.D., Stanford University, 1981; MFA Creative Writing (Poetry), Warren Wilson College, 1998; ACM Fellow) performs programming language, creativity, and software engineering research at IBM Research. He is the author of five books. He played lead guitar in a rock ‘n’ roll band for 20 years.

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Transcript of "Better Science Through Art"

  1. 1. Richard P. Gabriel Kevin J. Sullivan Dream Songs, Inc.University of Virginia U Better Science Through Art
  2. 2. Only mystery enables us to live. –Federico Garcia Lorca
  3. 3. Only mystery enables us to live. Only mystery. –Federico Garcia Lorca
  4. 4. Prefrontal lightningbolt too lazy to chew the sphinxs loudest eyelashNot even if it shushes you with a mast of sneersDown which grateful bankvault-doors scamperBecause of a doublejointedness that glows in the darkLike a soliloquy of walnutsNumbed by beaks of headless measuringtapeSo the lubriciousness can tower in peaceLike a buzzsaw trapped in a perfumery of shrugsLemonOr limeOnly a maze can remember your hair of buttered blowguns –Bill Knott, Nights of Naomi
  5. 5. Φ;∆ T okΦ ; ∆;Γ e∈S Φ; ∆;Γ x ∈ Γ(x) [GT-Var] [GT-Cast] Φ; ∆;Γ (T)e ∈ T Φ T includes init(S) Φ; ∆;Γ e ∈ S Φ;∆ T ok [GT-New] Φ; ∆;Γ new T(e) ∈ T annotate [e :: S] fields(N) = T f Φ; ∆;Γ e ∈ T ∆ T <: N ∆ P <: N and fi ∈ fields(P) implies P = N [GT-Field] Φ; ∆;Γ e.fi ∈ Ti annotate [e :: N] Φ;∆ T okΦ ; ∆;Γ e0 ∈ T0 Φ; ∆;Γ e∈R mtype(m bound∆ (T0 )) = P.<X extends N with ¶I♦ S m(U x) > ∆ T <: [X → T]N Φ T includes [X → T]¶I♦ ∆ R <: [X → T]U [GT-Invk] Φ; ∆;Γ e0 .m<T>(e) ∈ [X → T]S annotate [e0 ∈ P] ∆ R <: S Φ;∆ T ok Φ;∆ S ok Φ T includes init(S) Φ; ∆;Γ e∈R [GT-Ann-New] Φ; ∆;Γ new T(e :: S) ∈ T fields(N) = T f Φ;∆ N ok Φ; ∆;Γ e∈T ∆ T <: N [GT-Ann-Field] Φ; ∆;Γ [e :: N].fi ∈ Ti Φ;∆ T ok Φ; ∆;Γ e0 ∈ T0 Φ; ∆;Γ e∈R mtype(m O) = P.<X extends N with ¶I♦ S m(U x) >∆ T <: [X → T]N Φ T includes [X → T]¶I♦ ∆ R <: [X → T]U [GT-Ann-Invk] Φ; ∆;Γ [e0 ◦ O].m<T>(e) ∈ [X → T]S –Eric Allen, et al
  6. 6. –source code visualization
  7. 7. –Jackson Pollock
  8. 8. –coding sheet
  9. 9. –messy notes
  10. 10. –Sanda Illescu
  11. 11. void Step1() { selectDrawing(firstDrawing); if (isNewDrawing(firstDrawing)) writePoem(firstDrawing); else rewriteLessPoem(firstDrawing); if (!oneLineLeft(firstDrawing)) Step2(firstDrawing); } void Step2(int currentDrawing) { selectDrawing(++currentDrawing); if (isNewDrawing(currentDrawing)) { writePoem(currentDrawing); Step1(); } else { rewriteLessPoem(currentDrawing); Step2(currentDrawing); } } –Kevin Sullivan, Java implementation of Sanda’s process
  12. 12. Science: Traditional View Scientists create knowledge study the world as it is are trained in scientific method use explicit knowledge are thinkers
  13. 13. Engineering: Traditional ViewEngineersapply that knowledgeseek to change the worldare trained in engineering methoduse tacit knowledgeare doers
  14. 14. Engineering: Traditional ViewEngineersapply that knowledgeseek to change the worldare trained in engineering methoduse tacit knowledgeare doers
  15. 15. Art: Traditional View Artists create artifacts study the world as it appears are trained in a creational skill use aesthetics are doers
  16. 16. The “Cleanliness” of Science• The Demarcation Problem• Positivism• Elitist authoritarianism• Epistemological• Anarchism• Inductivism• Conventionalism• Falsification• Research programmes
  17. 17. DemarcationDemarcation problem: When is one theorybetter than another, where science is at one endof the scale and pseudoscience at the other.
  18. 18. PositivismPositivism: “the view that serious scientific inquiryshould not search for ultimate causes derivingfrom some outside source but must confine itselfto the study of relations existing between factswhich are directly accessible to observation.”Logical positivism: “Philosophy should providestrict criteria for judging sentences true, false, [or]meaningless.” –Wikipedia
  19. 19. Elitist AuthoritarianismThe idea that the demarcation problem isfor a jury of accepted scientists to judge;that is, judge which work is scientific andwhich isn’t.
  20. 20. Inductivism• A statement is scientific only if it is provable from facts• Need to go from a fact (this is a computer) to a proposition (“this is a computer”)• Need to show that something true in a particular set of spaces and times (inverse square gravitation law) is true everywhere, all the time
  21. 21. Probabilism• A statement is scientific only if it can be shown to be probable (and therefore one scientific theory is “better” than another if it is more probable).• Because the universe is large, most probabilities are small.
  22. 22. Conventionalism• The idea that a scientific theory is a convention or a means people agree to in order to make certain calculations.• Ptolemaic crystal spheres provide an accurate predictive framework.• Clumsy conventions (Ptolemy) are replaced by simpler ones (Copernicus)
  23. 23. Falsification• A statement is scientific if an experiment can be stated that could falsify it.• Suppose a statement requires a measurement made by an instrument to be falsified, then • there needs to be a theory of how the instrument works and what it measures (conventionalism) • if the instrument provides a reason to throw out the statement, then there needs to be a analysis of whether there are potential disturbing factors (ceteris paribus).
  24. 24. FalsificationAt any given time, every theory has numerous“anomalies” that are considered either theresult of “disturbing factors” or things to becleared up later.That is, every theory is heavily patched.
  25. 25. Research Programmes• A research programme is a series of “progressive” theories; a theory is progressive (over the last) when: • it leads to new predictions • none of its bold predictions are falsified • it is not “patched” by ad hoc statements, but instead retains its hard core and adjusts its protective belt
  26. 26. Epistemological Anarchism• There are no demarcation lines.• There is no such thing as progress, only fashion.• Anything goes.• Science as propaganda.
  27. 27. Bruno Latour• Scientific “fact” is determined by a jury.• Science is the set of things constructed in a laboratory.• Scientists “vote” on what’s good science through references.• And lots of things I don’t understand.
  28. 28. Art & Engineering Precede Science...our testaments to physical work are so oftenfocused on the values such work exhibits ratherthan on the thought it requires. It is a subtle butpervasive omission....It is as though in our culturaliconography we are given the muscled arm, sleeverolled tight against biceps, but no thought brightbehind eyes, no image that links hand and brain. –Mike Rose, The Mind at Work
  29. 29. Art & Engineering Precede ScienceSkilled manual labor entails a systematic encounterwith the material world, precisely the kind ofencounter that gives rise to natural science. Fromits earliest practice, craft knowledge has entailedknowledge of the “ways” of one’s materials—that is,knowledge of their nature, acquired throughdisciplined perception. –Matthew B. Crawford, Shop Class as Soulcraft
  30. 30. Art & Engineering Precede Science...in areas of well-development craft practices,technological developments typically preceded andgave rise to advances in scientific understanding,not vice versa. –Matthew B. Crawford, Shop Class as Soulcraft
  31. 31. Art & Engineering Precede ScienceThe steam engine is a good example. It wasdeveloped by mechanics who observed therelations between volume, pressure, andtemperature. This was at a time when theoreticalscientists were tied to the caloric theory of heat,which later turned out to be a conceptual dead end. –Matthew B. Crawford, Shop Class as Soulcraft
  32. 32. Science & Engineering: Realistic ViewScientists Engineerscreate knowledge create knowledgeare problem driven are problem drivenseek to understand and explain seek to understand and explaindesign experiments to test theories design devices to test theoriesprefer abstract knowledge prefer contingent knowledgebut rely on tacit knowledge but rely on tacit knowledge
  33. 33. DiscoveryIn the scientist’s house are many mansions....Outsiders oftenregard science as a sober enterprise, but we who are inside see itas the most romantic of all callings. Both views are right. Theromance adheres to the processes of scientific discovery, thesobriety to the responsibility for verification.Histories of science put the spotlight on discovery....The story ofscientific progress reaches its periodic climaxes at the moments ofdiscovery....In the philosophy of science, all the emphasis is onverification, on how we can tell the true gold of scientific law fromthe fool’s gold of untested fantasy. In fact, it is still the majorityview among philosophers of science that only verification is aproper subject of inquiry, that nothing of philosophical interest canbe said about the process of discovery. –Langley, Simon, Bradshaw, and Zytkow, Scientific Discovery
  34. 34. Discovery...But we believe that science is also poetry, and—perhaps evenmore heretical—that discovery has its reasons, as poetry does.However romantic and heroic we find the moment of discovery, wecannot believe either that the events leading up to that momentare entirely random and chaotic or that they require genius thatcan be understood only by congenial minds. We believe thatfinding order in the world must itself be a process impregnatedwith purpose and reason.
  35. 35. Art as Exploration & Discovery• Exploration: “some combination of premeditated searching and undisciplined, perhaps only partly conscious, rambling.” Defocused attention; flat associative hierarchies.• Exploration is assertive action in the face of uncertain assumptions, often involving false starts, missteps, and surprises.• Discovery: “a reckless encounter with the unexpected.” Focus; concentration; persistence. “If we persist [in exploration], we discover.” –Peter Turchi, Maps of the Imagination
  36. 36. • Understand: Only after discovery can the work be properly structured, can the selection and organization of the significant moments of time take place.If we attempt to map the world of a story before weexplore it, we are likely either to (a) prematurely limit ourexploration, so as to reduce the amount of material weneed to consider, or (b) explore at length but, recognizingthe impossibility of taking note of everything, and havingno sound basis for choosing what to include, arbitrarilyomit entire realms of information. The opportunities areoverwhelming. –Peter Turchi, Maps of the Imagination
  37. 37. Artistic CreationArtistic creation is a voyage into the unknown. In our owneyes, we are off the map. The excitement of potentialdiscovery is accompanied by anxiety, despair, caution,perhaps, perhaps boldness, and, always, the risk offailure. Failure can take the form of our becominghopelessly lost, or pointlessly lost, or not finding what wecame for (though that last is sometimes happilyaccompanied by the discovery of something we didn’tanticipate, couldn’t even imagine before we found it). Westrike out for what we believe to be uncharted waters,only to find ourselves sailing in someone else’s bathtub.Those are the days it seems there is nothing new todiscover but the limitations of our own experience andunderstanding. –Peter Turchi, Maps of the Imagination
  38. 38. Artistic CreationSome of the oldest stories we know, including creationmyths, were attempts to make sense of the world. Thoseearly storytellers invented answers to the mysteries allaround them. Why does the rain come? Why does itstop? If a child is created by two adults, from where didthe first two adults originate? What is the earth likebeyond what we have seen, and beyond what the peoplewe know have seen? What lies beyond the stars? –Peter Turchi, Maps of the Imagination
  39. 39. Artistic CreationSometimes it’s very tempting to be satisfied with what’seasy, particularly if people tell you it’s good....What’sessential is to work without any preconception whatever,without knowing in advance what the picture is going tolook like....It is very, very important to avoid allpreconception, to try to see only what exists...to translateone’s sensation. –Alberto Giacometti, on painting James Lord
  40. 40. Art: Realistic ViewArtistscreate knowledge, language, alternative realityare image or “piece” drivenseek to understand and explaindesign devices to explore the world and the selfprefer contingent knowledgebut rely on tacit knowledge
  41. 41. Invented LanguagesThe 900 languages, over 900 years,we do have evidence for suggest thatthe urge to invent languages is as oldand persistent as language itself. –Arika Okrent, In the Land of Invented Languages
  42. 42. Invented LanguagesIt is at least as old and persistent as the urge tocomplain about language. The primary motivationfor inventing a new language has been to improveupon natural language, to eliminate its designflaws, or rather the flaws it has developed for lackof conscious design. Looked at from anengineering perspective, language is a kind ofdisaster. –Arika Okrent, In the Land of Invented Languages
  43. 43. Advantages of Natural Languages...natural language and the messy qualities thatgive it so much flexibility and power, and that makeit so much more than a simple communicationdevice. The ambiguity and lack of precision allow itto serve as an instrument of thought formulation,of experimentation and discovery. We don’t haveto know exactly what we mean before we speak;we can figure it out as we go along. Or not. –Arika Okrent, In the Land of Invented Languages
  44. 44. Advantages of Natural LanguagesAt the same time natural language still works as aninstrument of thought transmission, one that canbe made extremely precise and reliable when weneed it to be, or left loose and sloppy when wecan’t spare the time or effort. –Arika Okrent, In the Land of Invented Languages
  45. 45. void foo(int x[], int y, int z){ if (z > y + 1) { int a = x[y], b = y + 1, c = z; while (b < c) { if (x[b] <= a) b++; else { int d = x[b]; x[b] = x[--c]; x[c] = d; } } int e = x[--b]; x[b] = x[y]; x[y] = e; foo(x, y, b); foo(x, c, z);}
  46. 46. void foo(int x[], int y, int z){ if (z > y + 1) { int a = x[y], b = y + 1, c = z; while (b < c) { if (x[b] <= a) b++; else { int d = x[b]; x[b] = x[--c]; x[c] = d; } } int e = x[--b]; x[b] = x[y]; x[y] = e; foo(x, y, b); foo(x, c, z);} and this does what?
  47. 47. void quicksort(int array[], int begin, int end){ if (end > begin + 1) { int pivot = array[begin], l = begin + 1, r = end; while (l < r) { if (array[l] <= pivot) l++; else swap(&array[l], &array[--r]); } swap(&array[--l], &array[beg]); sort(array, begin, l); sort(array, r, end); }}
  48. 48. void quicksort(int array[], int begin, int end){ if (end > begin + 1) { int pivot = array[begin], l = begin + 1, r = end; while (l < r) { if (array[l] <= pivot) l++; else swap(&array[l], &array[--r]); } swap(&array[--l], &array[beg]); sort(array, begin, l); sort(array, r, end); }} add some art
  49. 49. better watchoutbetter !cry !poutlpr whysanta claus <north pole > towncat /etc/passwd > listncheck listncheck listcat list | grep naughty > nogiftlistcat list | grep nice > giftlistsanta claus <north pole > townwho | grep sleepingwho | grep awakewho | egrep bad|goodfor (goodness sake) {be good}
  50. 50. better watchoutbetter !cry !poutlpr whysanta claus <north pole > towncat /etc/passwd > listncheck listncheck listcat list | grep naughty > nogiftlistcat list | grep nice > giftlistsanta claus <north pole > townwho | grep sleepingwho | grep awakewho | egrep bad|goodfor (goodness sake) {be good} add a lot of art
  51. 51. better watchoutbetter !cry !poutlpr whysanta claus <north pole > towncat /etc/passwd > listncheck listncheck listcat list | grep naughty > nogiftlistcat list | grep nice > giftlistsanta claus <north pole > townwho | grep sleepingwho | grep awakewho | egrep bad|goodfor (goodness sake) {be good} add a lot of art
  52. 52. Stopping by http://babelfish.altavista.com on a Snowy EveningHere is a task whose outcome is certain:Thinking of someone’s forestand then thinking whether this forest is that someone’s.And as for his house (I’ve picked this up):it is certainly located in town.I am stopped here paying attention to the snow above,observing the trees filling in above the snow.My eye finds comfort in this.As for my horse, he strangely and narrowly stops.I am small, me and the small end of the tree both agree.To the horse, we are stopped between a farm and the frozen sea.This evening is the strangest and the darkest of the year, the horse must think.His harness bells are his only user interface.These bells are installed to a flange by some wiring, and sohe gives the flange a shock, vibrating the wires,thereby jolting the bells (giving them a restlessness)in order to pose me a question:Is there some kind of mistake here?Surely a certain error exists.He is a small horse.
  53. 53. There is only one other sound,a different sound like a clay tone,but only to the extent of a thin layer or a languid ribbonforming a closed loop: the sweepback of a light breezeover downy soft flakes—a simple, easy wind;flakes like cotton wool or hairor a rag for cleaning, which is the same thing.Or maybe it sounds like this:khlop!(I am excited by this.)Woods are attractive. Likable. Lovable, even.Or sometimes—obscure. One of the treesis dark and from a place which is deep.And you know what they say: Dark and deep are deep.But I am held to obligations which I must maintain.Before I sleep I must resume my outward journey.(And other unspecified things of the same class.)
  54. 54. There is only one other sound,a different sound like a clay tone,but only to the extent of a thin layer or a languid ribbonforming a closed loop: the sweepback of a light breezeover downy soft flakes—a simple, easy wind;flakes like cotton wool or hairor a rag for cleaning, which is the same thing.Or maybe it sounds like this:khlop!(I am excited by this.)Woods are attractive. Likable. Lovable, even.Or sometimes—obscure. One of the treesis dark and from a place which is deep.And you know what they say: Dark and deep are deep.But I am held to obligations which I must maintain.Before I sleep I must resume my outward journey.(And other unspecified things of the same class.) –written with the use of translation-based defamiliarization
  55. 55. Stopping By Woods on a Snowy EveningWhose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not see me stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with snow.My little horse must think it queerTo stop without a farmhouse nearBetween the woods and frozen lakeThe darkest evening of the year.He gives his harness bells a shakeTo ask if there is some mistake.The only other sounds the sweepOf easy wind and downy flake.The woods are lovely, dark and deep.But I have promises to keep,And miles to go before I sleep,And miles to go before I sleep.
  56. 56. Stopping By Woods on a Snowy EveningWhose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not see me stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with snow.My little horse must think it queerTo stop without a farmhouse nearBetween the woods and frozen lakeThe darkest evening of the year.He gives his harness bells a shakeTo ask if there is some mistake.The only other sounds the sweepOf easy wind and downy flake.The woods are lovely, dark and deep.But I have promises to keep,And miles to go before I sleep,And miles to go before I sleep. –Robert Frost, New Hampshire
  57. 57. Stopping By Woods on a Snowy EveningWhose woods these are I think I know.His house is in the village though;He will not see me stopping hereTo watch his woods fill up with snow.My little horse must think it queer ]To stop without a farmhouse nearBetween the woods and frozen lakeThe darkest evening of the year.He gives his harness bells a shakeTo ask if there is some mistake.The only other sounds the sweepOf easy wind and downy flake.The woods are lovely, dark and deep.But I have promises to keep,And miles to go before I sleep,And miles to go before I sleep. –Robert Frost, New Hampshire
  58. 58. Experimental vs Conceptual• This is a distinction like that between artistic and scientific• Or iterative versus waterfall
  59. 59. Experimental ArtistsArtists who have produced experimental innovations havebeen motivated by aesthetic criteria: they have aimed atpresenting visual perceptions. Their goals are imprecise, sotheir procedure is tentative and incremental. The imprecisionof their goals means that these artists rarely feel they havesucceeded, and their careers are consequently oftendominated by the pursuit of a single objective. –David W. Galenson, Old Masters and Young Geniuses
  60. 60. Conceptual ArtistsIn contrast, artists who have made conceptual innovationshave been motivated by the desire to communicate specificideas or emotions. Their goals for a particular work canusually be stated precisely, before its production, either as adesired image or a desired process for the work’s execution.Conceptual artists consequently make detailed preparatorysketches of plans for their paintings. –David W. Galenson, Old Masters and Young Geniuses
  61. 61. Conceptual ArtistsFor conceptual artists, planning is the most important stage.Before he begins working, the conceptual artist wants tohave a clear vision either of the completed work or of theprocess that will produce it. Conceptual artists consequentlyoften make detailed preparatory sketches or other plans for apainting. With the difficult decisions already made in theplanning stage, working and stopping are straightforward.The artist executes the plan and stops when he hascompleted it. –David W. Galenson, Old Masters and Young Geniuses
  62. 62. Experimental ArtistsFor experimental artists, planning a painting is unimportant.The subject selected might be simply a convenient object ofstudy, and frequently the artist returns to work on a motif hehas used in the past. Some experimental painters beginwithout a specific subject in mind, preferring instead to let thesubject emerge as they work. Experimental painters rarelymake elaborate preparatory sketches. Their most importantdecisions are made during the working stage. The artisttypically alternates between applying paint and examiningthe emerging image; at each point, how he develops theimage depends on his reaction to what he sees. –David W. Galenson, Old Masters and Young Geniuses
  63. 63. Conceptual Artists...extreme practitioners...make all the decisions for a workbefore beginning it. It is unclear, however, if this is literallypossible. There are artists who came close to it, and perhapsachieved it, during the 1960s, by making plans for their workand having these plans executed by others. –David W. Galenson, Old Masters and Young Geniuses
  64. 64. Professional vs Compulsive Programmers• Joseph Weizenbaum• Computer Power and Human Reason• 1976• Eliza• Weizenbaum hated Stallman
  65. 65. The ordinary [professional] programmer will...generally dolengthy preparatory work, such as writing and flow diagramming,before beginning work with the computer itself. His sessions withthe computer may be comparatively short. He may even letothers do the actual console work. He develops his programslowly and systematically. When something doesn’t work, hemay spend considerable time away from the computer framingcareful hypotheses to account for the malfunction and designingcrucial experiments to test them....When he has finallycomposed the program he set out to produce, he is able tocomplete a sensible description of it and turn his attention toother things. –Joseph Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reason
  66. 66. The compulsive programmer is usually a superbtechnician,...one how knows every detail of the computer heworks on, its peripheral equipment, the computer’s operatingsystem, etc....He can write small subsystem programs quickly,that is, in one or two sessions of, say, 20 hours each....His maininterest...is in very large, very ambitious systems of programs....[T]he systems he undertakes to build have very grandiose butextremely imprecisely stated goals. Some examples...are: newcomputer languages to facilitate man-machine communication; ageneral system that can be taught to play any board game; asystem to make it easier for computer experts to write super-systems. –Joseph Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reason
  67. 67. The compulsive programmer...calls what he does “hacking.”...Hecannot set before himself a clearly defined long-term goal and aplan for achieving it, for he has only technique, not knowledge.He has nothing he can analyze or synthesize; in short, he hasnothing to form theories about....(It has to be said that not all hackers are pathologicallycompulsive programmers. Indeed, were it not for the often, in itsown terms, highly creative labor of people who proudly claim thetitle “hacker,” few of today’s sophisticated computer time-sharingsystems, computer language translators, computer graphicssystems, etc., would exist.) –Joseph Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reason
  68. 68. Concept Experiment mathematicians CraftspeopleScience Einstein Darwin Engineers waterfall complexity science Warhol 1970s hackers Art Picasso Cézanne agile? more dimensions?
  69. 69. Concept ExperimentScience Art Software Project more dimensions?
  70. 70. Concept ExperimentScience Software Project Art more dimensions?
  71. 71. “Intellectuals” cannot observe art in actionIf you give a somewhat complex knot to an adult whohas developed all the relevant cognitive skills anddiscipline, and ask them to undo it, they don’t jump intoaction immediately. First they hold it carefully, turn it thisway and that, looking at the knot from each side, untilthey understand the structure of the thing itself. Then aplan begins to form: “if I loosen this strand, it will releasethat one, and then I’ll be able to pass this through thatloop,” and so on. If they’ve understood the structurecorrectly, and formed the plan based on thatunderstanding, then the knot falls apart, and is no more. –Malcolm Sparrow, being wrong while talking about The Character of Harms: Operational Challenges in Control
  72. 72. “Intellectuals” cannot observe art in actionBy contrast, if you give the same knot to a child whohasn’t developed the same skills or mental habits, watchwhat they do. They jump into action immediately. Theydon’t pay such close attention to the structure of thething. They pull and tug and probably make thingsworse. –Malcolm Sparrow, being wrong while talking about The Character of Harms: Operational Challenges in Control
  73. 73. How Knots are Really UntiedAre you looking for an easier way to untie jammed-upknots? Most people know the standard method oflooking for “ears” or “collars” of rope in the knot to shift.What if you dont have that option, or it just isn’tworking? One other method is to quickly and firmly twistthe parts of the rope just outside the knot back and forthas you push in slack.
  74. 74. How Knots are Really Untied• You don’t sit there analyzing the problem. You start playing with it to see if there is an easy way.• You begin to push back on the tight areas to loosen their hold on the rope.• You feel for what is moving, what is releasing.• You make mistakes. One unwinding may only create another knot.• You persist.• You keep pushing and pulling until you get a release.• You use one release to get the next release.• You continue until the knot is completely released.
  75. 75. Paul Cezanne A Modern Olympia
  76. 76. Paul CézanneFor him as I understand his work, the ultimatesynthesis of a design was never revealed in aflash; rather he approached it with infiniteprecautions, stalking it, as it were, now from onepoint of view, now from another....For him thesynthesis was an asymptote toward which he wasforever approaching without ever quite reaching it;it was a reality, incapable of complete realization. –Roger Fry, Cézanne
  77. 77. Pablo Picasso Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
  78. 78. Pablo PicassoI can hardly understand the importance given tothe word “research” in connection with modernpainting. To find, is the thing....When I paint my object is to show what I havefound, not what I am looking for....I have never made trials or experiments.Whenever I had something to say, I have said it inthe manner in which I have felt it ought to be said. –Picasso, 1923 interview
  79. 79. Pablo Picasso cannot observe art in action During the winter 1906–7, he filled a series of sketchbooks with the preparatory studies for Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.... Historian William Rubin estimated that Picasso made more than 400 studies for the Demoiselles, “a quantity of preparatory work...without parallel, for a single picture, in the entire history of art.” * –David W. Galenson, Old Masters and Young Geniuses * Rubin, Seckel, & Cousins,“I have never made trials or experiments.” Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
  80. 80. Three Modes of Reasoning• deduction• induction• abduction
  81. 81. Now, that the matter of no new truth cancome from induction or from deduction,we have seen. It can only come fromabduction; and abduction is, after all,nothing but guessing. We are thereforebound to hope that, although thepossible explanations of our facts maybe strictly innumerable, yet our mind willbe able, in some finite number ofguesses, to guess the sole trueexplanation of them. –Charles Sanders Peirce On the Logic of drawing History from Ancient Documents, Especially from Testimonies
  82. 82. DeductionDefinition: a and b are factors of c if a·b=c. In thiscase we say that c is composite.Definition: P is prime if its only factors are 1 and P.Theorem: There are an infinite number of primes.Proof: Suppose not and Pn is the largest prime. LetP1,…,Pn be all the primes up to and including Pn.Consider….
  83. 83. InductionFrom observing a number of occurrences of αaccompanied by occurrences of β in the rightcircumstances, we can conclude (tentatively) thatα => β.For example, if we continually see that every crowwe come across is black, we can conclude(tentatively) that all crows are black, or that if x is acrow, x is black.
  84. 84. AbductionBeing presented with a circumstance, β, which is asort of mystery, we guess that α could be its cause,and so we take as a hypothersis that α => β.This is the central “move” in science. We stare at asituation in the world and guess a mechanism or alaw that would explain that situation, and there’sour hypothesis, which we validate using deductionand induction.
  85. 85. –Thomas TPunkt / Thomas Teufel
  86. 86. In science, the obvious role of imagination is in the contextof discovery. Unimaginative scientists don’t produceradically new ideas. But even in science imagination playsa role in justification too. Experiment and calculationcannot do all its work. When mathematical models areused to test a conjecture, choosing an appropriate modelmay itself involve imagining how things would go if theconjecture were true. Mathematicians typically justify theirfundamental axioms, in particular those of set theory, byinformal appeals to the imagination. –Timothy Williamson, Reclaiming the Imagination, NYT 08/15/2010
  87. 87. Anything else is known as “guessing” and is quite unscientific. –Mark McIntyre spacebanter.com Guessing is unscientific, unsafe, and always wasteful. –Engineering Magazine, Volume 37, 1909Guessing is unscientific, and therefore hasno place in an engineers method of working. –Bulletin of the Taylor Society, Volume 7, 1922
  88. 88. In general, we look for a new law by thefollowing process. First we guess it.Then we compute the consequences ofthe guess to see what would be impliedif this law that we guessed is right. –Richard Feynman, A Life in Science
  89. 89. Can Art Improve the Process of Science?Until the Florida Department of Education places anemphasis on art and music—the way it does withmath, reading, and science—the district will beobligated to put money toward those essentialsubjects and dedicate only the leftover resources tothe arts. –Naples News 03/26/2010
  90. 90. Can Art Improve the Process of Science?Proulx, Travis; Heine, Steven J.“Connections From Kafka: Exposure toMeaning Threats Improves Implicit Learningof an Artificial Grammar.” PsychologicalScience. Vol. 20, No. 9. 2009.
  91. 91. ! !
  92. 92. !
  93. 93. Can Art Improvethe Process of Science?
  94. 94. Can Art Improvethe Process of Science? VTVTRTTVM M XMMMXRVTM X XXRTTTVM X M XMXRTVTM R T VTTTVTM V M XMMXRTVM T V XMMMXRTVM VVTRTTTVM XXRTTVTM XMMXRVTM VTVTRVM
  95. 95. VTVTRTTVM XXRTTVM XXRVTRVMXMMMXRVTM XMXRVM VVTRVMXXRTTTVM XMXRTVM VTTTTVMXMXRTVTM XXRTVTRVM VTTTTTTVMVTTTVTM XMXRTTVTM XMMXRTVTMXMMXRTVM VVTRTTVTM VTTTTVTMXMMMXRTVM VVTRTTVM XXRVTMVVTRTTTVM VTVTRTVM XMMXRVMXXRTTVTM XXRTTTTVM VVTRTVMXMMXRVTM XXRTVTM XMXRVTMVTVTRVM VVTRVTM XXRTTTVTMXMXRTTTVM VVTRTVTM VTTVTRVMVTTTVM XXRTVM XMXRTTVMXMMMMXRVM XMMXRTTVM
  96. 96. Can Art Improvethe Process of Science? XMTRRM VTRRRM VVRMTRRM XMVRXRM VVTRXM VTRRRRRRM VVRXRM VVRXRRM VVRMTRM XMVTRXM
  97. 97. VVRXRRM XXRRRM VTTVTMVVRXRM VVTTRMTM VVRMVRXRMVVTRTTVM VVTTRXM VTVTRVMXXRTTTVM VTTVTRVM XMMMXRVTMXMXRTTVM VVTRVTM XMVRMVRXMXMVTRXM XXRTVTM XMXRVMVTTTVM XXRRRRM VVTRMTMXMXRVTM XXRVTRVTM VVRMTMVTVTRVTM VVTRXRM XMXRTTTVMXMVRMTM VVTTTTRXM XMVRXMVTVTRTVTM VVTRTVM XMXRTVTMXMVTTRXM XMVTTRXRM XMVTRMTMVTRRRRRRM XMVTRXRRM VVTTRXRMVVTRXRRM XMVTTRMTM VTRRRMXXRVTM XMXRTTVTM XXRRRRRRMXMVRXRM XMMXRVTM VVTTTRMTMXMVTRXRM XXRTVM VTTVTRTVMXMXRTVM XMMMMXRVM VVTRXMXMMMXM XXRTTVM VTTTTTTVMXMVRMTRRM XMMMMMXM XMMXRVM
  98. 98. The strings of letters you just copiedcontained a strict pattern. Some of the letterstrings below follow the same pattern. Someof these letter strings do not. Please place acheck mark beside the letter strings youbelieve follow the same pattern as the letterstrings you just copied.
  99. 99. Reading Kafka Improves Implicit Learning• 26% more accurate• 33% more strings identified
  100. 100. Reading Kafka Improves Implicit Learning• 26% more accurate• 33% more strings identified From: "Debra Allbery" <da@warren-wilson.edu> To: "Richard P. Gabriel" <rpg@dreamsongs.com> Subject: Your MFA I regret to inform you that your MFA from Warren Wilson College has been withdrawn due to poor post-graduation poetic performance. Debra
  101. 101. Scientific ProcessesScientific processes, whether for productdevelopment, manufacturing, or servicedelivery, seek to minimize variances intask execution through the imposition oftight constraints, measurement systems,and feedback control. –Gabriel, Griswold, Notkin, & Sullivan, Hybrid Art-Science Software Development Processes, an unpublished (and unpublishable) manauscript
  102. 102. Scientific ProcessesThousands of manufacturing companies haveachieved tremendous improvements in quality andefficiency by copying the Toyota Production System,which combines rigorous work standardization withapproaches such as just-in-time delivery ofcomponents and the use of visual controls to highlightdeviations. Process standardization also haspermeated nearly every service industry, generatingimpressive gains. –Robert M. Hall & M. Eric Johnson, When Should a Process be Art, Not Science?
  103. 103. Artistic ProcessesAn artistic process is one that tolerates or even welcomes avariety of inputs and works to produce the best (or at least anacceptable) result given the inputs and the situationsencountered while executing the process. In particular, an artisticprocess can adapt to very poorly stated requirements or even norequirements at all aside from the production of something ofvalue. Artistic processes can endeavor to invent and blaze newtrails. In many cases the value of the outcome of an artisticprocess will be determined only after the product has beenproduced, though it’s often possible to make some judgmentsalong the way. –Gabriel, Griswold, Notkin, & Sullivan, Hybrid Art-Science Software Development Processes, an unpublished (and unpublishable) manuscript
  104. 104. Scientific ProcessesThe idea that some processes should be allowed tovary flies in the face of the century-old movementtoward standardization. Process standardization istaught to MBAs, embedded in Six Sigma programs,and practiced by managers and consultantsworldwide. –Robert M. Hall & M. Eric Johnson, When Should a Process be Art, Not Science?
  105. 105. Programmers’ CycleIf we look closely at how software developers spendtheir time, we see that they do these things insequence: {analyze–code–build–test}. First they figureout how they are going to address a particularproblem, then they write code, then they do a buildand run the code to see if it indeed solves theproblem, and finally, they repeat the cycle. Manytimes. This is how programmers work. –Mary Poppendieck, Lean Design, http://www.poppendieck.com/design.htm
  106. 106. Richard P. Gabriel Kevin J. Sullivan Dream Songs, Inc.University of Virginia U Better Science Through Art
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