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The Importance of Energy Efficiency in Climate Action Plans
 

The Importance of Energy Efficiency in Climate Action Plans

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Energy use and climate change are inextricably linked. The majority of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - 84 percent - are in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting almost entirely from the ...

Energy use and climate change are inextricably linked. The majority of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - 84 percent - are in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting almost entirely from the combustion of fossil fuels.

Choices made today in the current national energy policy debate will directly impact U.S. greenhouse gas emissions far into the future. Decision-makers face the challenge of crafting policies that allow the United States to meet its energy needs while acting responsibly to reduce GHG emissions. There is a substantial convergence between the goals of energy policy and climate policy, and many feasible and beneficial policies from supply and security perspectives can also reduce future U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation considers near-term energy policies that can be adopted in the context of the energy policy debate to best position the local governments to reduce GHG emissions and to implement future climate change policies. In summary, the audience will learn the following:
• Link between energy and climate
• Energy policy context
• Economics of energy
• Example energy reduction/efficiency policies contained in Climate Action Plans.

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    The Importance of Energy Efficiency in Climate Action Plans The Importance of Energy Efficiency in Climate Action Plans Presentation Transcript

    • Chandra K. Krout, AICP, LEED AP (BD+C/O&M), CGBP, GPR Krout & Associates chandrakrout@kroutandassociates.com July 19, 2011
    •  Majority of U.S. GHG emissions (84%) are in the form of CO2  Resulting from combustion of fossil fuels Decision-makers face the challenge of crafting policies that allow the US to meet its energy needs while acting responsibly to reduce GHG emissions There is a substantial convergence between the goals of energy policy and climate policy  Many feasible & beneficial policies from supply & security perspectives can reduce future U.S. GHG emissions
    •  Consider near-term energy policies that can be adopted to best position local governments to reduce GHG emissions & to implement future climate change policies  Link between energy & climate  National energy policy context  Economics of energy  Energy reduction/efficiency policies
    •  Fossil fuel use can be reduced by:  Deploying technologies that increase energy efficiency (e.g., more efficient power plants, cars, and appliances)  Employing non-fossil fueled energy sources  solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric, nuclear energy, or renewables-based hydrogen CO2 emissions also can be reduced by shifting from high-carbon to lower-carbon fuels  (e.g., shifting from coal to natural gas in the electricity production sector)
    •  Climate-friendly energy policies fall into one of 3 general categories:  Reduce GHG emissions now  Promote technology advancement or infrastructure development that will reduce the costs of achieving GHG emissions reductions in the future  Minimize the amount of new capital investment in assets that would be substantially devalue (or “stranded”) if a GHG program were implemented
    •  A discrete and unified U.S. energy policy does not exist Historically, most major shifts in U.S. energy policy have been triggered by interruptions, and subsequent price increases, in crude oil supply.  1973 (Arab oil embargo)  1979–80 (triggered by the Iranian revolution)  1990 (associated with the Persian Gulf War)
    •  Todayʼs energy policy debate confronts a mixture of old and new issues  U.S. energy policy is much more market oriented,  Less focused on cost-based price regulation,  More focused on environmental regulation than it was in the 1970s
    • Where Energy and Climate Change Meet
    •  Baseline Inventory (municipal & community-wide) Business-as-usual forecasts (2020 & built out) Reduction Target (i.e. 15%) Quantified Reduction Strategies  Energy, Water, Transportation, Solid Water Economic Analysis of Ratios Monitoring & Reporting Mechanisms
    •  Value in monetizing the direct energy cost savings to residents and businesses over time Energy cost savings ratio comparing direct program implementation costs to projected cost savings for residents and consumers  Bang for your buck for GHG reduction  Municipal strategies inform CIP budget Identification of programs that are the most cost-effective Grouping of financing mechanisms for community-wide reduction strategies
    •  A considerable portion of the building stock (84% of residential units) in Monterey Park was built prior to the implementation of California’s Title-24 energy standards Improving the energy efficiency of the City’s existing building stock will reduce GHG emissions, while also decreasing property owners’ and tenants’ energy bills
    •  Promote incentive programs through outreach  Work to extend and improve on utility and other federal and State incentive efficiency programs, through, for example, participation in the Los Angeles County’s Energy Upgrade California Eligible California homeowners can access up to $25,000 for energy-saving projects like insulation, heating and cooling systems, and solar panels  https://energyupgradeca.org/overview
    •  Adopt incentive-based approach that would become mandatory only if necessary retrofit levels are not achieved through the voluntary programs  The City would adopt an ordinance that establishes a desired level of energy efficiency retrofits in the community  The retrofit program would be voluntary unless the desired level retrofit in the community is not achieved. In that case a mandatory energy conservation ordinance would be imposed
    •  New construction offers an opportunity for achieving high levels of energy efficiency through advanced materials and design The California Energy Commission strengthens these standards every 3–5 years to increase efficiency in new buildings The City may establish more efficiency requirements above Title-24 if needed to achieve an environmental, safety, or public health goal
    •  Promote utility incentive programs  The programs can offer building owners and their design teams a wide range of services, such as design assistance and incentives Provide incentives for new development that voluntarily exceeds State energy standards  The reduced permitting time can generate significant savings for developers that are paying interest on construction loans
    •  Require new construction to exceed Title-24 energy efficiency standards by 15%, a level comparable to GreenPoint minimum requirements, Energy Star Rated Homes, and achieving the California Green Building Code Tier I performance criteria. Require new construction to exceed Title-24 energy efficiency standards by 30%, achieving the California Green Building Code Tier II performance criteria. Require new construction to exceed Title-24 energy efficiency standards by a custom %
    •  Work with SCE, other jurisdictions, and organizations to accelerate "Smart Grid" integration in the community  Smart grid technology will allow customers to become active participants in the energy supply chain by enabling them to manage their own energy consumption and their own role in reducing carbon emissions  Access to allowing meter upgrades and understanding how to properly use the meters once installed will help integration
    •  Demand response programs that shave peak loads, reducing the need for expensive (and polluting) peaking power plants Intelligent in-home interfaces to help residents (and businesses) monitor and manage their energy use Electronics and control software that monitor power flows in real time, to run existing lines much closer to capacity without compromising reliability
    •  Encourage planting of building shade trees in existing and new development  The City would develop a shade tree assistance program and provide subsidized shade trees to residential and commercial property owners Require planting of building shade trees in new development  This would include setting minimum canopy coverage/age requirements of trees to be planted
    •  Create Solar Power Districts in commercial and industrial areas with optimal solar orientation and building structure conditions  Within Solar Power Districts, the City could explore opportunities to remove physical and Code barriers to support installation of solar panels & solar water heating  A streamlined permitting process could be developed to further promote and expedite the installation of PV systems and solar water heating systems
    •  Facilitate power purchase agreements (PPAs) within Solar Power Districts to promote installation of solar PV systems  A solar PPA is a financial arrangement in which a third-party developer owns, operates, and maintains the solar PV system, and a host customer agrees to site the system on its roof or elsewhere on its property and purchases the system’s electric output from the solar services provider for a predetermined period Promote the California Solar Initiative’s solar water heating incentive program to subsidize the purchase of solar water heaters and replace/ recycle old water heaters in homes and commercial buildings
    •  Public realm lighting includes streetlights, pedestrian pathway lights, area lighting for parks and parking lots, and outdoor lighting around public buildings. Lighting design and technology can considerably influence the amount of electricity used to light these areas
    •  Promote conversion of existing parking lot lighting to higher efficiency lamp technologies  The City would target outreach to land owners or tenants with high levels of public realm lighting energy demand Adopt high efficiency public realm lighting ordinance  The City would adopt an ordinance that requires new commercial and industrial development to utilize high efficiency lamp technologies (e.g., light-emitting diodes lamps) to light parking lots and other public realm areas
    •  Balboa Park Cultural Partnership – Energy Efficiency Retrofits  Lighting  HVAC  Server Consolidation  Energy Star Portfolio Manager City of San Diego Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Plan (CMAP) County of San Diego Climate Action Plan Energy Upgrade California San Diego  Contact jesse.fulton@energycenter.org