Sustainable Architecture Without Architects
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Sustainable Architecture Without Architects

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How the people of a small town on the cross road to the silk road in Persia used micro-climate and their local materials to create energy-efficient buildings....

How the people of a small town on the cross road to the silk road in Persia used micro-climate and their local materials to create energy-efficient buildings.

- Assess how they have used sun, wind and water
- Passive solar design
- Landscape and thermal mass to transform a harsh natural environment into comfortable spaces
- Evaluate innovative uses of local material in their buildings
- Santa Fe architecture and similarities to Persian architecture
- Observe the use of these techniques in modern architecture

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Sustainable Architecture Without Architects Sustainable Architecture Without Architects Document Transcript

  • 5/19/2012 Sustainable Architecture without ArchitectsHow the people of a small town on the cross road to the silk road in Persia used micro-climate and their local materials to create energy-efficient homes Simi Razavian Hemmati Architect LEED AP, CGBP, CNE Website: www.msahome.com Email: simi@msahome.com Tel: 858 459 8250 1 Sustainable Architecture without Architects in Tabas, Iran (Persia) This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. 2 Learning Objectives Passive solar design Assess how they have used sun, wind, water, Landscape and thermal mass to transform a harsh natural environment into comfortable spaces Evaluate innovative uses of local material in their buildings Santa Fe architecture and similarities to Persian architecture Observe the use of these techniques in modern architecture 3 1
  • 5/19/2012What is a Green Building?How many LEED APs? Architects, M. Engineers,Passive solar designBased on USGBC (US Green Building Council), points Location, location A Building design Indoor-environmental quality Windows and doors Water efficiency Energy efficiency Green building materials Insulation Renewable energy Landscaping 4Energy efficiency? 5Passive Solar Design?Heating and cooling without mechanical systemThe sun, its light and heat, is one of the big players, nameEspecially in San Diego, HVAC load, solar panel costPrinciples: Orientation Orientation Orientation Shading Glazing Thermal mass Insulation Ventilation Landscaping 6 2
  • 5/19/2012 Micro Climate: San Diego Coastal, cross ventilation, passive heating Inland, cross ventilation, shade, passive heating Mountain, passive heating Desert, shade, evaporative cooling 7 Orientation Sun path during summer and winter Winter http://oikos.com www.lightningcanyon.com Summer Mesa Verde ColoradoMaximize south facing windows 8 Orientation Site planning Maximize south facing windows At least buy one http://www.netspeed.com.au/abeccs/newington/newington%20design.htm 9 3
  • 5/19/2012Shading Outside Southern wall, overhangs Reduces intense light and glare East and west windows Hyatt, Sedona 10Glazing and day lighting Location South and north facing walls Pleasant atmosphere Elevates mood Reduces depression Reduces electricity cost 11Thermal massWinter time: Absorbs and stores the heat during the day thenradiates the heat at night with a delayed effect and moderately.Summer time: Absorbs nighttime coolness and release itslowly during the hot days. Tile, stone, concrete floor Masonry or tile fire place surround Concrete or tile countertops Concrete mass walls Pond roof Light color painted wall to reflect on the floor Do not throw rugs on the floor. Fade? 12 4
  • 5/19/2012Ventilation Controlled movement of air through a building not a leak/ tight envelope • Cross • Stack Evaporative cooling in arid area increases humidity, comfort • “By evaporating water, the air is cooled more than by flow alone: it takes a relatively large amount of heat to vaporize water” Cross ventilation Stack ventilation Venturi effect Stair well, clear story, attic 13LandscapingLandscape Architect’s role Wind break Natural air conditioner builditsolar.com Creating shade, west and east facing 14Do we follow 2000 year old design rules? 15 5
  • 5/19/2012Desert Micro Climate! 16Desert Micro Climate! Hostile environment Very little vegetation Almost no rainfall Sand storms Loss of life Not popular with travellers Vast area with few roads Marco Polo in 13th century • Lack of water, heat and vicious sand Summer temperature up to 120° F Winter temperature dips below -4 °F Temperatures soar in the sun, but drop rapidly at dusk 17Comfort Zone Chart for TabasBuilding bio-climatic chart by Milne and GivoniJuly 12th TabasTemp: Max: 106’° Min: 68° F FHumidity : 9%Wind: 14 mph NNE 18 6
  • 5/19/2012Materials Earth 1/3 of population, 1/2 in developing countries Architect Gernot Minke Straw White plaster Wood 19Why did we chose to study Tabas?• A small city• An oasis in the desert, architecturally significant•“Pearl of Persian cities”•“Bride of Persian cities”• Used to exist 20Why Tabas became important?• Connection to silk road • South and North cities • “Karevan Sara” or Motels• Source of water• Coal mines• Compare to Santa Fe IRAN 21 7
  • 5/19/2012Tabas, the city planning, m.c. elements• Wind direction • Prevailing, north west • Saam, sand storm, south east• Water, east to west• Water storage• Main road direction• Buildings, north, south• Farms, source of cool breeze• Point? Masdar city 22Tabas, how it became an oasis? • Existence of water • Efficient use of water • Love of planting trees • Shade • Distance, driving • Fruit, vegetables 23Tree Preservation 24 8
  • 5/19/2012These are the spaces they formed!• Summer living area• E`ivan (covered patio or veranda)• Courtyards (with water feature and planters)• Baudgeers (wind scoops or wind catchers)• Kitchen and storage• Hoaz-khane (living room)• Winter living area• Sardab (basement)• Hashti (eight sided vestibule) 25Typical Floor Plan• Season• Compact• Summer, winter area• Courtyard• Architectural elements• Four seasons• Cross ventilation 26Summer Living Area Tabas• Location• Elaborate• Windows• Height• Point? Vaulted or high ceiling 27 9
  • 5/19/2012Summer Living Area Kashan 28E’ivan (covered porch or veranda)• Main element• Location• Shade• Stand alone• Usage time• Day to day work• Clay jugs• Point? Dripper 29Courtyard• Location• Steps • Materials • Water• Well of cold air• Reservoir of coolness• Point? Privacy, shade 30 10
  • 5/19/2012Courtyard• Water features• Citrus fruit trees• Palm trees• Covered courtyard• Walls, wind break• US Department of Energy, up to 25°F cooler• Point? • Privacy • west facing window 31Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft)• Unique, important• 4000 B.C.• Opening on sides• One or three sided• Breath• Cool winds• 8’ – 20’• Point? Large bldg with good breeze but no vent 32Baudgeer• Location Low income• Basement• Divisions, Venturi effect• Low income 33 11
  • 5/19/2012 Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft, wind scoop) Temperature change Ventilation How does it work? By Mr M. Bahadori pathways produce air pressures • Windy day and night • Stormy day hot air rising by convection Up draf t Creates Stack effect • Early morning no wind Like a chimney • Late afternoon no wind • Wet straw Hot day in the afternoon no windAir movement: Chimney effect• Pressure difference High press. Down draft • Suction Stack effect• The Venturi effect• Convection • Hot air rises Temperature change Low press. produce air pressures difference in air pressure generates air flow Sensible cooling 34 Baudgeer (wind catcher, ventilation shaft) • Enclosure • Sand settlement • Protection • Point? Chimney 35 Ventilation pathways Houz-khaneh (living room) • Favorite • Water feature • Height • Cross ventilation • Baudgeer, center • Thermal mass Plan • Point? Water, height Section Elevation 36 12
  • 5/19/2012Houz-khaneh (living room)• Econ. status• Decoration• Opening• Fountain• Point?JW Marriott• Evaporative cooling, stack ventilation Low pressure 37Houz-khaneh• Palm tree• Clerestory, daylight• Latticed opening 38Houz-khaneh, Baudgeer, Kashan, Iran Beauty, proportion and function 39 13
  • 5/19/2012Houz-khaneh• Flower• Reflection Yazd 40Sardab (basement) • Location • Temperature, underground • 12 to 4 • Ventilation, doors, shutters • Damp walls • Under ground water, qanats • Point? Hillside homes, mold 41Winter Living Area and Kitchen • Room location • Length of the season • Kitchen location • Windows, shade • Size • Height • Braziers or korsi • Point? Efficient use of your home 42 14
  • 5/19/2012Materials• Sun dried adobe, salt • High heat storage capacity and low heat conductivity: Thermal lag• Kah-gel or plaster of clay and straw• White plaster to reflect heat• Wood/ screen 43Structural System• Bearing wall, thermal mass• Barrel roof• Dome roof • Heat distribution 44Alleys• Shade• Breeze• Maze• Roof• Source of cool air• Point? Norman Foster in Abu Dhabi 45 15
  • 5/19/2012Baghe Golshan • Main park (Persian garden) • Four gardens • Two stream • Water feature • Water fountain • Water fall Section Arial Photo Site plan 46Baghe Golshan (main park) • Vanishing edge pool was an efficient way to go • Stream passes through park entry and moves toward the city KashanKashan 47Yakh-chal (Ice pit), Tabas For storing ice Desert Middle of summer, next winter Location, less expensive Domed shape, above ground Underground storage space Cover the ceiling 48 16
  • 5/19/2012Yakh-chal (Ice pit) Many parts of the world Mastered the technique, 400 B.C. idea as old as 1700 B.C. in this area Above ground dome, up to 60’ for cooling Underground space, up to 150,000 C.F. with deep storage space 49Yakh-chal (Ice pit) Construction Materials: Thick mud brick (adobe), walls up to 7 feet thick at the base Mortar called Sarooj: sand, clay, egg whites, lime, goat hair, and ash in specific proportions Resistant to heat transfer Water impenetrable, Dam Trench to catch melted ice 50Yakh-chal (Ice pit)How does it work? Storing ice and snow of the mountains Shallow pools on the north side of a tall, east west wall Transferring ice into the deep ice pit 51 17
  • 5/19/2012Yakh-chal (Ice pit) Straw and mat Different kind of ice Glass ice for drinking Ice cream, falodeh Ice for everybody Point? Reducing HVAC load for large project in the hot desert area 52 Karevansara, Chahar deh,Tabas Karevan-sara, caravan-house Lodging, loading or landing of the caravans Storing goods and commercial exchange, post office Travelling time, 2 to10 am, 5 to 11pm, not extreme Source: Monuments of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost 53 Karevansara, Khan, Tabas Hot and dry area Square or rectangle Courtyard, veranda Baudgeer, south Copula Roof opening Design inspiration Stable Motel, 20 in Tabas Source: Monuments of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost 54 18
  • 5/19/2012Karvansara, Meidan, Tabas Stable ceiling opening Height at lobby Water, qanat, well tower Stay free, pay for food Point? Motels, ventilation, shade, env. Source: Monuments of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost 55Karevansara, Abbasi Hotel,Isfahan 300 years ago Courtyard and verandas Height on the south side Three story Water feature Source: http://www.abbasihotel.ir/Content/Default.aspx?Landir=ltr&Lan=En 56Karevansara, Abbasi Hotel,Isfahan Interior Beautiful, enchanting and relaxing Tea in the courtyard Source: http://www.abbasihotel.ir/Content/Default.aspx?Landir=ltr&Lan=En 57 19
  • 5/19/2012Benefits & drawbacks, local materials• Shear strength in adobe• 7.9 magnitude earthquake• 22,000 died Tabas After Earth Quake, 1978 58Santa Fe Designs and similarities to Persian architecture 59Santa Fe, New Mexico 60 20
  • 5/19/2012Santa Fe, New Mexico 61Iran? Santa Fe? Abyane, Iran 62Santa Fe? Iran? Taos Santa Fe 63 21
  • 5/19/2012 Masooleh, Iran Iran? Santa Fe? Masooleh Iran B ASanta Fe Naiband Tabas, Iran CD 64 Similarities, coincidence or an inspiration Age Similarities • Mountain shape or irregular pyramid • Adobe: puddle, brick • Flat roof, dome roof, wood Santa Fe Abyaneh, Iran Santa Fe Early architecture in New Mexico by Bainbridge Bunting 65 Francisco Uvino Similarities, coincidence or an inspiration • Courtyard, early houses in trail • Privacy, ladder • South facing • Window size • Bread oven, blue color • Narrow streets • Plaza • Differences • No arches • Protection from wind Coincidence? Abyaneh, Iran 66 22
  • 5/19/2012Santa Fe NMIn harmony Nature Climate People Energy efficient? 67We are building a new civilization Cheap energySpoiled by HVACChanging our behaviors, thanks to H.E.C of last yearExperiment and start from scratchHistorical examples, new techniques Santa FeHealthier 68Innovative uses of the same strategy in new buildings July 12th July 12 San Diego Temp: Max: 75° Min: 52° F F Humidity : 75% Wind:14 mph W July 12th Tabas Temp: Max: 106’° Min: 68° F F Humidity : 9% Wind: 14 mph NNE San Diego weather pattern in the chart 69 23
  • 5/19/2012Passive Solar Design in S.D. Natural resources; wind, sun, water, Thermal mass and landscape Orientation, orientation, orientation South facing windows Ventilation • Cross • Stack Shade Thermal mass Natural day-light Landscape Tight envelope, insulation 70Value of architectsArchitect role 71Value of architectsRevision clouds 72 24
  • 5/19/2012Which one is more Green? A B 73Without a knowledgeable architect!!!! 74Without a knowledgeable architect!!!! 75 25
  • 5/19/2012 Rob Quigley Architect Children Museum, San Diego Baudgeer concept (as cooling chimney) Exhaust ventilation 76 EHDD Architecture Rumsey Engineers Carnegie Center, Global Ecology in Stanford Baudgeer Shade Cross ventilation Prevailing Winds 85` F. 36% R.H. Spray ring Dense, Cool Air Fills Lobby 59` F. 85% R.H.A California Building Revives Traditional Middle Eastern Design 77 Mission Style Spanish Architecture 78 26
  • 5/19/2012 CII-Godrej GBCJ.W. Marriott, Palm Desert Courtyard Water feature Water falls 79Twirling Tower Orchid PlazaBy David Fisher in Dubai Bahrain Wind powered Electricity generating wind tower 80 Gerber architect GermanyBurj al-Taqa, Dubai High-tech baudgeer Wind driven ventilation Central atrium Dbl layered façade for shade w/solar panel 81 27
  • 5/19/2012Santa Fe NM In harmony Nature Climate People Energy efficient? 82 Louis Kahn architectSalk Institute, La Jolla Persian gardens and water feature CII-Godrej GBC India Wind tower HVAC load 83 AS +GG Architect of ChicagoMasdar Headquarters, Abu Dhabi Baudgeer concept, exhaust ventilation 84 28
  • 5/19/2012 David FanchonThe Pearl dome housePassive solar design with a touch of high-tech 85 Foster & PartnersMasdar Development Abu Dhabi 2007 Narrow streets Shading Windows Exterior walls Walkways Wind towers Thick-walled buildings Courtyards http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1515/Default.aspx 86 Foster & PartnersMasdar Development Abu Dhabi 2007 Vegetation, Green parks Generally walkable city Northeast-southwest orientation Underground public transportation Indirect daylight, cupola 70 degree cooler, envir. Lowest possible carbon footprint http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1515/Default.aspx 87 29
  • 5/19/2012 French architects Ateliers Lion French school, Damascus, Syria Baudgeer concept, exhaust ventilation Black-painted polycarbonate sheet Natural ventilation, court yard, removable shade Earth ducts, thermal massA Damascus School Revives Traditional Iranian Cooling Techniques 88 Architect: S.O.M. National Commercial Bank - Jeddah, S. A. Courtyard, vertical solid to the outside opens up to the cooler courtyard in the middle Shading Windows http://www.carboun.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/1.jpg 89 MSA & Assoc. Inc. Coyne Residence, La Jolla 1990 New Existing building West facing windows Strategic location of windows Cross ventilation Existing 90 30
  • 5/19/2012 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Coyne Residence, La Jolla 1990 Strategic location of windows Overhang Shade Daylight Cross ventilation 91 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Vajda Residence, Rancho Santa Fe Covenant South facing windows West facing windows Cross ventilation HVAC usage? Before After 92 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Vajda Residence, Rancho Santa Fe Covenant South facing windows Shade Before After After 93 31
  • 5/19/2012 MSA & Assoc. Inc.David Residence, La Jolla South facing windows Shade Court yard Cupola 94 Assoc. MSA & Assoc. Inc.Vista Mar Residence, Pacific Beach 2000 West facing lot Great view No buyer for 2 years Small flat area Low cost solution Waste reduction 95 Assoc. MSA & Assoc. Inc.Vista Mar Residence, Pacific Beach 2000 South facing windows West facing windows? Overhangs Cross ventilation HVAC? 96 32
  • 5/19/2012 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Soledad Home, Pacific Beach South facing windows Cross ventilation Stack ventilation Fan 97 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Chalcedony, Pacific Beach South facing windows Shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation 98 MSA & Assoc. Inc.La Jolla Residence, La Jolla South facing windows Cross ventilation Before Daylight Courtyard Umbrella After 99 33
  • 5/19/2012 MSA & Assoc. Inc.La Jolla Residence, La Jolla South facing windows Use of shade Water Courtyard Daylight Umbrellas After Before 100 MSA & Assoc. Inc.La Jolla Residence, La Jolla After Courtyard North facing windows Before Before After 101 MSA & Assoc. Inc.CSS, San Bernardino, Ca. 1990 Steel manufacturing • Warehouse • Office bldg • 30,000 S.F. Stack ventilation Summer heat Daylight 102 34
  • 5/19/2012 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Ten in rows, Linda Vista South facing windows Use of shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation Daylight 103 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Ten in rows, Linda Vista South facing windows Use of shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation Daylight Possible, solar panel 104 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Jamshidi, La Jolla On the board West view/ main view Use of shade Cross ventilation Exhaust ventilation Daylight 105 35
  • 5/19/2012 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Jamshidi, La Jolla South and north facing windows Skylight Daylight Ceiling plan Solar water heater Solar panel for floor heating 106 MSA & Assoc. Inc.Jamshidi, La Jolla Cross ventilation in basement Exhaust ventilation Daylight water efficient landscaping Tight envelope 107Green Building Design- Passive solar Natural resources; wind, sun, water thermal mass andlandscape Orientation, orientation, orientation South facing windows Ventilation • Cross • Stack Shade Thermal mass Natural day-light Landscape Insulation Tight envelope 108 36
  • 5/19/2012Low cost energy saving solutions1. Behavioural change2. Check orientation • Locate your windows3. Summer: • Daylight • Ventilation • Shade for south • West and east4. Winter: • Open south facing windows • Daylight 109Low cost energy saving solutions5. Thermal mass • Area rug6. Landscape • Deciduous trees • West and east facing windows7. Insulation • Tight envelope8. Changing windows • Dbl glaze, south facing9. Water in dry climates10. Remodel based on your budget and Passive solar 110Resources Master Theses research by Simi Razavian, Lila Khalvati and Fereshteh Asefi. Gardens of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost Monuments of Tabas by Yaghoob Danesh-doost Early architecture in New Mexico by Bainbridge Bunting Urban structure and architecture in the hot arid zone of Iran by Mahmoud Tavassoli http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=1040 http://www.gulfweeklyworldwide.com/article.asp?Sn=5536&Article=19304 www.lightningcanyon.com/pages/passive-solar/introduction_passive_solar.html www.inhabitat.com/2007/05/16/david-fishers-twirling-wind-power-tower/ Viability of wind towers in achieving summer comfort in the hot arid regeions of themiddle east By Mehdi N. Bahadori Professor of Mechanical Engineering Sharif University ofTechnology Tehran, Iran Three dimensional numerical investigation of air flow over domed roofs by: AhmadrezaK.Faghih and,MehdiN .B ahadori School of Mechanical Engineering,SharifU niversity ofTechnology,Tehran,Iran 111 37
  • 5/19/2012Resources historicaliran.blogspot.com/2010/02/abyaneh-village.html www.carboun.com/sustainable-development/sustainable-design/a-damascus- school-revives-traditional-cooling-techniques/#more-1495 http:/www.carboun.com/?s=Carnegie+Center,++Global+Ecology+in+Stanford+ http://www.eartharchitecture.org/index.php?/archives/1045-Yakhchal-Ancient- Refrigerators.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yakhchal http://www.mytholia.org/wiki/index.php/Yakhchal http://heritage-key.com/site/ice-house-abarku-abarqu http://www.abbasihotel.ir/Content/Default.aspx?Landir=ltr&Lan=En http://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%A9%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%A7%D9 %86%E2%80%8C%D8%B3%D8%B1%D8%A7 Islamic architecture: form, function and meaning, Robert Hillenbrand (Author) 112Resources http://travelingrainvilles.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8357fa03b69e2010535b84a2a97 0b-popup http://wchpgrte.blogspot.com/2010/05/western-center-for-historic.html http://brothaluvacafe.blogspot.com/2009/05/santa-fe-new-mexico-apr-may- 2009.html http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/26/arts/design/26masdar.html http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/1515/Default.aspx 113Speaker Simi Razavian Architect, LEED AP, CGBP, CNE Master of Science in Architecture and Urban Design with Emphasis on Passive Solar Design and Vernacular Architecture of Tabas, Iran Co- founder of MSA & Assoc. Inc. in 1987 Licensed Architect in the State of California Certified Green Building Professional Speaker at : Mesa College Dec 5th, 2011, La Jolla Library Sep 20th 2011 HP (Hewlett-Packard), Jan 20th 2011,SIAP Nov.11th, La Jolla Library Nov 3rd 2010, New Mexico Solar Energy Association Sep 11 2010, UCSD Osher program July 15th, 2010, iWIA San Diego July 12th, 2010, Notre Dame University, School of Architecture, April 23rd, 2009, La Jolla Library July 13th, 2009, AIA Convention May 2nd, 2009, CCSE, WIA San Diego, April 2009Contact InformationSimi Razavian HemmatiEmail: simi@msahome.comWebsite: www.msahome.comTel: 858 459 8250 114 38