HOW DO LEDs COMPARE WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE      FLUORESCENT        INDUCTION         HALOGEN          PLASMA            HID...
STAN WALERCZYK’S BIO•   22 years experience     – Distribution, maintenance, installer, retrofit contractor, fixture desig...
FORMAT• Since so many slides and not that  much time  – I will go pretty fast through many slides    • You can go through ...
DISCLAIMER• I use to feel that I was totally on top of the subjects  that I would speak on• But now with all of the develo...
TERMINOLOGY• Since I deal mainly with building  owners, facility managers, retrofit  contractors and ESCOs, I typically us...
NO  ENDORSEMENTS• Although several manufacturers and  models are listed, none are endorsed• Easier to talk about specifics...
BACKGROUND INFO• Please raise your hand if you are already aware of   –   DOE Solid State Lighting Program, including CALi...
HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting  – Google search ‘doe ssl’    •   CALiPER test reports    •   ...
HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting  – Lighting Facts     • www.lightingfacts.com  – LEDs For Inte...
HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy  – Commercial Building Energy Alliances    • Technology and System Specification   ...
HELPFUL EMAIL• Postings: From the Desk of Jim Brodrick  – About once a week  – March 16 version focused on how bad LED T8s...
HELPFUL WEBSITES• Energy Star  – www.energystar.gov• DesignLights Consortium SSL Qualified  Product List  – www.designligh...
HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting For Tomorrow SSL Awards  – More residential  – Awards every September  – www.lightingfortomorro...
HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting Research Center   – www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/index.asp• LEDs Magazine  – www.ledsmag...
L70, LM79 & LM80• L70  – Rated life of LEDs, based when still have 70% of initial lumens  – Really projections• LM79  – To...
POINTS  TOPONDER         16
RAISE THE BAR• It is more than just if LEDs are cost effective to  replace or instead of using not very good base  case• I...
DOLLARS PER 1000 LUMENS• DOE has been doing a good job on this   – LED devices (not fixtures or replacement lamps)      • ...
HAS THE LIGHTING   INDUSTRY EVOLVED?• Up to 2 years ago, I would have said yes• But the last two years a lot of the LED  m...
TRUTH IN ADVERTISING?• Not only has the DOE CALiPER  Program revealed  – Many LED products not meeting    manufacturer spe...
TRUTH IN ADVERTISING?•   September 8, 2010... The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has sued    a California-ba...
ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• Yes, fluorescent, HID and induction have  mercury  – But the manufacturers ...
ARE LEDS REALLY MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• LEDs do not contain any mercury, but  – Toxic chemicals used in production...
ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• DOE hired Carnegie Mellon to do a cradle-  to-cradle study to see if LEDs a...
ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• There is this good study for exterior  fixtures  – University of Pittsburgh...
MORE ON   ENVIRONMENTAL• No matter what you specify or buy,  RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous  Substances) compliant is high...
RUNNING COOL• Although getting rid of heat can be important for fluorescent  lamps and electronic ballasts, drivers and ge...
TROPHY CHIPS• In production runs, there are often some  LED chips that have very high lumens per  watt, which can be calle...
WOW FACTOR• Because LEDs are new and different, they  have the WOW factor much more than most  other lighting technologies...
HALF & HALF• I need to convince about half of my clients  that good LED products are ready for  prime time in specific app...
PROJECTIONS• We have a lot of good information about lumen  depreciation, life, color consistency, etc. with  incumbent te...
LONG TERM  FINANCIAL RETURN• Yes, some LED products look good up to rated  life, which may be 50,000 hours• But what about...
DON’T CONSIDER AN LED    PRODUCT UNLESS• LM79 report tested by a DOE or NVLAP approved  or CALiPER recognized lab  – Not j...
JUST BECAUSE…• Just because one LED fixture manufacturer  states 150,000 hours for rated life, and  another LED fixture ma...
WHICH COMPANIES     TO BUY FROM• I have seen very good LED and other technology products  from manufacturers that I have n...
WARRANTY• Although standard warranty for exterior  LED fixtures is 5 years  – Usually can get a 10 year warranty by spendi...
DOWN THE ROAD WITH LEDPRODUCTS THAT ARE INSTALLED• If hard-wired LED products are purchased  now, after warranty will manu...
FOR LED TO REALLY   BECOME MAINSTREAM• Pricing to continue to come down• Replaceable and interchangeable LED and driver  m...
RETROFIT OR REPLACE            LED FIXTURES• Some exterior LED fixtures have modular LED bars   – So maybe in as few as 3 ...
MAINTENANCE• Maintenance people normally replace lamps when  they burn out  – Even if much more cost effective in most app...
MAINTENANCE• There are already millions of first generation LED exit signs  that still work, but no longer provide suffici...
ESPECIALLY FOR EXTERIOR• Since LED fixtures can provide sufficient light  between fixtures and to designated  perimeters w...
BUY NOW OR LATER• Since LEDs are getting so much better and lower  cost should you replace now or wait?  – Jim Brodrick’s ...
CONTENDERS             44
CONTENDERS• LED  – Latest generation of chips and products• T8s (fluorescent, not LED ones)  – High performance 32W F32T8 ...
CONTENDERS• Reduced wattage T5s  – 26W F28T5 lamps and high performance ballasts  – Same lumens as high lumen full wattage...
CONTENDERS• HID   – Mainly ceramic metal halide (CMH) with electronic ballast        • Long warm up and restrike times   –...
CONTENDERS• Plasma   – Mainly Luxim, www.luxim.com, which can call it LEP for light     emitting plasma   – There are othe...
LETS GETDOWN TO SOME  GENERALCOMPARISONS           49
LIGHT PERWATT        50
LUMENS PER WATT• LED  – 6000K typically has about     • 10 - 20% more lumens per watt than 4000K     • 20 - 25% more lumen...
LUMENS PER WATT• LED  – Developments are being made with lower Kelvin LEDs    getting closer to the efficacy of 6000K  – L...
INITIAL LUMENS PER WATT COMPARISON                           amplifier, ballast,     initial system   high performance    ...
LED APPROXIMATE LUMENS PER WATT                CHIP             FIXTURE   TIME                      (UP TO) AT STEADY     ...
55
56
FOOTCANDLES          PER WATT• Footcandles per watt is probably better than  lumens per watt, especially for most LED  pro...
RATED LIFE        58
RATED LIFE COMPARISON                  product                      rated life in hours                                  n...
RATED LIFE• Exterior LED fixtures are typically rated longer than  interior LED fixtures, because can usually have  more h...
END OF LIFE   LUMENMAINTENANCE           61
END OF LIFE LUMEN MAINTENANCE COMPARISON                                         percent of initial            product    ...
FROM FINELITE   63
END OF LIFE LUMEN MAINTENANCE• Although mean or design lumens, which is  at 40% of rate life, is often used with  incumben...
COLORRENDERING            65
COLOR RENDERING INDEX COMPARISON       product                  CRI                              noteshalogen infrared PAR...
COLOR RENDERING• CRI (Color Rendering Index)  – Based on how ‘natural’ pastel or unsaturated colors look    with various l...
COLOR RENDERING• Although LEDs do not always do well with pastel  colors, they often do very well with bright or  saturate...
KELVIN         69
KELVIN• With LEDs Kelvin and lumens are usually related  – Most common way to get white light is using a blue LED    with ...
KELVIN• High Kelvin, like 4000 - 6000K LEDs may be okay  for exterior applications, but 3000 - 3500K Kelvin  LEDs work bes...
LONG   TERM  COLORCONSISTENCY          72
LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• LED   – There are three common ways to get white light     • As previously discussed, most co...
LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• LED  – All can have color shift over time     • Wavelength of blue LEDs can change over time ...
LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• Fluorescent and other incumbents  typically have very stable color from  initial to end of li...
DIMMING          76
DIMMING• LED  – LED chips dim quite well  – But not all LED fixtures or replacement lamps are    designed to dim     • DOE...
DIMMING• Fluorescent  – Fluorescents with dimming ballasts can dim, but    • Lumens per watt gets worse, because the more ...
DIMMING• Halogen  – Can dim very easy and well• CMH  – Can dim quite well with electronic ballast     • But only down to a...
NOW    SOME   SPECIFIC  INTERIORCOMPARISONS          80
LINEARREPLACEMENT   LAMPS          81
LED T8s• These are listed first, because so important• There are hordes of sales people trying to  sell these, because of ...
LED T8s• How they are connected  – Some use existing fluorescent ballast, which    consumes extra wattage, and the ballast...
LED T8s• DOE documents  – Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent lamps and LED Linear    Replacement Lamps     • January 20...
LED T8s• LEDs often do not do that well taking the shapes of  other technology lamps  – Difficulty with distribution, heat...
FLUORESCENT T8s• Since many rebate programs require what  are called high performance, super or 3rd  generation T8s and wh...
4 T8 LAMP LIFE, LUMENS, CRI & MERCURY                                              3000-4100K                   5000K     ...
4 LINEAR FLUORESCENT EFFICACY TABLE                               initial           lamp                                  ...
FLUORESCENT T8s•   Some LED marketing literature and sales people try to make    fluorescent T8s look bad, like     – Stat...
FLUORESCENT T8s• Starting is the hardest on fluorescent lamps   – Lamp life can really get short with instant start ballas...
LED vs. FLUORESCENT T8s                                                                               2x4 lensed troffer w...
LED vs. FLUORESCENT T8s                                                                           2x4 lensed troffer with ...
MAYBE SOMETHINGBETTER THAN  LED T8s              93
MAYBE SOMETHING BETTER      THAN LED T8s• Kits for troffers, etc   – 2’ and 4’ long and about 1 - 2 inches wide LED bars  ...
DECORATIVE             95
DECORATIVE• Christmas/decorative lights   – LED versions are becoming a no brainer• Small lamps in chandeliers   – Usually...
OMNIDIRECTIONAL  (FANCY NAME FORSOMETHING LIKE AN A19)                         97
LED• Getting better all of the time, but still not  really cost effective to replace CFLs• But when there is at least one ...
CFLs• Although some people give CFLs a bad wrap,  CFLs are quite good in many applications  –   Screw-ins can often cost $...
ACCENTLIGHTING           100
LED ACCENT LIGHTS• Sparkle and Focus  – LED accent lights can provide sparkle and focus    like reflector PAR lamps, which...
LED MR16s• Best LED MR16s that DOE has tested so far can only  replace up to 20W halogen MR16   – MR16s are on the small s...
HALOGEN MR16s• If existing are standard halogen   – Can switch to lower wattage halogen infrareds      • For example, 50W ...
LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• The larger the lamp, the easier it is to  dissipate heat• If can use larger lamp, go with it• So...
LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• There are numerous good products, including  Cree’s LRP38 with indirect lighting on left and  So...
LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• MSI iPAR-38 looks very interesting  – Three wattage lumen settings     • 10W with 550 lumens    ...
LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• GE and others even have wet location ones                                              107
LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• LED R or PAR38s will really be ready for prime  time after there is at least one winner of the L...
LED MODULAR EXAMPLE                  109
HALOGEN PAR 20, 30 & 38• Just like MR16s, there are halogen infrared  PAR lamps  – Which can save 10 - 20 watts compared t...
CMH ACCENT LIGHTS• Ceramic Metal Halide with electronic ballasting  have  –   Can provide sparkle and focus  –   Excellent...
RECESSED  CANS           112
LED• Recessed cans for residential and  commercial are a great application for LEDs  – Majority of ENERGY STAR LED product...
LED• LED PAR lamp   – There are a number of these available with screw-in or GU12 base   – If existing is 277V, can use st...
CFL• CFLs are reasonably efficacious, but   – Not nearly efficacious as high performance T8 systems   – Most are only rate...
REACH-INFRIG/FREEZER           116
LED• Since this is a limited application, will only briefly  discuss   – Walmart and other retail chains have already cost...
FLUORESCENT• Majority of 5’ lamps, which are low volume and  relatively expensive• If have T12, definitely do something• M...
TROFFERS           119
LED• Already some good LED troffers from major manufacturers• Can have over 100 lumens per watt   – Which is better than a...
LED                  Lithonia RT LEDCree LR24                                    121
T8 FLUORESCENT• There is a new generation of high performance 2x4  1F32T8 troffers that can be installed in typical 8x10  ...
T8 FLUORESCENT  Office with Finelite HPRs                              123
T8 FLUORESCENT• Existing 2x4 troffers can be cost effectively  retrofitted down to 1F32T8   – Standard lensed troffers can...
TROFFERS• 50,000 hour rated LED troffers currently cost about  twice more than high performance 1F32T8 troffers  and insta...
SUSPENDEDINDIRECT/DIRECT    FIXTURES                  126
LED• LEDs could run cooler with less heat sinking  than in troffers and recessed cans• Uniform uplight with some not too i...
T8 FLUORESCENT• Well designed suspended indirect/direct fixtures with  1F32T8 per cross section   – Can provide quite low ...
T8 FLUORESCENT• Make sure fixture reflectors are designed for T8s  and not for T5s/T5HOs• There are many good manufacturer...
TASK      AMBIENT      LIGHTINGWHERE LEDs CAN WORK WITH INCUMBENTS                                 130
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Task ambient lighting is having relatively low  footcandle ambient lighting and additional task  li...
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Ambient, in offices, works very well with either   – New or retrofitted 2x4 high performance troffe...
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Existing task   – For a long time most modular office systems had fluorescent     undercabinet task...
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• High performance LED task   – There are some very good LED task light systems       • One example i...
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Finelite PLS   – Both undercabinets and desk mounts won 2007 Lighting For     Tomorrow Awards   – D...
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• There are several other LED office task lights, including   Philips Color Kinetics      Philips Alk...
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• PG&E’s Emerging Technology Program’s ‘High Efficiency  Office Low Ambient / Task Lighting Pilot Pro...
TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• With good task ambient lighting the power density can be  low all of the time that expensive and co...
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
How do le ds compare with  lightfair 1-1-11
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Transcript of "How do le ds compare with lightfair 1-1-11"

  1. 1. HOW DO LEDs COMPARE WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE FLUORESCENT INDUCTION HALOGEN PLASMA HID MAY 15, 2 - 5 PM STAN WALERCZYK, CLEP, LC LIGHTING WIZARDS 1
  2. 2. STAN WALERCZYK’S BIO• 22 years experience – Distribution, maintenance, installer, retrofit contractor, fixture designer, consultant, lighting designer, policy maker, researcher• 500+ projects• 30+ published articles• 600+ seminars – Including 4 Lightfairs & 3 IES Annual Conferences• IES Member 1995 - 2008 – Currently on Visual Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution Committee• Certified Lighting Energy Professional by AEE – CLEP Review Board• Lighting Certified by NCQLP• Consultant for California Title 20 and Federal EPACT• Consultant for Army Corp of Engineers CERL• Assisted on DOE spectrally enhanced lighting research• DOE CALiPER Guidance Committee 2
  3. 3. FORMAT• Since so many slides and not that much time – I will go pretty fast through many slides • You can go through details in slides later on your own – Please hold your questions to the end or after then end• At least one break 3
  4. 4. DISCLAIMER• I use to feel that I was totally on top of the subjects that I would speak on• But now with all of the developments with LEDs, OLEDs, light emitting plasma and even incumbent technologies for interiors and exteriors, it is almost impossible for one person to be on top of everything• If any of you know significant details on any of today’s material, please share it – Without being an infomercial• Plus there could be a bunch of brand new and very good stuff in the exhibit halls this week 4
  5. 5. TERMINOLOGY• Since I deal mainly with building owners, facility managers, retrofit contractors and ESCOs, I typically use terms that they understand, such as – Fixture instead of luminaire – Out of fixture lumens per watt instead of absolute testing – LED fixture instead of SSL fixture 5
  6. 6. NO ENDORSEMENTS• Although several manufacturers and models are listed, none are endorsed• Easier to talk about specifics than generalities 6
  7. 7. BACKGROUND INFO• Please raise your hand if you are already aware of – DOE Solid State Lighting Program, including CALiPER, etc. – Postings: From the Desk of Jim Brodrick – Lighting Facts – Energy Star – DesignLights Consortium SSL Qualified Product List – L Prize – Lighting For Tomorrow SSL Awards – Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition – Lighting Research Center’s Solid State Lighting – LEDs Magazine – Architectural SSL Magazine – L70, LM79 & LM80• For those of you who are not familiar with some of them, you can get information on the following slides, that I will skip and start on slide 16 7
  8. 8. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting – Google search ‘doe ssl’ • CALiPER test reports • Benchmark reports • Gateway studies • Fact sheets • Webinars • More 8
  9. 9. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting – Lighting Facts • www.lightingfacts.com – LEDs For Interior Applications • PDF of March 18 webcast • www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/events_detail.html? event_id=4163 9
  10. 10. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy – Commercial Building Energy Alliances • Technology and System Specification Development – LED Refrigerated Case Lighting – And there are others • www2.eere.energy.gov/buildings/alliances/tech nologies.html 10
  11. 11. HELPFUL EMAIL• Postings: From the Desk of Jim Brodrick – About once a week – March 16 version focused on how bad LED T8s are – www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/postings.html – postings@lightingfacts.com 11
  12. 12. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Energy Star – www.energystar.gov• DesignLights Consortium SSL Qualified Product List – www.designlights.org/solidstate.about.QualifiedPr oductsList_Publicv2.php• L Prize – www.lightingprize.org 12
  13. 13. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting For Tomorrow SSL Awards – More residential – Awards every September – www.lightingfortomorrow.com• Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition – More commercial – Awards every January – www.ngldc.org 13
  14. 14. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting Research Center – www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/index.asp• LEDs Magazine – www.ledsmagazine.com• Architectural SSL Magazine – www.architecturalssl.com 14
  15. 15. L70, LM79 & LM80• L70 – Rated life of LEDs, based when still have 70% of initial lumens – Really projections• LM79 – Total flux (light output), electrical power (wattage), efficacy (lumen/ watt), chromaticity out of the complete product or luminaire (fixture)• LM80 – Lumen depreciation of LED chips from LED manufacturers, which product manufacturers use with the thermal design of their products – Typically LED manufacturers test their chips for 6000 hours and based on lumen depreciation over that time, useable life of the chips is extrapolated until L70 is reached – Within TM21 the IES is considering that life should not be extrapolated more than 6 times testing duration – LM80 is not the rated life of an LED product, because drivers, electrical connections, product integrity, etc. may fail before the LEDs 15
  16. 16. POINTS TOPONDER 16
  17. 17. RAISE THE BAR• It is more than just if LEDs are cost effective to replace or instead of using not very good base case• It is if LEDs are cost effective compared to other high performance technologies• For example, a garage may have or is planned to get ceiling fixtures with 175W quartz pulse start MH and magnetic ballast, which is not the best solution – Yes, LED ceiling fixtures, maybe with high/low occupancy sensors, would be cost effective – But electronically ballasted 100W ceramic pulse start MH or bi-level T8s may be more cost effective for specific applications 17
  18. 18. DOLLARS PER 1000 LUMENS• DOE has been doing a good job on this – LED devices (not fixtures or replacement lamps) • $10.00/klm in 2010 • $ 5.00/klm in 2012 • $ 2.00/klm in 2015• Please compare that to some other technologies now, which should not change much in the future – $0.25 (after upstream rebate) 900 lumen screw-in CFL • $ 0.28/klm – $22 for 4 high lumen F32T8s & high performance ballast • $ 2.04/klm• With LED’s excellent optical control capability, often need less lumens, which reduces cost 18
  19. 19. HAS THE LIGHTING INDUSTRY EVOLVED?• Up to 2 years ago, I would have said yes• But the last two years a lot of the LED marketing literature and sales people, remind me of reflector and CFL marketing literature and sales people in the late 80s to mid 90s – Way too many LED sales people know very little about lighting and may have been selling cars recently • Many do not even know what LM79 and LM80 are 19
  20. 20. TRUTH IN ADVERTISING?• Not only has the DOE CALiPER Program revealed – Many LED products not meeting manufacturer specifications – But also that many fluorescent, incandescent and halogen products have the same problem 20
  21. 21. TRUTH IN ADVERTISING?• September 8, 2010... The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has sued a California-based LED bulb manufacturer and its principals to stop them from exaggerating the light output and life expectancy of its LED bulbs, and misleading consumers.• In its continuing effort to stop deceptive advertising the FTC filed a complaint charging that since 2008, Lights of America, Inc. has overstated the light output and life expectancy of its LED bulbs on packages and in brochures. The agency also charges that Lights of America misled consumers about how the brightness of its LED bulbs compare to traditional incandescent lights.• The FTC notes that it authorizes the filing of a complaint when it has “reason to believe” that the law has or is being violated, and it appears to the Commission that a proceeding is in the public interest. The Commission also points out that a complaint is not a finding or ruling that the defendants have actually violated the law.• Copies of the Commission’s complaint and the press release <http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2010/09/lightsofamerica.shtm> about it can be found on the FTC web site. 21
  22. 22. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• Yes, fluorescent, HID and induction have mercury – But the manufacturers have been doing a very good job reducing it – Many states require recycling – Many fixtures can be kept for a long time, because lamps and ballasts can be easily replaced 22
  23. 23. ARE LEDS REALLY MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• LEDs do not contain any mercury, but – Toxic chemicals used in production – Water in manufacturing wafers/chips – Energy to mine, transport and melt the heavy metal into bars, which will be used for heat sinks – Energy to melt the metal bars into heat sinks – Energy to transport the heavy fixtures – Energy to ship decommissioned fixtures to recycler – Energy to re-melt the heavy metal heat sinks into bars or something directly useable after fixtures have been decommissioned 23
  24. 24. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• DOE hired Carnegie Mellon to do a cradle- to-cradle study to see if LEDs are really more environmentally friendly than incumbents – Who knows when that study will be completed• Until then… – Please consider hanging up the phone and kicking out all LED sales people that lay out the marketing hype that LEDs are so much more environmentally friendly 24
  25. 25. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• There is this good study for exterior fixtures – University of Pittsburgh’s Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation’s ‘Life Cycle Assessment of Streetlight Technologies’ • www.ledsmagazine.com/news/7/3/12?cmpid=En 25
  26. 26. MORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL• No matter what you specify or buy, RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) compliant is highly recommended – Already mandated in Europe – For example, eliminates lead in solder – Also mercury, cadmium, etc. 26
  27. 27. RUNNING COOL• Although getting rid of heat can be important for fluorescent lamps and electronic ballasts, drivers and generators, it is especially important for LEDs• Make sure that LED products that you are interested in have excellent thermal design, unless they are going in freezers• Various LED cooling mechanisms are interesting – Relatively thick and heavy metal fins – Thin metal fins, like car radiators without liquid – Fans, like in screw-in or GU24 lamps – ‘Goo’ in loop with hot rising and cool coming back down to LEDs – And others 27
  28. 28. TROPHY CHIPS• In production runs, there are often some LED chips that have very high lumens per watt, which can be called trophy chips• Be cautious of sample fixtures, especially for large projects – If free or directly furnished sample fixture(s) from a manufacturer look very good, buy one or more samples through a third party and compare performance with original ones 28
  29. 29. WOW FACTOR• Because LEDs are new and different, they have the WOW factor much more than most other lighting technologies – But that not necessarily make them better with regard to performance and cost effectiveness• Early adopter manufacturers, specifiers, contractors and end-customers are important, but care should be taken not go overboard 29
  30. 30. HALF & HALF• I need to convince about half of my clients that good LED products are ready for prime time in specific applications – Such as task lights, recessed can kits, PAR38s & exterior fixtures• I need to convince the other half that they should not use LED products in specific applications – Especially LED T8s 30
  31. 31. PROJECTIONS• We have a lot of good information about lumen depreciation, life, color consistency, etc. with incumbent technologies – Although not even the first Philips induction systems have been in exterior night time operation to see if they really last 100,000 hours• But so much information for LEDs are projections. They may be good projects, but they are still projections – For example if LEDs are only tested for 6,000 hours, will the extrapolation for 50,000 or more hours really hold up? – Will the brand new LEDs, that have considerably more lumens and lumens/watt than than previous generation, have at least as good long term lumen maintenance, etc? 31
  32. 32. LONG TERM FINANCIAL RETURN• Yes, some LED products look good up to rated life, which may be 50,000 hours• But what about right after rated life when those fixtures may have to be retrofitted or replaced?• Recommended to do life cycle or other long term cost effectiveness calculations at longer than rated life, like maybe 150% of rated life – May be expensive with LED products – On the other hand, very easy and inexpensive to relamp and reballast T8 fixtures decade after decade 32
  33. 33. DON’T CONSIDER AN LED PRODUCT UNLESS• LM79 report tested by a DOE or NVLAP approved or CALiPER recognized lab – Not just having the report, the results need to be good compared to competitive products• LM80 information – Again, not just having the information, but how good is it – A reminder, lumen maintenance is just one aspect of luminaire life and reliability• Also good if Energy Star rated• Also good if on DesignLights Consortium SSL Qualified Product List 33
  34. 34. JUST BECAUSE…• Just because one LED fixture manufacturer states 150,000 hours for rated life, and another LED fixture manufacturer states 75 hours, does necessarily means that the first manufacturer is better – Maybe the second manufacturer is just more conservative and realistic 34
  35. 35. WHICH COMPANIES TO BUY FROM• I have seen very good LED and other technology products from manufacturers that I have never of before, many off shore – But I have not specified any of these products• Only feel comfortable specifying LED and other new technology products from manufacturers, which have – Long enough track record, so have already learned by school of hard knocks • For example, surge protection – Deep pockets or 3rd party insurance policy so can handle any potential large scale warranty problems 35
  36. 36. WARRANTY• Although standard warranty for exterior LED fixtures is 5 years – Usually can get a 10 year warranty by spending an extra 10% initially, which is usually a good deal, especially with the projections issues previously discussed• How credible is a 10 year or even a much shorter warranty from an induction or LED product manufacturer, which has only been in business for 1 or 2 years? 36
  37. 37. DOWN THE ROAD WITH LEDPRODUCTS THAT ARE INSTALLED• If hard-wired LED products are purchased now, after warranty will manufacturer have replacement LED assemblies, drivers, etc? – If not that much light is needed, I have been specifying new recessed cans with screw-in or GU-24 bases and go with LED PAR38s, which end-customers will be able to easily get and install 37
  38. 38. FOR LED TO REALLY BECOME MAINSTREAM• Pricing to continue to come down• Replaceable and interchangeable LED and driver modules from several manufacturers – Some manufacturers have already started this – www.zhagastandard.org• Constant lumens – 30% lumen drop from initial to end of life is either too much light initially so enough light at end of life or good amount of light initially, which would be too little light at end of rated life – Several manufacturers are already doing this 38
  39. 39. RETROFIT OR REPLACE LED FIXTURES• Some exterior LED fixtures have modular LED bars – So maybe in as few as 3 or 5 years when LEDs are so much better than now, maybe could retrofit a 4 bar fixture with 3 new bars, reducing wattage by 25%, and in another 3 or 5 years, go down to 2 new bars• Some other exterior LED fixture manufacturers think that in 3, 5 or 10 years there will be an entire different form factor, so fixtures should be replaced – Hopefully these fixture manufacturers will pay shipping costs so the valuable heat sink metal will be recycled and provide a discount on replacement fixtures for customers that originally bought from them 39
  40. 40. MAINTENANCE• Maintenance people normally replace lamps when they burn out – Even if much more cost effective in most applications, there is so little group relamping across the continent• LEDs are like mercury vapor, which generally just get dimmer and dimmer – I have seen 1000W mercury vapor hibays that only provide 5 footcandles, when much more is required, but so many maintenance point at the hibay, say it is still working and move on 40
  41. 41. MAINTENANCE• There are already millions of first generation LED exit signs that still work, but no longer provide sufficient light for NFPA and/or city codes – Most maintenance people do not want to retrofit or replace them, because they are still working – But with a fire or another emergency, this could lead to injury, death and big time lawsuits• With the transition to LEDs in most applications, there will have to be major education and motivation to retrofit or replace LED fixtures, when lose 30% of initial lumens – Maybe do yearly light level tests – Maybe get fixtures that have an internal timers or photocontrols that flash the major LEDs or a test LED – Maybe budget years in advance for retrofit or replacement costs 41
  42. 42. ESPECIALLY FOR EXTERIOR• Since LED fixtures can provide sufficient light between fixtures and to designated perimeters without having excessive blob of light underneath, why continue with average footcandles?• With LED’s rapid and significant performance and pricing improvements will induction, which is a mature technology, become obsolete very soon for most applications? 42
  43. 43. BUY NOW OR LATER• Since LEDs are getting so much better and lower cost should you replace now or wait? – Jim Brodrick’s computer analogy – When will it not be the best solution to retrofit T12s and basic grade T8s with high performance fluorescent T8 systems or go with new LED troffers instead of high performance fluorescent T8 troffers?• Interim solutions – There are numerous applications that LEDs may not be that cost effective yet, but should be in a year or few – For example, if have standard halogen PAR lamps now, could switch to halogen infrared versions now, and when they burn out, go to LED 43
  44. 44. CONTENDERS 44
  45. 45. CONTENDERS• LED – Latest generation of chips and products• T8s (fluorescent, not LED ones) – High performance 32W F32T8 lamps & ballasts as approved by Consortium of Energy Efficiency, www.cee1.org – With ballast, these lamps are more efficacious than reduced wattage T8s, which have less lumens – There are also extra long life T8s with up to 55,000 rated hours, which is longer than projected rated lives of LED T8s 45
  46. 46. CONTENDERS• Reduced wattage T5s – 26W F28T5 lamps and high performance ballasts – Same lumens as high lumen full wattage lamps• Reduced wattage T5HOs – 49W F54T5HO lamps and high performance ballasts • Similar to 50 and 51W lamps that same lumens as full wattage lamps – In general with fluorescents when go from standard to high output, lumens go up, but lumens/watt go down • I have not specified any T5HO systems in over 10 years• (Comparing T8s with T5s and T5HOs) – With larger optical compartments, fixture efficiency can be just as good with T8s than with the smaller diameter lamps – There are numerous BF ballasts to choose from with T8s, which are not available with the smaller diameter lamps – If want to maintain US and North American jobs, better to go with T8 lamps, because most T5 and T5HO lamps are manufactured overseas 46
  47. 47. CONTENDERS• HID – Mainly ceramic metal halide (CMH) with electronic ballast • Long warm up and restrike times – HPS will be included for some exterior applications• Induction – Only Philips and Sylvania included, because decent chance of long term replacement parts and warranty support – In general, days of induction will be limited with rapid LED improvements and price reductions – Realistic system rated life is 60,000 - 70,000 hours before significant maintenance will be required – Lamps are so large, so really need a kitchen sink size fixture for any decent optical control 47
  48. 48. CONTENDERS• Plasma – Mainly Luxim, www.luxim.com, which can call it LEP for light emitting plasma – There are other manufacturers as well• Halogen infrared PAR and MR16 lamps – From big three lamp manufacturers and others – Really not that efficacious, but since relatively inexpensive, can be a good interim solution• In niche applications, sources like CFLs, neon, etc. could be considered, but they are not included in this presentation 48
  49. 49. LETS GETDOWN TO SOME GENERALCOMPARISONS 49
  50. 50. LIGHT PERWATT 50
  51. 51. LUMENS PER WATT• LED – 6000K typically has about • 10 - 20% more lumens per watt than 4000K • 20 - 25% more lumens per watt than 3500K – For exterior applications that lower CRI is okay 4000K chips can have about the same lumens per watt has higher CRI 6000K chips – Most ‘white’ LEDs are really blue LEDs with similar phosphors that fluorescents use • The less that the spectrum has to be shifted to a lower CCT from 6000K, the more efficient the blue/phosphor conversion • But 6000K will typically not work in interior applications 51
  52. 52. LUMENS PER WATT• LED – Developments are being made with lower Kelvin LEDs getting closer to the efficacy of 6000K – LEDs from some manufacturers may have lower lumens and lumens per watt at optimal temperature, but better performance at higher temperatures 52
  53. 53. INITIAL LUMENS PER WATT COMPARISON amplifier, ballast, initial system high performance initial fixture lumens lamp driver, generator lumens per watt fixture efficiency per watt latest generation LED electronic driver 40 - 130 320W CMH electronic ballast 110 85 94 high performance 32W high performance 100 87 87 F32T8 electronic ballast high performance 26W F28T5 100 87 87 electronic ballast high performance 49W F54T5HO 95 87 83 electronic ballast 185W plasma lamp electronic amplifier 84 90 76 150W induction electronic generator 77 75 58 60W PAR38 none 19 100 19 halogen infraredAbove numbers are not exact and may change. Plus there are temperature issues and so many fixture types. 53
  54. 54. LED APPROXIMATE LUMENS PER WATT CHIP FIXTURE TIME (UP TO) AT STEADY WITHOUT DRIVER OR FRAME STATE TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE INCLUDING FIXTURE LOSSES EFFICIENCY PAST 70 40 2009 100 70 2010 120-130 90-100 2011 150- 160 120-130Although some chips have better LPW withoutheat losses, other chips perform better in reallife applications 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. FOOTCANDLES PER WATT• Footcandles per watt is probably better than lumens per watt, especially for most LED products and halogen infrared spots – Will show street lighting comparison example later 57
  58. 58. RATED LIFE 58
  59. 59. RATED LIFE COMPARISON product rated life in hours notes interior LED lamp or fixture, Really depends on thermals. 25,000 - 50,000 including driver, etc. Some products have a shorter life if recessed compared to open exterior LED fixture, 60,000 - 75,000 hours is a good target. 50,000 - 100,000 including driver, etc. Will drivers, etc. really last longer than 60,000 hours? There is more to it than just the 100,000 hour rating in lamp induction lamp & electronic generator 60,000 - 70,000 catalogs. CMH lamp Lower wattage lamps tend to have shorter lives. 10,000 - 30,000 (driven by electronic ballast) Some electronic ballasts can substantially increase lamp life. highest-lumen long-life T8 lamp 30,000 - 40,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 36,000 - 42,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. mid-lumen extra-long-life T8 lamp 40,000 - 52,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 46,000 - 55,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. T5 lamp 25,000 - 30,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 30,000 - 40,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. T5HO lamp 25,000 - 45,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 30,000 - 60,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. plasma lamp 50,000 Amplifier life may need further research. (driven by electronic amplifier) One way for long life is to use 130V lamp @ 120V, which also halogen infrared PAR lamp 3,000 - 6,000 reduces light output. electronic ballasts in general 60,000 Longer if run cool and shorter if run hot. Rated lives may be slightly different for certain products from certain manufacturers. 59
  60. 60. RATED LIFE• Exterior LED fixtures are typically rated longer than interior LED fixtures, because can usually have more heat sinks and are run at night, which is cooler than in most conditioned buildings• For exterior fixtures, usually good to use 50,000 - 75,000 hours when comparing LED and induction – That is 12 - 18 years at all night burns• How long will exterior fixtures really last with wind, rain, snow, lightning strikes, etc?• Heat is enemy of all electronics, including ballasts, generators, drivers and amplifiers 60
  61. 61. END OF LIFE LUMENMAINTENANCE 61
  62. 62. END OF LIFE LUMEN MAINTENANCE COMPARISON percent of initial product notes lumens Without any constant lumen mechanism, either too bright initially LED 70% or too dim at end of life. This is based on 100,000 hours. Even at 60,000 - 70,000 hours, induction lamp 63 - 70% without any constant lumen mechanism, either too bright initially or to dim at end. Probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasting can have down to CMH lamp 80% 45%. highest-lumen long-life T8 lamp 92%mid-lumen extra-long-life T8 lamp 91% T5 lamp 92% T5HO lamp 89% plasma lamp ? halogen infrared PAR lamp 95 - 100% Numbers can vary with various wattages from various manufacturers. 62
  63. 63. FROM FINELITE 63
  64. 64. END OF LIFE LUMEN MAINTENANCE• Although mean or design lumens, which is at 40% of rate life, is often used with incumbent technologies – End of life is often better • For example, make sure sufficient light in a hibay at end of a rack aisle right before MH lamp burns out 64
  65. 65. COLORRENDERING 65
  66. 66. COLOR RENDERING INDEX COMPARISON product CRI noteshalogen infrared PAR 100800 series fluorescent 80 - 85 induction 80 LED 70 - 92+ Sometimes can get more lumens with lower CRI. CMH 70 - 95 Sometimes can get more lumens with lower CRI. plasma 72 - 94 Higher lumens with lower CRI. Numbers can vary with various wattages from various manufacturers. 66
  67. 67. COLOR RENDERING• CRI (Color Rendering Index) – Based on how ‘natural’ pastel or unsaturated colors look with various light sources – Works fairly well for all incumbent light sources 67
  68. 68. COLOR RENDERING• Although LEDs do not always do well with pastel colors, they often do very well with bright or saturated colors – Often people think that LEDs with lower CRI make bright colors look more natural than other light sources that have higher CRI – So do not automatically think that lower CRI LEDs are inferior – But there are numerous LED products with 90+ CRI, which is excellent• There is work going to replace CRI with another color matrix that will include both pastel/unsaturated and bright/saturated colors 68
  69. 69. KELVIN 69
  70. 70. KELVIN• With LEDs Kelvin and lumens are usually related – Most common way to get white light is using a blue LED with phosphor similar to the the phosphor used in fluorescents • More that high Kelvin bluish light has to be transformed to lower Kelvin, more light is lost• Fluorescents and induction lumens do not drop off with at low Kelvin and may drop off slightly at high Kelvin• CMH, halogen and some other light sources pretty much have fixed Kelvin 70
  71. 71. KELVIN• High Kelvin, like 4000 - 6000K LEDs may be okay for exterior applications, but 3000 - 3500K Kelvin LEDs work best in interior applications• Don’t know exactly why but lower Kelvin LEDs seem to match higher Kelvin fluorescent – For example, 3500K LED task lights look very good with 5000K fluorescent ambient lights in offices 71
  72. 72. LONG TERM COLORCONSISTENCY 72
  73. 73. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• LED – There are three common ways to get white light • As previously discussed, most common is white LED, which is really blue LED and yellow phosphor • Blue and/or other LEDs with remote phosphor – Phosphor is subjected to less heat, so degrades more slowly – Easier to match color among units because individual LED light (which can vary) is correctly mixed in one optical chamber – Can also add other LED colors to fill out spectrum • RGB (red, green and blue LEDs) – Reverse rainbow 73
  74. 74. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• LED – All can have color shift over time • Wavelength of blue LEDs can change over time and the phosphor can change as it ages and gets baked in its own way • Various color LEDs have different lumen maintenance curves, so if there no feedback loop with dimming drivers, color can easily shift – With being so new, we have not really seen the potential full impact of LEDs changing colors over time – This could be an issue down the road in spaces with new and older LED fixtures or replacement lamps – Cree’s TrueWhite system has a feedback loop with yellow and red LEDs 74
  75. 75. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• Fluorescent and other incumbents typically have very stable color from initial to end of life 75
  76. 76. DIMMING 76
  77. 77. DIMMING• LED – LED chips dim quite well – But not all LED fixtures or replacement lamps are designed to dim • DOE has found that – Some LED products, which are listed to dim, do not dim well with some or most dimmers – Some LED products, which are not listed to dim, do dim well with some or most dimmers – Some LED products list approved incandescent dimmers – Since LEDs can get more efficient when they dim, because they run cooler when dimmed, LEDs will probably be the future of dimming • But may really need dedicated dimmers that provide full power to the driver instead of incandescent type dimmers 77
  78. 78. DIMMING• Fluorescent – Fluorescents with dimming ballasts can dim, but • Lumens per watt gets worse, because the more dimming, the more power has to go to heating the cathodes of the lamps • Dimming ballasts are expensive – CFLs have some special characteristics • Dedicated dimmable screw-ins usually cannot dim below 20% • CFLs turn grayish or bluish when dimmed, which is opposite of our cave man (or cave woman) heritage 78
  79. 79. DIMMING• Halogen – Can dim very easy and well• CMH – Can dim quite well with electronic ballast • But only down to about 50% before turning green – Since no lamp cathode heating, can be more efficient than fluorescent dimming• Induction – Philips may introduce a dimming generator soon – Sylvania may come out with a bilevel generator• Plasma – Can dim quite well down to 20% with electronic digital amplifier 79
  80. 80. NOW SOME SPECIFIC INTERIORCOMPARISONS 80
  81. 81. LINEARREPLACEMENT LAMPS 81
  82. 82. LED T8s• These are listed first, because so important• There are hordes of sales people trying to sell these, because of potential huge volume and profit – Often Pinocchio-nose marketing hype• But the DOE has not tested one yet is nearly as good as high performance fluorescent T8s with high performance ballasts• Lamp cost can often range from $40 to $150 with proposed up to 50,000 hour realistic life 82
  83. 83. LED T8s• How they are connected – Some use existing fluorescent ballast, which consumes extra wattage, and the ballast would have to be replaced when it burns out • Ballasts typically have 60,000 hour rated life – Some have internal driver, which requires removing existing fluorescent ballast and rewiring to lamp holders • May void UL listing of fixture – Some come with their external drivers 83
  84. 84. LED T8s• DOE documents – Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent lamps and LED Linear Replacement Lamps • January 2009 Benchmark Report • Includes that since LED T8s mainly shine light down, so between fixtures and walls can be quite dark – CALIPER Round 9 & 11 – LED Performance Specification Series: T8 Replacement Lamps • Asking Manufacturers for at least 2,700 lumens – That would require them to be 2 to 3 times more efficient than existing while keeping their existing 15 - 20 watts • April 2010 • http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/t8_replacement 84
  85. 85. LED T8s• LEDs often do not do that well taking the shapes of other technology lamps – Difficulty with distribution, heat sinks, etc.• What looks really ugly – In parabolic troffers 85
  86. 86. FLUORESCENT T8s• Since many rebate programs require what are called high performance, super or 3rd generation T8s and what are called basic grade or 1st generation T8s will not be allowed to sold in 2012, we will just focus on the good ones – Highest lumen long life • www.cee1.org – Extra long life mid lumen 86
  87. 87. 4 T8 LAMP LIFE, LUMENS, CRI & MERCURY 3000-4100K 5000K MAX LAMP LIFE HOURS LAMP WATTS CATALOG CRI CATALOG CRI MG INSTANT START PROGRAM START LUMENS LUMENS OF HG 3 HR 12 HR 3 HR 12 HR 1.7 - 15,000 - 20,000 - 20,000 - 24,000 -1st GENERATION - GENERIC 32 2800 75-78 2800 75-78 <10 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,0002nd GENERATION - 2800 - 1.7 - 15,000 - 20,000 - 20,000 - 24,000 - 32 2950 81-85 80-85GENERIC 2950 <10 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000GE HL 32 3100 82 3000 80 3.95 25,000 36,000 36,000 42,000GE SXL 32 2850 81+ 2750 80 3.95 31,000 40,000 40,000 46,000PHILIPS ADV 32 3100 85 3100 82 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000PHILIPS PLUS 32 2950 85 2850 82 1.7 30,000 36,000 36,000 42,000PHILIPS ADV XLL 32 2950 85 2850 82 1.7 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000SYLVANIA XP 32 3000 85 2850 85 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XPS 32 3100 85 3100 81 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP/XL 32 2950 85 2900 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000GE SPX 28W 28 2725 82 2625 80 3.95 24,000 30,000 36,000 42,000PHILIPS ADV 28W 28 2725 85 2675 82 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000SYLVANIA XP 28W 28 2725 85 2650 80 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP XL 28W 28 2600 85 2600 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000GE SPX 25W 25 2400 85 2350 80 3.95 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000PHILIPS ADV 25W 25 2500 85 2400 85 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000PHILIPS ADV XLL 25W 25 2400 85 2350 82 1.7 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000SYLVANIA XP 25W 25 2475 85 2400 80 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP XL 25W 25 2475 85 2400 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000 1.4 - 20,000 - 25,000 -F28T5 25-28 2900+ 85 2750+ 85 * * 2.5 30,000 40,000 1.4 - 20,000 - 25,000 -F54T5HO 49-54 5000 85 4800+ 85 * * 2.5 45,000 60,000Lamp manufacturers may alter rated lamp life and lumen specifications, so get updates from manufacturers.Prepared by Stan Walercyk of Lighing Wizards 1/1/11 version. www.lightingwizards.com 87
  88. 88. 4 LINEAR FLUORESCENT EFFICACY TABLE initial lamp mean or mean or initial mean or catalog or lumens standard initial 8000 hour 8000 hour lamp lamp ballast system system 8000 hour4 lamp type photopic per ballast system lumen system watts quant type watts lumens system lamp lamp factor lumens maint- lumens per per watt lumens lumens watts enance watt 3100 32 96.9 2 EE IS 0.87 53 5394 101.8 95% 5124 96.7high performance F32T83100 32 96.9 2 EE PS 1.15 70 7130 101.9 95% 6774 96.8 3100 32 96.9 2 G IS 0.87 58 5394 93.0 95% 5124 88.4extra long life 2950 2950 32 92.2 2 EE IS 0.87 53 5133 96.8 95% 4876 92.0lumen F32T8 2950 32 92.2 2 G IS 0.87 58 5133 88.5 95% 4876 84.1 2800 32 87.5 2 EE IS 0.87 53 4872 91.9 95% 4628 87.3basic grade F32T8 2800 32 87.5 2 G IS 0.87 58 4872 84.0 95% 4628 79.8 2850 30 95.0 2 EE IS 0.87 51 4959 97.2 95% 4711 92.430W F32T8 2850 30 95.0 2 G IS 0.87 55 4959 90.2 95% 4711 85.7 2750 28 98.2 2 EE IS 0.87 48 4785 99.7 95% 4546 94.728W F32T8 2750 28 98.2 2 G IS 0.87 51 4785 93.8 95% 4546 89.1 2440 25 97.6 2 EE IS 0.87 42 4246 101.1 95% 4033 96.025W F32T8 2440 25 97.6 2 G IS 0.87 47 4246 90.3 95% 4033 85.8extra long life 25W 2400 25 96.0 2 EE IS 0.87 42 4176 99.4 95% 3967 94.5F32T8 2400 25 96.0 2 G IS 0.87 47 4176 88.9 95% 3967 84.4high lumen F28T5 3050 28 108.9 2 EE PS 0.95 58 5795 99.9 93% 5389 92.9typical F28T5 2900 28 103.6 2 PS 1.00 64 5800 90.6 93% 5394 84.326W F28T5 2900 26 111.5 2 EE PS 0.95 55 5510 100.2 92% 5069 92.226W high lumen F28T5 3050 26 117.3 2 EE PS 1.15 67 7015 104.7 92% 6454 96.351W F54T5HO 5000 51 98.0 2 EE PS 1.00 108 10000 92.6 92% 9200 85.2typical F54T5HO 5000 54 92.6 2 PS 1.00 117 10000 85.5 93% 9300 79.5F34T12 800 3100 34 91.2 2 RS E 0.85 60 5270 87.8 93% 4901 81.7F34T12 CW 2650 34 77.9 2 RS M 0.88 72 4664 64.8 87% 4058 56.4notes: Lumens, lumen maintenance, ballast factors and wattages may vary among various manufacturers.In enclosed fixtures, since reduced wattage F32T8s consume less heat they can often operate closer to optimal 77 degrees Ftemperature, so may provide more light than this table shows compared to full wattage.Although efficacy can be improved with IS and RS ballasts with T5s and T5HOs, lamp life can be greatly reduced and lampmanufacturers may not warranty lamps.93% is used as an average EOL lumen maintenance for T5HOs. 90% - 94% range among manufacturers.All wattages based on 277V. EE IS is extra efficient instant start. G IS is generic instant start. EE PS is extra efficient program start.PS is program start. RS E is rapis start electronic. RS M is rapid start magnetic.Extra long life is 36,000 hours with IS and 40,000 hours with PS ballasts at 3 hour cycles. 88Prepared by Stan Walerczyk of Lighting Wizards www.lightingwizards.com 11/11/09 version
  89. 89. FLUORESCENT T8s• Some LED marketing literature and sales people try to make fluorescent T8s look bad, like – Stating that T8s only last 15,000 or even just 10,000 hours• It is true that rated life for fluorescents, HID, incandescents and halogen is when half of the lamps have burned out and half are still working in laboratory conditions – Small percentage of lamps may only last a few months – Small percentage of lamps may last over a decade – Large majority of T8 lamps will last at least 80% of rated life when not turned on and off too much • For example, most 42,000 hour rated T8 lamps will last at least 33,600 hours when not turned on and off too much• GE, Philips and Sylvania do a good job policing each other on lumen and life ratings 89
  90. 90. FLUORESCENT T8s• Starting is the hardest on fluorescent lamps – Lamp life can really get short with instant start ballasts and occupancy sensors that turn on and off the lights more than 4 times per day on average – Program start ballasts really help lamp life when lamps are cycled on and off a lot • When I go over the pros and cons of instant and program start ballasts with T8s, over half of my clients select parallel wired program start ballasts• So the next time you see LED literature or hear an LED sales person stating that good fluorescent T8 lamps last less than 20,000 hours, you could – Throw away the LED marketing literature – Delete the LED file in your computer – Hang up on the LED sales person – Tell the LED sales person to leave 90
  91. 91. LED vs. FLUORESCENT T8s 2x4 lensed troffer with 4 F34T12CWs $0.15 blended rate 3500 annual hours 1.1 reduced AC savings x $0.05 /KWH saved incentive 15 cumulative years in long term benefit existing proposed notes lamp life lamp life compre- end of end of watt annual appr. pay- annual @ 12 @ 12 hensive type watts life lamp retrofit and relamping options life lamp watts reduc- elect. incen- tive installed back elect. cost hour hour long term lumens lumens tion savings cost (yrs) cycles cycles benefit may not be 4 1600 lumen 17W LED T8s 4480 50,000 68 76 $43.89 $13.30 $220.00 4.7 $714.99 sufficient light long term probably 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescent sufficient light F32T8s in outboard lamp holders & 2-4 F34T12 CW 5077 40,000 58 86 $49.67 $15.05 $55.00 0.8 $1,077.51 with better lamp .89 BF high performace parallellamps, 2 2- thermals & wired program start ballastlamp energy fixture efficiencysaving 2 2950 lumen extra long life 32W probablymagnetic fluorescent F32T8s in outboard lamp sufficient lightballasts, 144 $75.60 25,000 6500 holders & 2-lamp 1.00 BF high 5428 55,000 65 79 $45.62 $13.83 $57.00 0.9 $1,051.77 with betterangled sides performace parallel wired program start thermals &with good ballast fixture efficiencywhite paint & 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescentclear prismatic reflector may F32T8s, 2-lamp .89 BF high performacelens 5077 40,000 58 86 $49.67 $15.05 $65.00 1.0 $1,067.51 increase light parallel wired program start ballast & levels white reflector 2 2950 lumen long life 32W fluorescent reflector may F32T8s, 2-lamp 1.00 BF high 5428 55,000 65 79 $45.62 $13.83 $67.00 1.2 $1,041.77 increase light performace parallel wired program start levels ballast & white reflectorfootnotes: Numbers in colored boxes can be changed, which automatically alters computations.Copyright of Stan Walerczyk, LC, principal of Lighting Wizards. January 1, 2011 version. 91
  92. 92. LED vs. FLUORESCENT T8s 2x4 lensed troffer with 3 basic grade F32T8s $0.15 blended rate 3500 annual hours 1.1 reduced AC savings x $0.05 /KWH saved incentive 15 cumulative years in long term benefit existing proposed notes compre- lamp life end of end of lamp life watt annual appr. pay- annual hensive type watts @ 3 hour life lamp retrofit and relamping options life lamp @ 3 hour watts reduc- elect. incen- tive installed back elect. cost long term cycles lumens lumens cycles tion savings cost (yrs) benefit probably not 3 1600 lumen 17W LED T8s 3360 50,000 51 38 $21.95 $6.65 $165.00 7.2 $269.58 sufficient long term light 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescent sufficient light F32T8s in outboard lamp holders & 2- with better3 basic grade 5077 36,000 58 31 $17.90 $5.43 $55.00 2.8 $326.38 lamp .89 BF high performace parallel thermals &F32T8s, wired program start ballast fixture efficiencygeneric 3-lamp .88 BF 2 2950 lumen extra long life 32W probablyelectronic fluorescent F32T8s in outboard lamp sufficient lightinstant start 89 $46.73 20,000 6650 holders & 2-lamp .89 BF high 4831 52,000 58 31 $17.90 $5.43 $57.00 2.9 $351.23 with betterballast, angled performace parallel wired program start thermals &sides with ballast fixture efficiencygood white 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescentpaint & clear reflector may F32T8s, 2-lamp .71 BF high performaceprismatic lens 4050 36,000 46 43 $24.83 $7.53 $65.00 2.3 $464.01 allow sufficient parallel wired program start ballast & light white reflector 2 2950 lumen long life 32W fluorescent reflector F32T8s, 2-lamp .89 BF high performace 4831 52,000 58 31 $17.90 $5.43 $67.00 3.4 $341.23 probably allow parallel wired program start ballast & sufficient light white reflectorfootnotes: Numbers in colored boxes can be changed, which automatically alters computations.Copyright of Stan Walerczyk, LC, principal of Lighting Wizards. January 1, 2011 version. 92
  93. 93. MAYBE SOMETHINGBETTER THAN LED T8s 93
  94. 94. MAYBE SOMETHING BETTER THAN LED T8s• Kits for troffers, etc – 2’ and 4’ long and about 1 - 2 inches wide LED bars • Screwed into fixture, using fixture as a heat sink – If external driver, mount it in ballast compartment• Something like Albeo’s troffer conversion kit – Google search ‘Albeo youtube’ for installation video• Something like the LED bars and driver using in the new Lithonia RT LED troffers – www.lithonia.com/rtled 94
  95. 95. DECORATIVE 95
  96. 96. DECORATIVE• Christmas/decorative lights – LED versions are becoming a no brainer• Small lamps in chandeliers – Usually sparkle is important, and the amount of light is not critical – Although there are decorative shaped CFLs with small bases, which last much longer than incandescents, with white phosphor - No Sparkle – There are decorative LEDs available with small bases that have long life and sparkle• When getting these types of LED lights – Get ones with good warranties – Especially from big box stores. check with them if they require lumen maintenance tests before they carry certain products 96
  97. 97. OMNIDIRECTIONAL (FANCY NAME FORSOMETHING LIKE AN A19) 97
  98. 98. LED• Getting better all of the time, but still not really cost effective to replace CFLs• But when there is at least one winner of the L Prize in this category, they should be ready for prime time – Philips has made an entry – Others will too – There can be up 4 winners in each category 98
  99. 99. CFLs• Although some people give CFLs a bad wrap, CFLs are quite good in many applications – Screw-ins can often cost $.25 with upstream rebates – Lumens per watt are quite good – CRI is quite good, typically in the 80s – Life is much longer than incandescents – Mercury is really not that much of an issue• Although quite good, there are some drawbacks, and maybe best to consider a temporary solution – Until LEDs or something else becomes ready for prime time 99
  100. 100. ACCENTLIGHTING 100
  101. 101. LED ACCENT LIGHTS• Sparkle and Focus – LED accent lights can provide sparkle and focus like reflector PAR lamps, which CFL reflector lamps can’t• Cool – Since LEDs do not emit any heat from the light side, they can be very good lighting flowers, produce, etc. without damaging them 101
  102. 102. LED MR16s• Best LED MR16s that DOE has tested so far can only replace up to 20W halogen MR16 – MR16s are on the small side for higher wattage LEDs to be able to dissipate sufficient heat – Most halogen MR16s are 50W standard or 35 - 37W infrared – Existing LED MR16s may work fine in • Overlit applications • Elevators, which are often overlit • Some aesthetic applications, where light levels not that important• Check if existing and new step down transformers will work with LED MR16s, because LED MR16s are such low wattage and will not activate step down transformers 102
  103. 103. HALOGEN MR16s• If existing are standard halogen – Can switch to lower wattage halogen infrareds • For example, 50W to 35 - 37W• If existing are halogen infrareds – Maybe keep for 1- 2 years• LED MR16s should be cost effective for many applications in 1 - 2 years 103
  104. 104. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• The larger the lamp, the easier it is to dissipate heat• If can use larger lamp, go with it• Some retail chain stores have already started switching to good LED reflector lamps• For more general recessed can applications, need wider beam spread options from most manufacturers 104
  105. 105. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• There are numerous good products, including Cree’s LRP38 with indirect lighting on left and Solais LR38 with fan on right 105
  106. 106. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• MSI iPAR-38 looks very interesting – Three wattage lumen settings • 10W with 550 lumens • 12W with 650 lumens • 16W with 800 lumens – Proprietary Intelligent Communication • Type of bar code reader can provide – Manufacturing info – Installation info – Hours of use – Wattage setting 106
  107. 107. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• GE and others even have wet location ones 107
  108. 108. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• LED R or PAR38s will really be ready for prime time after there is at least one winner of the L Prize in this category – Last time I checked there were no submittals 108
  109. 109. LED MODULAR EXAMPLE 109
  110. 110. HALOGEN PAR 20, 30 & 38• Just like MR16s, there are halogen infrared PAR lamps – Which can save 10 - 20 watts compared to standard halogens• If standard halogens now, maybe go with halogen infrared now and wait 1 - 2 years to go with LEDs 110
  111. 111. CMH ACCENT LIGHTS• Ceramic Metal Halide with electronic ballasting have – Can provide sparkle and focus – Excellent CRI – Quite good lumens per watt – Reasonable long life• Available as – Small omni directional lamps which can go into fixtures with reflectors – PAR lamps – PAR lamps with integral electronic ballasts • GE, Philips and Sylvania have 23 - 25 watt PAR38s with 10,000+ hour rated life 111
  112. 112. RECESSED CANS 112
  113. 113. LED• Recessed cans for residential and commercial are a great application for LEDs – Majority of ENERGY STAR LED products are recessed cans• Several of my clients are nervous about getting new LED recessed can fixtures – Because, potential problems of getting replacement matching LED modules and drivers down the road – And prefer getting some kind of solution that is easily replaceable from several manufacturers 113
  114. 114. LED• LED PAR lamp – There are a number of these available with screw-in or GU12 base – If existing is 277V, can use step down transformer or try to find a 277V lamp – Can use pole changer, which is very helpful for many application• Recessed can kits with integral LEDs – Probably most of you already know about this type of kit from Cree and others• Recessed can kits with GU24 bases for various manufacturers’ LED PAR lamps – Delray may be first manufacturer of these – Trim ring – Customer can select preferred LED PAR lamp – Can use pole changer 114
  115. 115. CFL• CFLs are reasonably efficacious, but – Not nearly efficacious as high performance T8 systems – Most are only rated for 10,000 - 12,000 hours – Many recessed can fixtures for them have very bad fixture efficiency • Like 50 - 60%• But there are some CFL recessed cans with more like 75% fixture efficiency• Sometimes screw-in reflector CFLs are good solutions• Usually best to try to – Have just one lamp per fixture – Minimize lamp types 115
  116. 116. REACH-INFRIG/FREEZER 116
  117. 117. LED• Since this is a limited application, will only briefly discuss – Walmart and other retail chains have already cost effectively retrofitted or installed in stores – Since no heat on light side, can also reduce cooling load – Many very good products with and without on/off, staged or continuous occupancy sensors, which can save considerable • Some organizations have done a lot of work making specifications for rebates, for example – www.smud.org – www.pge.com 117
  118. 118. FLUORESCENT• Majority of 5’ lamps, which are low volume and relatively expensive• If have T12, definitely do something• Many existing T8s systems do not have the best lamps or the best ballasts• High performance T8 lamp and ballast systems can often save 20% wattage compared to generic T8 systems, which will also reduce cooling load – In many applications could go with a bilevel system controlled by an occupancy sensor• Before jumping into LEDs, good to ‘raise the bar’ and see if they are cost effective compared to high performance T8 systems 118
  119. 119. TROFFERS 119
  120. 120. LED• Already some good LED troffers from major manufacturers• Can have over 100 lumens per watt – Which is better than any fluorescent troffer• May cost $300 - $350 now – But I have specifying them for some high profile conference rooms for clients that want dimming and ‘high tech’ lighting – Expect to become cost effective with high performance fluorescent troffers in general applications in about 2 years• Depending on design and application, some models may be glary• With control systems can have constant lumens so not overlit to begin with or too little light at end of life• Being able to replace LEDs and drivers from below without having to lift ceiling tiles could really save maintenance labor down the road 120
  121. 121. LED Lithonia RT LEDCree LR24 121
  122. 122. T8 FLUORESCENT• There is a new generation of high performance 2x4 1F32T8 troffers that can be installed in typical 8x10 spacing – Depending on BF and if instant or program start extra efficient ballast, wattage can range from 24 - 39 with direct relationship to lumens – $100 - $150 pricing with high performance ballasts• Interesting that in CALiPER Round 11, one of these was only measured with 71 lumens per watt, which with 100 lumen per watt T8 lamps and ballasts, translates to about 71% fixture efficiency – While same type of fixture gets 85 - 89% fixture efficiency rating from good independent labs – Something should be done so more consistency between CALiPER lumen per watt out of fixture testing and typical fixture efficiency testing 122
  123. 123. T8 FLUORESCENT Office with Finelite HPRs 123
  124. 124. T8 FLUORESCENT• Existing 2x4 troffers can be cost effectively retrofitted down to 1F32T8 – Standard lensed troffers can often get a 1-cove white reflector • About $55 - $60 total installed cost – Parabolic troffers can get upscale kits • About $110 - $120 total installed cost 124
  125. 125. TROFFERS• 50,000 hour rated LED troffers currently cost about twice more than high performance 1F32T8 troffers and installation labor may be about the same for both types• Let’s do some life cycle costing for 75,000 hours – LED troffer • May cost $150 for parts and labor to retrofit or replace at 50,000 hours, which may get down to $100 at 100,000 hours, so total of $200 at 75,000 hours – 1F32T8 troffer • May cost $15 for group relamping at 25,000, 50,000 & 75,000 hours and $40 for group reballasting at 50,000 & 100,000 hours, so approximate total of $45 at 75,000 hours – Less relamping costs if use extra long life lamps, which are rated up to 55,000 hours 125
  126. 126. SUSPENDEDINDIRECT/DIRECT FIXTURES 126
  127. 127. LED• LEDs could run cooler with less heat sinking than in troffers and recessed cans• Uniform uplight with some not too intense downlight are challenges• It will take a while for LED suspended fixtures to be cost effective compared high performance fluorescent suspended fixtures – Now LED 4 footer may cost $300 - $400 127
  128. 128. T8 FLUORESCENT• Well designed suspended indirect/direct fixtures with 1F32T8 per cross section – Can provide quite low power densities – Total installed cost often less than individual troffers • When can have relatively long rows in new construction and gut rehabs• One lamp per cross section is usually much better than two or three for – Optimal light distribution • Usually batwing – Best fixture efficiency – Lowest wattage – Lowest fixture cost• Fixture cost may be $25 - $40 per linear foot depending on type of fixture, quantity, etc. 128
  129. 129. T8 FLUORESCENT• Make sure fixture reflectors are designed for T8s and not for T5s/T5HOs• There are many good manufacturers and models 129
  130. 130. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTINGWHERE LEDs CAN WORK WITH INCUMBENTS 130
  131. 131. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Task ambient lighting is having relatively low footcandle ambient lighting and additional task lighting when and where need it• Light levels drop off exponentially as distance increases between source and task – For example if double distance, 1/4 the footcandles – Much less wattage getting high light levels from a task light 2’ away from task, than from ceiling fixtures 6’ away from task• This strategy may be the most cost effective way to have very low power densities while providing good quality lighting• In typical offices, usually .4 - .6 watts per square foot is easily attainable 131
  132. 132. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Ambient, in offices, works very well with either – New or retrofitted 2x4 high performance troffers that have 1 high performance & often high Kelvin 32W F32T8 and high performance parallel wired program start ballasting • Maybe tandem wire ballast per pair of troffers – New or retrofitted suspended indirect/direct fixtures with 1 high performance & often high Kelvin 32W F32T8 per cross section and high performance parallel wired program start ballasting• Ambient lighting can provide 10 - 20 footcandles on desks – Often more light is worse than less light, because more light can cause more glare and higher contrast ratios 132
  133. 133. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Existing task – For a long time most modular office systems had fluorescent undercabinet task lights • But most of these fixtures – Use way too much wattage – Are glare bombs » Hitting shiny paper and/or desks and then bounced into eyes – Provide too much light » That is why often gray scale tube guards to reduce amount of light, but still uses all of the wattage – Often difficult to replace ballasts » Many ballast compartments too small for standard sized extra efficient ballasts – Sometimes still T12s with magnetic ballasts or T8s with magnetic ballasts – There are some good CFL desk mount task lights • But way too many people still use energy hog incandescent or quartz halogen 133
  134. 134. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• High performance LED task – There are some very good LED task light systems • One example is the Finelite PLS (Personal Lighting System) – 3, 6 & 9W undercabinet fixture » Not a glare bomb » Uses metal shelf as a heat sink – Dimmable 8W desk mount fixture » Can get 70 footcandles directly underneath with no other light sources – Optional occupancy sensor – For a decent quantity » 1 undercabinet fixture, 1 desk mount fixture, occupancy sensor, power supply and cables may cost $200 or less in decent quantities – New version has the switch before the power supply, so zero wattage when fixtures are off – For individual offices that do not have shelves over desks, often just a desk mount fixture is recommended 134
  135. 135. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Finelite PLS – Both undercabinets and desk mounts won 2007 Lighting For Tomorrow Awards – Desk mount, which is also called ‘Curve’ won 2009 Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition • Best In Class - Task Lighting www.finelite.com/sustainability/professional-development 135
  136. 136. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• There are several other LED office task lights, including Philips Color Kinetics Philips Alko Lincs100 & sensor UC Luxo Air Luxo Ninety Steelcase Kast 136
  137. 137. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• PG&E’s Emerging Technology Program’s ‘High Efficiency Office Low Ambient / Task Lighting Pilot Project’ – www.etcc-ca.com/project-search/search- results_m126/criteria:1/query:any/jr_endyear:2009/jr_organization:Pacific+Gas+and +Electric+%28PG%26E%29/order:alpha/page:2/limit:10/ – .66 watts per square foot – If 5000K and high performance fixed output ballasts would have been used, that power density could have been lower – Although dimming ballasts were used in the suspended ambient fixtures, that was for tuning, not for energy savings – This report clearly states that it would be much more cost effective to go with fixed output instant start ballasts• Since there are millions and millions of square feet of offices in North America and the world, reducing wattage and improving lighting is so important 137
  138. 138. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• With good task ambient lighting the power density can be low all of the time that expensive and complex dimming daylight harvesting peak load shedding systems are not cost effective – Even with dimming ballasts in ambient fixtures, good task lights are usually recommended 138
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