How do le ds compare with lightfair 1-1-11

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  • 2. STAN WALERCZYK’S BIO• 22 years experience – Distribution, maintenance, installer, retrofit contractor, fixture designer, consultant, lighting designer, policy maker, researcher• 500+ projects• 30+ published articles• 600+ seminars – Including 4 Lightfairs & 3 IES Annual Conferences• IES Member 1995 - 2008 – Currently on Visual Effects of Lamp Spectral Distribution Committee• Certified Lighting Energy Professional by AEE – CLEP Review Board• Lighting Certified by NCQLP• Consultant for California Title 20 and Federal EPACT• Consultant for Army Corp of Engineers CERL• Assisted on DOE spectrally enhanced lighting research• DOE CALiPER Guidance Committee 2
  • 3. FORMAT• Since so many slides and not that much time – I will go pretty fast through many slides • You can go through details in slides later on your own – Please hold your questions to the end or after then end• At least one break 3
  • 4. DISCLAIMER• I use to feel that I was totally on top of the subjects that I would speak on• But now with all of the developments with LEDs, OLEDs, light emitting plasma and even incumbent technologies for interiors and exteriors, it is almost impossible for one person to be on top of everything• If any of you know significant details on any of today’s material, please share it – Without being an infomercial• Plus there could be a bunch of brand new and very good stuff in the exhibit halls this week 4
  • 5. TERMINOLOGY• Since I deal mainly with building owners, facility managers, retrofit contractors and ESCOs, I typically use terms that they understand, such as – Fixture instead of luminaire – Out of fixture lumens per watt instead of absolute testing – LED fixture instead of SSL fixture 5
  • 6. NO ENDORSEMENTS• Although several manufacturers and models are listed, none are endorsed• Easier to talk about specifics than generalities 6
  • 7. BACKGROUND INFO• Please raise your hand if you are already aware of – DOE Solid State Lighting Program, including CALiPER, etc. – Postings: From the Desk of Jim Brodrick – Lighting Facts – Energy Star – DesignLights Consortium SSL Qualified Product List – L Prize – Lighting For Tomorrow SSL Awards – Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition – Lighting Research Center’s Solid State Lighting – LEDs Magazine – Architectural SSL Magazine – L70, LM79 & LM80• For those of you who are not familiar with some of them, you can get information on the following slides, that I will skip and start on slide 16 7
  • 8. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting – Google search ‘doe ssl’ • CALiPER test reports • Benchmark reports • Gateway studies • Fact sheets • Webinars • More 8
  • 9. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting – Lighting Facts • – LEDs For Interior Applications • PDF of March 18 webcast • event_id=4163 9
  • 10. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Department of Energy – Commercial Building Energy Alliances • Technology and System Specification Development – LED Refrigerated Case Lighting – And there are others • nologies.html 10
  • 11. HELPFUL EMAIL• Postings: From the Desk of Jim Brodrick – About once a week – March 16 version focused on how bad LED T8s are – – 11
  • 12. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Energy Star –• DesignLights Consortium SSL Qualified Product List – oductsList_Publicv2.php• L Prize – 12
  • 13. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting For Tomorrow SSL Awards – More residential – Awards every September –• Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition – More commercial – Awards every January – 13
  • 14. HELPFUL WEBSITES• Lighting Research Center –• LEDs Magazine –• Architectural SSL Magazine – 14
  • 15. L70, LM79 & LM80• L70 – Rated life of LEDs, based when still have 70% of initial lumens – Really projections• LM79 – Total flux (light output), electrical power (wattage), efficacy (lumen/ watt), chromaticity out of the complete product or luminaire (fixture)• LM80 – Lumen depreciation of LED chips from LED manufacturers, which product manufacturers use with the thermal design of their products – Typically LED manufacturers test their chips for 6000 hours and based on lumen depreciation over that time, useable life of the chips is extrapolated until L70 is reached – Within TM21 the IES is considering that life should not be extrapolated more than 6 times testing duration – LM80 is not the rated life of an LED product, because drivers, electrical connections, product integrity, etc. may fail before the LEDs 15
  • 17. RAISE THE BAR• It is more than just if LEDs are cost effective to replace or instead of using not very good base case• It is if LEDs are cost effective compared to other high performance technologies• For example, a garage may have or is planned to get ceiling fixtures with 175W quartz pulse start MH and magnetic ballast, which is not the best solution – Yes, LED ceiling fixtures, maybe with high/low occupancy sensors, would be cost effective – But electronically ballasted 100W ceramic pulse start MH or bi-level T8s may be more cost effective for specific applications 17
  • 18. DOLLARS PER 1000 LUMENS• DOE has been doing a good job on this – LED devices (not fixtures or replacement lamps) • $10.00/klm in 2010 • $ 5.00/klm in 2012 • $ 2.00/klm in 2015• Please compare that to some other technologies now, which should not change much in the future – $0.25 (after upstream rebate) 900 lumen screw-in CFL • $ 0.28/klm – $22 for 4 high lumen F32T8s & high performance ballast • $ 2.04/klm• With LED’s excellent optical control capability, often need less lumens, which reduces cost 18
  • 19. HAS THE LIGHTING INDUSTRY EVOLVED?• Up to 2 years ago, I would have said yes• But the last two years a lot of the LED marketing literature and sales people, remind me of reflector and CFL marketing literature and sales people in the late 80s to mid 90s – Way too many LED sales people know very little about lighting and may have been selling cars recently • Many do not even know what LM79 and LM80 are 19
  • 20. TRUTH IN ADVERTISING?• Not only has the DOE CALiPER Program revealed – Many LED products not meeting manufacturer specifications – But also that many fluorescent, incandescent and halogen products have the same problem 20
  • 21. TRUTH IN ADVERTISING?• September 8, 2010... The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has sued a California-based LED bulb manufacturer and its principals to stop them from exaggerating the light output and life expectancy of its LED bulbs, and misleading consumers.• In its continuing effort to stop deceptive advertising the FTC filed a complaint charging that since 2008, Lights of America, Inc. has overstated the light output and life expectancy of its LED bulbs on packages and in brochures. The agency also charges that Lights of America misled consumers about how the brightness of its LED bulbs compare to traditional incandescent lights.• The FTC notes that it authorizes the filing of a complaint when it has “reason to believe” that the law has or is being violated, and it appears to the Commission that a proceeding is in the public interest. The Commission also points out that a complaint is not a finding or ruling that the defendants have actually violated the law.• Copies of the Commission’s complaint and the press release <> about it can be found on the FTC web site. 21
  • 22. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• Yes, fluorescent, HID and induction have mercury – But the manufacturers have been doing a very good job reducing it – Many states require recycling – Many fixtures can be kept for a long time, because lamps and ballasts can be easily replaced 22
  • 23. ARE LEDS REALLY MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• LEDs do not contain any mercury, but – Toxic chemicals used in production – Water in manufacturing wafers/chips – Energy to mine, transport and melt the heavy metal into bars, which will be used for heat sinks – Energy to melt the metal bars into heat sinks – Energy to transport the heavy fixtures – Energy to ship decommissioned fixtures to recycler – Energy to re-melt the heavy metal heat sinks into bars or something directly useable after fixtures have been decommissioned 23
  • 24. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• DOE hired Carnegie Mellon to do a cradle- to-cradle study to see if LEDs are really more environmentally friendly than incumbents – Who knows when that study will be completed• Until then… – Please consider hanging up the phone and kicking out all LED sales people that lay out the marketing hype that LEDs are so much more environmentally friendly 24
  • 25. ARE LEDS REALLY MOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY?• There is this good study for exterior fixtures – University of Pittsburgh’s Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation’s ‘Life Cycle Assessment of Streetlight Technologies’ • 25
  • 26. MORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL• No matter what you specify or buy, RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) compliant is highly recommended – Already mandated in Europe – For example, eliminates lead in solder – Also mercury, cadmium, etc. 26
  • 27. RUNNING COOL• Although getting rid of heat can be important for fluorescent lamps and electronic ballasts, drivers and generators, it is especially important for LEDs• Make sure that LED products that you are interested in have excellent thermal design, unless they are going in freezers• Various LED cooling mechanisms are interesting – Relatively thick and heavy metal fins – Thin metal fins, like car radiators without liquid – Fans, like in screw-in or GU24 lamps – ‘Goo’ in loop with hot rising and cool coming back down to LEDs – And others 27
  • 28. TROPHY CHIPS• In production runs, there are often some LED chips that have very high lumens per watt, which can be called trophy chips• Be cautious of sample fixtures, especially for large projects – If free or directly furnished sample fixture(s) from a manufacturer look very good, buy one or more samples through a third party and compare performance with original ones 28
  • 29. WOW FACTOR• Because LEDs are new and different, they have the WOW factor much more than most other lighting technologies – But that not necessarily make them better with regard to performance and cost effectiveness• Early adopter manufacturers, specifiers, contractors and end-customers are important, but care should be taken not go overboard 29
  • 30. HALF & HALF• I need to convince about half of my clients that good LED products are ready for prime time in specific applications – Such as task lights, recessed can kits, PAR38s & exterior fixtures• I need to convince the other half that they should not use LED products in specific applications – Especially LED T8s 30
  • 31. PROJECTIONS• We have a lot of good information about lumen depreciation, life, color consistency, etc. with incumbent technologies – Although not even the first Philips induction systems have been in exterior night time operation to see if they really last 100,000 hours• But so much information for LEDs are projections. They may be good projects, but they are still projections – For example if LEDs are only tested for 6,000 hours, will the extrapolation for 50,000 or more hours really hold up? – Will the brand new LEDs, that have considerably more lumens and lumens/watt than than previous generation, have at least as good long term lumen maintenance, etc? 31
  • 32. LONG TERM FINANCIAL RETURN• Yes, some LED products look good up to rated life, which may be 50,000 hours• But what about right after rated life when those fixtures may have to be retrofitted or replaced?• Recommended to do life cycle or other long term cost effectiveness calculations at longer than rated life, like maybe 150% of rated life – May be expensive with LED products – On the other hand, very easy and inexpensive to relamp and reballast T8 fixtures decade after decade 32
  • 33. DON’T CONSIDER AN LED PRODUCT UNLESS• LM79 report tested by a DOE or NVLAP approved or CALiPER recognized lab – Not just having the report, the results need to be good compared to competitive products• LM80 information – Again, not just having the information, but how good is it – A reminder, lumen maintenance is just one aspect of luminaire life and reliability• Also good if Energy Star rated• Also good if on DesignLights Consortium SSL Qualified Product List 33
  • 34. JUST BECAUSE…• Just because one LED fixture manufacturer states 150,000 hours for rated life, and another LED fixture manufacturer states 75 hours, does necessarily means that the first manufacturer is better – Maybe the second manufacturer is just more conservative and realistic 34
  • 35. WHICH COMPANIES TO BUY FROM• I have seen very good LED and other technology products from manufacturers that I have never of before, many off shore – But I have not specified any of these products• Only feel comfortable specifying LED and other new technology products from manufacturers, which have – Long enough track record, so have already learned by school of hard knocks • For example, surge protection – Deep pockets or 3rd party insurance policy so can handle any potential large scale warranty problems 35
  • 36. WARRANTY• Although standard warranty for exterior LED fixtures is 5 years – Usually can get a 10 year warranty by spending an extra 10% initially, which is usually a good deal, especially with the projections issues previously discussed• How credible is a 10 year or even a much shorter warranty from an induction or LED product manufacturer, which has only been in business for 1 or 2 years? 36
  • 37. DOWN THE ROAD WITH LEDPRODUCTS THAT ARE INSTALLED• If hard-wired LED products are purchased now, after warranty will manufacturer have replacement LED assemblies, drivers, etc? – If not that much light is needed, I have been specifying new recessed cans with screw-in or GU-24 bases and go with LED PAR38s, which end-customers will be able to easily get and install 37
  • 38. FOR LED TO REALLY BECOME MAINSTREAM• Pricing to continue to come down• Replaceable and interchangeable LED and driver modules from several manufacturers – Some manufacturers have already started this –• Constant lumens – 30% lumen drop from initial to end of life is either too much light initially so enough light at end of life or good amount of light initially, which would be too little light at end of rated life – Several manufacturers are already doing this 38
  • 39. RETROFIT OR REPLACE LED FIXTURES• Some exterior LED fixtures have modular LED bars – So maybe in as few as 3 or 5 years when LEDs are so much better than now, maybe could retrofit a 4 bar fixture with 3 new bars, reducing wattage by 25%, and in another 3 or 5 years, go down to 2 new bars• Some other exterior LED fixture manufacturers think that in 3, 5 or 10 years there will be an entire different form factor, so fixtures should be replaced – Hopefully these fixture manufacturers will pay shipping costs so the valuable heat sink metal will be recycled and provide a discount on replacement fixtures for customers that originally bought from them 39
  • 40. MAINTENANCE• Maintenance people normally replace lamps when they burn out – Even if much more cost effective in most applications, there is so little group relamping across the continent• LEDs are like mercury vapor, which generally just get dimmer and dimmer – I have seen 1000W mercury vapor hibays that only provide 5 footcandles, when much more is required, but so many maintenance point at the hibay, say it is still working and move on 40
  • 41. MAINTENANCE• There are already millions of first generation LED exit signs that still work, but no longer provide sufficient light for NFPA and/or city codes – Most maintenance people do not want to retrofit or replace them, because they are still working – But with a fire or another emergency, this could lead to injury, death and big time lawsuits• With the transition to LEDs in most applications, there will have to be major education and motivation to retrofit or replace LED fixtures, when lose 30% of initial lumens – Maybe do yearly light level tests – Maybe get fixtures that have an internal timers or photocontrols that flash the major LEDs or a test LED – Maybe budget years in advance for retrofit or replacement costs 41
  • 42. ESPECIALLY FOR EXTERIOR• Since LED fixtures can provide sufficient light between fixtures and to designated perimeters without having excessive blob of light underneath, why continue with average footcandles?• With LED’s rapid and significant performance and pricing improvements will induction, which is a mature technology, become obsolete very soon for most applications? 42
  • 43. BUY NOW OR LATER• Since LEDs are getting so much better and lower cost should you replace now or wait? – Jim Brodrick’s computer analogy – When will it not be the best solution to retrofit T12s and basic grade T8s with high performance fluorescent T8 systems or go with new LED troffers instead of high performance fluorescent T8 troffers?• Interim solutions – There are numerous applications that LEDs may not be that cost effective yet, but should be in a year or few – For example, if have standard halogen PAR lamps now, could switch to halogen infrared versions now, and when they burn out, go to LED 43
  • 44. CONTENDERS 44
  • 45. CONTENDERS• LED – Latest generation of chips and products• T8s (fluorescent, not LED ones) – High performance 32W F32T8 lamps & ballasts as approved by Consortium of Energy Efficiency, – With ballast, these lamps are more efficacious than reduced wattage T8s, which have less lumens – There are also extra long life T8s with up to 55,000 rated hours, which is longer than projected rated lives of LED T8s 45
  • 46. CONTENDERS• Reduced wattage T5s – 26W F28T5 lamps and high performance ballasts – Same lumens as high lumen full wattage lamps• Reduced wattage T5HOs – 49W F54T5HO lamps and high performance ballasts • Similar to 50 and 51W lamps that same lumens as full wattage lamps – In general with fluorescents when go from standard to high output, lumens go up, but lumens/watt go down • I have not specified any T5HO systems in over 10 years• (Comparing T8s with T5s and T5HOs) – With larger optical compartments, fixture efficiency can be just as good with T8s than with the smaller diameter lamps – There are numerous BF ballasts to choose from with T8s, which are not available with the smaller diameter lamps – If want to maintain US and North American jobs, better to go with T8 lamps, because most T5 and T5HO lamps are manufactured overseas 46
  • 47. CONTENDERS• HID – Mainly ceramic metal halide (CMH) with electronic ballast • Long warm up and restrike times – HPS will be included for some exterior applications• Induction – Only Philips and Sylvania included, because decent chance of long term replacement parts and warranty support – In general, days of induction will be limited with rapid LED improvements and price reductions – Realistic system rated life is 60,000 - 70,000 hours before significant maintenance will be required – Lamps are so large, so really need a kitchen sink size fixture for any decent optical control 47
  • 48. CONTENDERS• Plasma – Mainly Luxim,, which can call it LEP for light emitting plasma – There are other manufacturers as well• Halogen infrared PAR and MR16 lamps – From big three lamp manufacturers and others – Really not that efficacious, but since relatively inexpensive, can be a good interim solution• In niche applications, sources like CFLs, neon, etc. could be considered, but they are not included in this presentation 48
  • 50. LIGHT PERWATT 50
  • 51. LUMENS PER WATT• LED – 6000K typically has about • 10 - 20% more lumens per watt than 4000K • 20 - 25% more lumens per watt than 3500K – For exterior applications that lower CRI is okay 4000K chips can have about the same lumens per watt has higher CRI 6000K chips – Most ‘white’ LEDs are really blue LEDs with similar phosphors that fluorescents use • The less that the spectrum has to be shifted to a lower CCT from 6000K, the more efficient the blue/phosphor conversion • But 6000K will typically not work in interior applications 51
  • 52. LUMENS PER WATT• LED – Developments are being made with lower Kelvin LEDs getting closer to the efficacy of 6000K – LEDs from some manufacturers may have lower lumens and lumens per watt at optimal temperature, but better performance at higher temperatures 52
  • 53. INITIAL LUMENS PER WATT COMPARISON amplifier, ballast, initial system high performance initial fixture lumens lamp driver, generator lumens per watt fixture efficiency per watt latest generation LED electronic driver 40 - 130 320W CMH electronic ballast 110 85 94 high performance 32W high performance 100 87 87 F32T8 electronic ballast high performance 26W F28T5 100 87 87 electronic ballast high performance 49W F54T5HO 95 87 83 electronic ballast 185W plasma lamp electronic amplifier 84 90 76 150W induction electronic generator 77 75 58 60W PAR38 none 19 100 19 halogen infraredAbove numbers are not exact and may change. Plus there are temperature issues and so many fixture types. 53
  • 54. LED APPROXIMATE LUMENS PER WATT CHIP FIXTURE TIME (UP TO) AT STEADY WITHOUT DRIVER OR FRAME STATE TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE INCLUDING FIXTURE LOSSES EFFICIENCY PAST 70 40 2009 100 70 2010 120-130 90-100 2011 150- 160 120-130Although some chips have better LPW withoutheat losses, other chips perform better in reallife applications 54
  • 55. 55
  • 56. 56
  • 57. FOOTCANDLES PER WATT• Footcandles per watt is probably better than lumens per watt, especially for most LED products and halogen infrared spots – Will show street lighting comparison example later 57
  • 58. RATED LIFE 58
  • 59. RATED LIFE COMPARISON product rated life in hours notes interior LED lamp or fixture, Really depends on thermals. 25,000 - 50,000 including driver, etc. Some products have a shorter life if recessed compared to open exterior LED fixture, 60,000 - 75,000 hours is a good target. 50,000 - 100,000 including driver, etc. Will drivers, etc. really last longer than 60,000 hours? There is more to it than just the 100,000 hour rating in lamp induction lamp & electronic generator 60,000 - 70,000 catalogs. CMH lamp Lower wattage lamps tend to have shorter lives. 10,000 - 30,000 (driven by electronic ballast) Some electronic ballasts can substantially increase lamp life. highest-lumen long-life T8 lamp 30,000 - 40,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 36,000 - 42,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. mid-lumen extra-long-life T8 lamp 40,000 - 52,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 46,000 - 55,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. T5 lamp 25,000 - 30,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 30,000 - 40,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. T5HO lamp 25,000 - 45,000 Shorter range is 3 hour cycles.(driven by electronic program start ballast) 30,000 - 60,000 Longer range is 12 hour cycles. plasma lamp 50,000 Amplifier life may need further research. (driven by electronic amplifier) One way for long life is to use 130V lamp @ 120V, which also halogen infrared PAR lamp 3,000 - 6,000 reduces light output. electronic ballasts in general 60,000 Longer if run cool and shorter if run hot. Rated lives may be slightly different for certain products from certain manufacturers. 59
  • 60. RATED LIFE• Exterior LED fixtures are typically rated longer than interior LED fixtures, because can usually have more heat sinks and are run at night, which is cooler than in most conditioned buildings• For exterior fixtures, usually good to use 50,000 - 75,000 hours when comparing LED and induction – That is 12 - 18 years at all night burns• How long will exterior fixtures really last with wind, rain, snow, lightning strikes, etc?• Heat is enemy of all electronics, including ballasts, generators, drivers and amplifiers 60
  • 62. END OF LIFE LUMEN MAINTENANCE COMPARISON percent of initial product notes lumens Without any constant lumen mechanism, either too bright initially LED 70% or too dim at end of life. This is based on 100,000 hours. Even at 60,000 - 70,000 hours, induction lamp 63 - 70% without any constant lumen mechanism, either too bright initially or to dim at end. Probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasting can have down to CMH lamp 80% 45%. highest-lumen long-life T8 lamp 92%mid-lumen extra-long-life T8 lamp 91% T5 lamp 92% T5HO lamp 89% plasma lamp ? halogen infrared PAR lamp 95 - 100% Numbers can vary with various wattages from various manufacturers. 62
  • 63. FROM FINELITE 63
  • 64. END OF LIFE LUMEN MAINTENANCE• Although mean or design lumens, which is at 40% of rate life, is often used with incumbent technologies – End of life is often better • For example, make sure sufficient light in a hibay at end of a rack aisle right before MH lamp burns out 64
  • 66. COLOR RENDERING INDEX COMPARISON product CRI noteshalogen infrared PAR 100800 series fluorescent 80 - 85 induction 80 LED 70 - 92+ Sometimes can get more lumens with lower CRI. CMH 70 - 95 Sometimes can get more lumens with lower CRI. plasma 72 - 94 Higher lumens with lower CRI. Numbers can vary with various wattages from various manufacturers. 66
  • 67. COLOR RENDERING• CRI (Color Rendering Index) – Based on how ‘natural’ pastel or unsaturated colors look with various light sources – Works fairly well for all incumbent light sources 67
  • 68. COLOR RENDERING• Although LEDs do not always do well with pastel colors, they often do very well with bright or saturated colors – Often people think that LEDs with lower CRI make bright colors look more natural than other light sources that have higher CRI – So do not automatically think that lower CRI LEDs are inferior – But there are numerous LED products with 90+ CRI, which is excellent• There is work going to replace CRI with another color matrix that will include both pastel/unsaturated and bright/saturated colors 68
  • 69. KELVIN 69
  • 70. KELVIN• With LEDs Kelvin and lumens are usually related – Most common way to get white light is using a blue LED with phosphor similar to the the phosphor used in fluorescents • More that high Kelvin bluish light has to be transformed to lower Kelvin, more light is lost• Fluorescents and induction lumens do not drop off with at low Kelvin and may drop off slightly at high Kelvin• CMH, halogen and some other light sources pretty much have fixed Kelvin 70
  • 71. KELVIN• High Kelvin, like 4000 - 6000K LEDs may be okay for exterior applications, but 3000 - 3500K Kelvin LEDs work best in interior applications• Don’t know exactly why but lower Kelvin LEDs seem to match higher Kelvin fluorescent – For example, 3500K LED task lights look very good with 5000K fluorescent ambient lights in offices 71
  • 73. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• LED – There are three common ways to get white light • As previously discussed, most common is white LED, which is really blue LED and yellow phosphor • Blue and/or other LEDs with remote phosphor – Phosphor is subjected to less heat, so degrades more slowly – Easier to match color among units because individual LED light (which can vary) is correctly mixed in one optical chamber – Can also add other LED colors to fill out spectrum • RGB (red, green and blue LEDs) – Reverse rainbow 73
  • 74. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• LED – All can have color shift over time • Wavelength of blue LEDs can change over time and the phosphor can change as it ages and gets baked in its own way • Various color LEDs have different lumen maintenance curves, so if there no feedback loop with dimming drivers, color can easily shift – With being so new, we have not really seen the potential full impact of LEDs changing colors over time – This could be an issue down the road in spaces with new and older LED fixtures or replacement lamps – Cree’s TrueWhite system has a feedback loop with yellow and red LEDs 74
  • 75. LONG TERM COLOR CONSISTENCY• Fluorescent and other incumbents typically have very stable color from initial to end of life 75
  • 76. DIMMING 76
  • 77. DIMMING• LED – LED chips dim quite well – But not all LED fixtures or replacement lamps are designed to dim • DOE has found that – Some LED products, which are listed to dim, do not dim well with some or most dimmers – Some LED products, which are not listed to dim, do dim well with some or most dimmers – Some LED products list approved incandescent dimmers – Since LEDs can get more efficient when they dim, because they run cooler when dimmed, LEDs will probably be the future of dimming • But may really need dedicated dimmers that provide full power to the driver instead of incandescent type dimmers 77
  • 78. DIMMING• Fluorescent – Fluorescents with dimming ballasts can dim, but • Lumens per watt gets worse, because the more dimming, the more power has to go to heating the cathodes of the lamps • Dimming ballasts are expensive – CFLs have some special characteristics • Dedicated dimmable screw-ins usually cannot dim below 20% • CFLs turn grayish or bluish when dimmed, which is opposite of our cave man (or cave woman) heritage 78
  • 79. DIMMING• Halogen – Can dim very easy and well• CMH – Can dim quite well with electronic ballast • But only down to about 50% before turning green – Since no lamp cathode heating, can be more efficient than fluorescent dimming• Induction – Philips may introduce a dimming generator soon – Sylvania may come out with a bilevel generator• Plasma – Can dim quite well down to 20% with electronic digital amplifier 79
  • 82. LED T8s• These are listed first, because so important• There are hordes of sales people trying to sell these, because of potential huge volume and profit – Often Pinocchio-nose marketing hype• But the DOE has not tested one yet is nearly as good as high performance fluorescent T8s with high performance ballasts• Lamp cost can often range from $40 to $150 with proposed up to 50,000 hour realistic life 82
  • 83. LED T8s• How they are connected – Some use existing fluorescent ballast, which consumes extra wattage, and the ballast would have to be replaced when it burns out • Ballasts typically have 60,000 hour rated life – Some have internal driver, which requires removing existing fluorescent ballast and rewiring to lamp holders • May void UL listing of fixture – Some come with their external drivers 83
  • 84. LED T8s• DOE documents – Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent lamps and LED Linear Replacement Lamps • January 2009 Benchmark Report • Includes that since LED T8s mainly shine light down, so between fixtures and walls can be quite dark – CALIPER Round 9 & 11 – LED Performance Specification Series: T8 Replacement Lamps • Asking Manufacturers for at least 2,700 lumens – That would require them to be 2 to 3 times more efficient than existing while keeping their existing 15 - 20 watts • April 2010 • 84
  • 85. LED T8s• LEDs often do not do that well taking the shapes of other technology lamps – Difficulty with distribution, heat sinks, etc.• What looks really ugly – In parabolic troffers 85
  • 86. FLUORESCENT T8s• Since many rebate programs require what are called high performance, super or 3rd generation T8s and what are called basic grade or 1st generation T8s will not be allowed to sold in 2012, we will just focus on the good ones – Highest lumen long life • – Extra long life mid lumen 86
  • 87. 4 T8 LAMP LIFE, LUMENS, CRI & MERCURY 3000-4100K 5000K MAX LAMP LIFE HOURS LAMP WATTS CATALOG CRI CATALOG CRI MG INSTANT START PROGRAM START LUMENS LUMENS OF HG 3 HR 12 HR 3 HR 12 HR 1.7 - 15,000 - 20,000 - 20,000 - 24,000 -1st GENERATION - GENERIC 32 2800 75-78 2800 75-78 <10 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,0002nd GENERATION - 2800 - 1.7 - 15,000 - 20,000 - 20,000 - 24,000 - 32 2950 81-85 80-85GENERIC 2950 <10 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000GE HL 32 3100 82 3000 80 3.95 25,000 36,000 36,000 42,000GE SXL 32 2850 81+ 2750 80 3.95 31,000 40,000 40,000 46,000PHILIPS ADV 32 3100 85 3100 82 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000PHILIPS PLUS 32 2950 85 2850 82 1.7 30,000 36,000 36,000 42,000PHILIPS ADV XLL 32 2950 85 2850 82 1.7 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000SYLVANIA XP 32 3000 85 2850 85 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XPS 32 3100 85 3100 81 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP/XL 32 2950 85 2900 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000GE SPX 28W 28 2725 82 2625 80 3.95 24,000 30,000 36,000 42,000PHILIPS ADV 28W 28 2725 85 2675 82 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000SYLVANIA XP 28W 28 2725 85 2650 80 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP XL 28W 28 2600 85 2600 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000GE SPX 25W 25 2400 85 2350 80 3.95 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000PHILIPS ADV 25W 25 2500 85 2400 85 1.7 24,000 30,000 30,000 36,000PHILIPS ADV XLL 25W 25 2400 85 2350 82 1.7 36,000 40,000 40,000 46,000SYLVANIA XP 25W 25 2475 85 2400 80 2.9 24,000 40,000 40,000 42,000SYLVANIA XP XL 25W 25 2475 85 2400 80 3.5 36,000 50,000 52,000 55,000 1.4 - 20,000 - 25,000 -F28T5 25-28 2900+ 85 2750+ 85 * * 2.5 30,000 40,000 1.4 - 20,000 - 25,000 -F54T5HO 49-54 5000 85 4800+ 85 * * 2.5 45,000 60,000Lamp manufacturers may alter rated lamp life and lumen specifications, so get updates from manufacturers.Prepared by Stan Walercyk of Lighing Wizards 1/1/11 version. 87
  • 88. 4 LINEAR FLUORESCENT EFFICACY TABLE initial lamp mean or mean or initial mean or catalog or lumens standard initial 8000 hour 8000 hour lamp lamp ballast system system 8000 hour4 lamp type photopic per ballast system lumen system watts quant type watts lumens system lamp lamp factor lumens maint- lumens per per watt lumens lumens watts enance watt 3100 32 96.9 2 EE IS 0.87 53 5394 101.8 95% 5124 96.7high performance F32T83100 32 96.9 2 EE PS 1.15 70 7130 101.9 95% 6774 96.8 3100 32 96.9 2 G IS 0.87 58 5394 93.0 95% 5124 88.4extra long life 2950 2950 32 92.2 2 EE IS 0.87 53 5133 96.8 95% 4876 92.0lumen F32T8 2950 32 92.2 2 G IS 0.87 58 5133 88.5 95% 4876 84.1 2800 32 87.5 2 EE IS 0.87 53 4872 91.9 95% 4628 87.3basic grade F32T8 2800 32 87.5 2 G IS 0.87 58 4872 84.0 95% 4628 79.8 2850 30 95.0 2 EE IS 0.87 51 4959 97.2 95% 4711 92.430W F32T8 2850 30 95.0 2 G IS 0.87 55 4959 90.2 95% 4711 85.7 2750 28 98.2 2 EE IS 0.87 48 4785 99.7 95% 4546 94.728W F32T8 2750 28 98.2 2 G IS 0.87 51 4785 93.8 95% 4546 89.1 2440 25 97.6 2 EE IS 0.87 42 4246 101.1 95% 4033 96.025W F32T8 2440 25 97.6 2 G IS 0.87 47 4246 90.3 95% 4033 85.8extra long life 25W 2400 25 96.0 2 EE IS 0.87 42 4176 99.4 95% 3967 94.5F32T8 2400 25 96.0 2 G IS 0.87 47 4176 88.9 95% 3967 84.4high lumen F28T5 3050 28 108.9 2 EE PS 0.95 58 5795 99.9 93% 5389 92.9typical F28T5 2900 28 103.6 2 PS 1.00 64 5800 90.6 93% 5394 84.326W F28T5 2900 26 111.5 2 EE PS 0.95 55 5510 100.2 92% 5069 92.226W high lumen F28T5 3050 26 117.3 2 EE PS 1.15 67 7015 104.7 92% 6454 96.351W F54T5HO 5000 51 98.0 2 EE PS 1.00 108 10000 92.6 92% 9200 85.2typical F54T5HO 5000 54 92.6 2 PS 1.00 117 10000 85.5 93% 9300 79.5F34T12 800 3100 34 91.2 2 RS E 0.85 60 5270 87.8 93% 4901 81.7F34T12 CW 2650 34 77.9 2 RS M 0.88 72 4664 64.8 87% 4058 56.4notes: Lumens, lumen maintenance, ballast factors and wattages may vary among various manufacturers.In enclosed fixtures, since reduced wattage F32T8s consume less heat they can often operate closer to optimal 77 degrees Ftemperature, so may provide more light than this table shows compared to full wattage.Although efficacy can be improved with IS and RS ballasts with T5s and T5HOs, lamp life can be greatly reduced and lampmanufacturers may not warranty lamps.93% is used as an average EOL lumen maintenance for T5HOs. 90% - 94% range among manufacturers.All wattages based on 277V. EE IS is extra efficient instant start. G IS is generic instant start. EE PS is extra efficient program start.PS is program start. RS E is rapis start electronic. RS M is rapid start magnetic.Extra long life is 36,000 hours with IS and 40,000 hours with PS ballasts at 3 hour cycles. 88Prepared by Stan Walerczyk of Lighting Wizards 11/11/09 version
  • 89. FLUORESCENT T8s• Some LED marketing literature and sales people try to make fluorescent T8s look bad, like – Stating that T8s only last 15,000 or even just 10,000 hours• It is true that rated life for fluorescents, HID, incandescents and halogen is when half of the lamps have burned out and half are still working in laboratory conditions – Small percentage of lamps may only last a few months – Small percentage of lamps may last over a decade – Large majority of T8 lamps will last at least 80% of rated life when not turned on and off too much • For example, most 42,000 hour rated T8 lamps will last at least 33,600 hours when not turned on and off too much• GE, Philips and Sylvania do a good job policing each other on lumen and life ratings 89
  • 90. FLUORESCENT T8s• Starting is the hardest on fluorescent lamps – Lamp life can really get short with instant start ballasts and occupancy sensors that turn on and off the lights more than 4 times per day on average – Program start ballasts really help lamp life when lamps are cycled on and off a lot • When I go over the pros and cons of instant and program start ballasts with T8s, over half of my clients select parallel wired program start ballasts• So the next time you see LED literature or hear an LED sales person stating that good fluorescent T8 lamps last less than 20,000 hours, you could – Throw away the LED marketing literature – Delete the LED file in your computer – Hang up on the LED sales person – Tell the LED sales person to leave 90
  • 91. LED vs. FLUORESCENT T8s 2x4 lensed troffer with 4 F34T12CWs $0.15 blended rate 3500 annual hours 1.1 reduced AC savings x $0.05 /KWH saved incentive 15 cumulative years in long term benefit existing proposed notes lamp life lamp life compre- end of end of watt annual appr. pay- annual @ 12 @ 12 hensive type watts life lamp retrofit and relamping options life lamp watts reduc- elect. incen- tive installed back elect. cost hour hour long term lumens lumens tion savings cost (yrs) cycles cycles benefit may not be 4 1600 lumen 17W LED T8s 4480 50,000 68 76 $43.89 $13.30 $220.00 4.7 $714.99 sufficient light long term probably 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescent sufficient light F32T8s in outboard lamp holders & 2-4 F34T12 CW 5077 40,000 58 86 $49.67 $15.05 $55.00 0.8 $1,077.51 with better lamp .89 BF high performace parallellamps, 2 2- thermals & wired program start ballastlamp energy fixture efficiencysaving 2 2950 lumen extra long life 32W probablymagnetic fluorescent F32T8s in outboard lamp sufficient lightballasts, 144 $75.60 25,000 6500 holders & 2-lamp 1.00 BF high 5428 55,000 65 79 $45.62 $13.83 $57.00 0.9 $1,051.77 with betterangled sides performace parallel wired program start thermals &with good ballast fixture efficiencywhite paint & 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescentclear prismatic reflector may F32T8s, 2-lamp .89 BF high performacelens 5077 40,000 58 86 $49.67 $15.05 $65.00 1.0 $1,067.51 increase light parallel wired program start ballast & levels white reflector 2 2950 lumen long life 32W fluorescent reflector may F32T8s, 2-lamp 1.00 BF high 5428 55,000 65 79 $45.62 $13.83 $67.00 1.2 $1,041.77 increase light performace parallel wired program start levels ballast & white reflectorfootnotes: Numbers in colored boxes can be changed, which automatically alters computations.Copyright of Stan Walerczyk, LC, principal of Lighting Wizards. January 1, 2011 version. 91
  • 92. LED vs. FLUORESCENT T8s 2x4 lensed troffer with 3 basic grade F32T8s $0.15 blended rate 3500 annual hours 1.1 reduced AC savings x $0.05 /KWH saved incentive 15 cumulative years in long term benefit existing proposed notes compre- lamp life end of end of lamp life watt annual appr. pay- annual hensive type watts @ 3 hour life lamp retrofit and relamping options life lamp @ 3 hour watts reduc- elect. incen- tive installed back elect. cost long term cycles lumens lumens cycles tion savings cost (yrs) benefit probably not 3 1600 lumen 17W LED T8s 3360 50,000 51 38 $21.95 $6.65 $165.00 7.2 $269.58 sufficient long term light 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescent sufficient light F32T8s in outboard lamp holders & 2- with better3 basic grade 5077 36,000 58 31 $17.90 $5.43 $55.00 2.8 $326.38 lamp .89 BF high performace parallel thermals &F32T8s, wired program start ballast fixture efficiencygeneric 3-lamp .88 BF 2 2950 lumen extra long life 32W probablyelectronic fluorescent F32T8s in outboard lamp sufficient lightinstant start 89 $46.73 20,000 6650 holders & 2-lamp .89 BF high 4831 52,000 58 31 $17.90 $5.43 $57.00 2.9 $351.23 with betterballast, angled performace parallel wired program start thermals &sides with ballast fixture efficiencygood white 2 3100 lumen long life 32W fluorescentpaint & clear reflector may F32T8s, 2-lamp .71 BF high performaceprismatic lens 4050 36,000 46 43 $24.83 $7.53 $65.00 2.3 $464.01 allow sufficient parallel wired program start ballast & light white reflector 2 2950 lumen long life 32W fluorescent reflector F32T8s, 2-lamp .89 BF high performace 4831 52,000 58 31 $17.90 $5.43 $67.00 3.4 $341.23 probably allow parallel wired program start ballast & sufficient light white reflectorfootnotes: Numbers in colored boxes can be changed, which automatically alters computations.Copyright of Stan Walerczyk, LC, principal of Lighting Wizards. January 1, 2011 version. 92
  • 94. MAYBE SOMETHING BETTER THAN LED T8s• Kits for troffers, etc – 2’ and 4’ long and about 1 - 2 inches wide LED bars • Screwed into fixture, using fixture as a heat sink – If external driver, mount it in ballast compartment• Something like Albeo’s troffer conversion kit – Google search ‘Albeo youtube’ for installation video• Something like the LED bars and driver using in the new Lithonia RT LED troffers – 94
  • 95. DECORATIVE 95
  • 96. DECORATIVE• Christmas/decorative lights – LED versions are becoming a no brainer• Small lamps in chandeliers – Usually sparkle is important, and the amount of light is not critical – Although there are decorative shaped CFLs with small bases, which last much longer than incandescents, with white phosphor - No Sparkle – There are decorative LEDs available with small bases that have long life and sparkle• When getting these types of LED lights – Get ones with good warranties – Especially from big box stores. check with them if they require lumen maintenance tests before they carry certain products 96
  • 98. LED• Getting better all of the time, but still not really cost effective to replace CFLs• But when there is at least one winner of the L Prize in this category, they should be ready for prime time – Philips has made an entry – Others will too – There can be up 4 winners in each category 98
  • 99. CFLs• Although some people give CFLs a bad wrap, CFLs are quite good in many applications – Screw-ins can often cost $.25 with upstream rebates – Lumens per watt are quite good – CRI is quite good, typically in the 80s – Life is much longer than incandescents – Mercury is really not that much of an issue• Although quite good, there are some drawbacks, and maybe best to consider a temporary solution – Until LEDs or something else becomes ready for prime time 99
  • 101. LED ACCENT LIGHTS• Sparkle and Focus – LED accent lights can provide sparkle and focus like reflector PAR lamps, which CFL reflector lamps can’t• Cool – Since LEDs do not emit any heat from the light side, they can be very good lighting flowers, produce, etc. without damaging them 101
  • 102. LED MR16s• Best LED MR16s that DOE has tested so far can only replace up to 20W halogen MR16 – MR16s are on the small side for higher wattage LEDs to be able to dissipate sufficient heat – Most halogen MR16s are 50W standard or 35 - 37W infrared – Existing LED MR16s may work fine in • Overlit applications • Elevators, which are often overlit • Some aesthetic applications, where light levels not that important• Check if existing and new step down transformers will work with LED MR16s, because LED MR16s are such low wattage and will not activate step down transformers 102
  • 103. HALOGEN MR16s• If existing are standard halogen – Can switch to lower wattage halogen infrareds • For example, 50W to 35 - 37W• If existing are halogen infrareds – Maybe keep for 1- 2 years• LED MR16s should be cost effective for many applications in 1 - 2 years 103
  • 104. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• The larger the lamp, the easier it is to dissipate heat• If can use larger lamp, go with it• Some retail chain stores have already started switching to good LED reflector lamps• For more general recessed can applications, need wider beam spread options from most manufacturers 104
  • 105. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• There are numerous good products, including Cree’s LRP38 with indirect lighting on left and Solais LR38 with fan on right 105
  • 106. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• MSI iPAR-38 looks very interesting – Three wattage lumen settings • 10W with 550 lumens • 12W with 650 lumens • 16W with 800 lumens – Proprietary Intelligent Communication • Type of bar code reader can provide – Manufacturing info – Installation info – Hours of use – Wattage setting 106
  • 107. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• GE and others even have wet location ones 107
  • 108. LED R or PAR 20, 30 & 38• LED R or PAR38s will really be ready for prime time after there is at least one winner of the L Prize in this category – Last time I checked there were no submittals 108
  • 110. HALOGEN PAR 20, 30 & 38• Just like MR16s, there are halogen infrared PAR lamps – Which can save 10 - 20 watts compared to standard halogens• If standard halogens now, maybe go with halogen infrared now and wait 1 - 2 years to go with LEDs 110
  • 111. CMH ACCENT LIGHTS• Ceramic Metal Halide with electronic ballasting have – Can provide sparkle and focus – Excellent CRI – Quite good lumens per watt – Reasonable long life• Available as – Small omni directional lamps which can go into fixtures with reflectors – PAR lamps – PAR lamps with integral electronic ballasts • GE, Philips and Sylvania have 23 - 25 watt PAR38s with 10,000+ hour rated life 111
  • 112. RECESSED CANS 112
  • 113. LED• Recessed cans for residential and commercial are a great application for LEDs – Majority of ENERGY STAR LED products are recessed cans• Several of my clients are nervous about getting new LED recessed can fixtures – Because, potential problems of getting replacement matching LED modules and drivers down the road – And prefer getting some kind of solution that is easily replaceable from several manufacturers 113
  • 114. LED• LED PAR lamp – There are a number of these available with screw-in or GU12 base – If existing is 277V, can use step down transformer or try to find a 277V lamp – Can use pole changer, which is very helpful for many application• Recessed can kits with integral LEDs – Probably most of you already know about this type of kit from Cree and others• Recessed can kits with GU24 bases for various manufacturers’ LED PAR lamps – Delray may be first manufacturer of these – Trim ring – Customer can select preferred LED PAR lamp – Can use pole changer 114
  • 115. CFL• CFLs are reasonably efficacious, but – Not nearly efficacious as high performance T8 systems – Most are only rated for 10,000 - 12,000 hours – Many recessed can fixtures for them have very bad fixture efficiency • Like 50 - 60%• But there are some CFL recessed cans with more like 75% fixture efficiency• Sometimes screw-in reflector CFLs are good solutions• Usually best to try to – Have just one lamp per fixture – Minimize lamp types 115
  • 117. LED• Since this is a limited application, will only briefly discuss – Walmart and other retail chains have already cost effectively retrofitted or installed in stores – Since no heat on light side, can also reduce cooling load – Many very good products with and without on/off, staged or continuous occupancy sensors, which can save considerable • Some organizations have done a lot of work making specifications for rebates, for example – – 117
  • 118. FLUORESCENT• Majority of 5’ lamps, which are low volume and relatively expensive• If have T12, definitely do something• Many existing T8s systems do not have the best lamps or the best ballasts• High performance T8 lamp and ballast systems can often save 20% wattage compared to generic T8 systems, which will also reduce cooling load – In many applications could go with a bilevel system controlled by an occupancy sensor• Before jumping into LEDs, good to ‘raise the bar’ and see if they are cost effective compared to high performance T8 systems 118
  • 119. TROFFERS 119
  • 120. LED• Already some good LED troffers from major manufacturers• Can have over 100 lumens per watt – Which is better than any fluorescent troffer• May cost $300 - $350 now – But I have specifying them for some high profile conference rooms for clients that want dimming and ‘high tech’ lighting – Expect to become cost effective with high performance fluorescent troffers in general applications in about 2 years• Depending on design and application, some models may be glary• With control systems can have constant lumens so not overlit to begin with or too little light at end of life• Being able to replace LEDs and drivers from below without having to lift ceiling tiles could really save maintenance labor down the road 120
  • 121. LED Lithonia RT LEDCree LR24 121
  • 122. T8 FLUORESCENT• There is a new generation of high performance 2x4 1F32T8 troffers that can be installed in typical 8x10 spacing – Depending on BF and if instant or program start extra efficient ballast, wattage can range from 24 - 39 with direct relationship to lumens – $100 - $150 pricing with high performance ballasts• Interesting that in CALiPER Round 11, one of these was only measured with 71 lumens per watt, which with 100 lumen per watt T8 lamps and ballasts, translates to about 71% fixture efficiency – While same type of fixture gets 85 - 89% fixture efficiency rating from good independent labs – Something should be done so more consistency between CALiPER lumen per watt out of fixture testing and typical fixture efficiency testing 122
  • 123. T8 FLUORESCENT Office with Finelite HPRs 123
  • 124. T8 FLUORESCENT• Existing 2x4 troffers can be cost effectively retrofitted down to 1F32T8 – Standard lensed troffers can often get a 1-cove white reflector • About $55 - $60 total installed cost – Parabolic troffers can get upscale kits • About $110 - $120 total installed cost 124
  • 125. TROFFERS• 50,000 hour rated LED troffers currently cost about twice more than high performance 1F32T8 troffers and installation labor may be about the same for both types• Let’s do some life cycle costing for 75,000 hours – LED troffer • May cost $150 for parts and labor to retrofit or replace at 50,000 hours, which may get down to $100 at 100,000 hours, so total of $200 at 75,000 hours – 1F32T8 troffer • May cost $15 for group relamping at 25,000, 50,000 & 75,000 hours and $40 for group reballasting at 50,000 & 100,000 hours, so approximate total of $45 at 75,000 hours – Less relamping costs if use extra long life lamps, which are rated up to 55,000 hours 125
  • 127. LED• LEDs could run cooler with less heat sinking than in troffers and recessed cans• Uniform uplight with some not too intense downlight are challenges• It will take a while for LED suspended fixtures to be cost effective compared high performance fluorescent suspended fixtures – Now LED 4 footer may cost $300 - $400 127
  • 128. T8 FLUORESCENT• Well designed suspended indirect/direct fixtures with 1F32T8 per cross section – Can provide quite low power densities – Total installed cost often less than individual troffers • When can have relatively long rows in new construction and gut rehabs• One lamp per cross section is usually much better than two or three for – Optimal light distribution • Usually batwing – Best fixture efficiency – Lowest wattage – Lowest fixture cost• Fixture cost may be $25 - $40 per linear foot depending on type of fixture, quantity, etc. 128
  • 129. T8 FLUORESCENT• Make sure fixture reflectors are designed for T8s and not for T5s/T5HOs• There are many good manufacturers and models 129
  • 131. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Task ambient lighting is having relatively low footcandle ambient lighting and additional task lighting when and where need it• Light levels drop off exponentially as distance increases between source and task – For example if double distance, 1/4 the footcandles – Much less wattage getting high light levels from a task light 2’ away from task, than from ceiling fixtures 6’ away from task• This strategy may be the most cost effective way to have very low power densities while providing good quality lighting• In typical offices, usually .4 - .6 watts per square foot is easily attainable 131
  • 132. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Ambient, in offices, works very well with either – New or retrofitted 2x4 high performance troffers that have 1 high performance & often high Kelvin 32W F32T8 and high performance parallel wired program start ballasting • Maybe tandem wire ballast per pair of troffers – New or retrofitted suspended indirect/direct fixtures with 1 high performance & often high Kelvin 32W F32T8 per cross section and high performance parallel wired program start ballasting• Ambient lighting can provide 10 - 20 footcandles on desks – Often more light is worse than less light, because more light can cause more glare and higher contrast ratios 132
  • 133. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Existing task – For a long time most modular office systems had fluorescent undercabinet task lights • But most of these fixtures – Use way too much wattage – Are glare bombs » Hitting shiny paper and/or desks and then bounced into eyes – Provide too much light » That is why often gray scale tube guards to reduce amount of light, but still uses all of the wattage – Often difficult to replace ballasts » Many ballast compartments too small for standard sized extra efficient ballasts – Sometimes still T12s with magnetic ballasts or T8s with magnetic ballasts – There are some good CFL desk mount task lights • But way too many people still use energy hog incandescent or quartz halogen 133
  • 134. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• High performance LED task – There are some very good LED task light systems • One example is the Finelite PLS (Personal Lighting System) – 3, 6 & 9W undercabinet fixture » Not a glare bomb » Uses metal shelf as a heat sink – Dimmable 8W desk mount fixture » Can get 70 footcandles directly underneath with no other light sources – Optional occupancy sensor – For a decent quantity » 1 undercabinet fixture, 1 desk mount fixture, occupancy sensor, power supply and cables may cost $200 or less in decent quantities – New version has the switch before the power supply, so zero wattage when fixtures are off – For individual offices that do not have shelves over desks, often just a desk mount fixture is recommended 134
  • 135. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• Finelite PLS – Both undercabinets and desk mounts won 2007 Lighting For Tomorrow Awards – Desk mount, which is also called ‘Curve’ won 2009 Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition • Best In Class - Task Lighting 135
  • 136. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• There are several other LED office task lights, including Philips Color Kinetics Philips Alko Lincs100 & sensor UC Luxo Air Luxo Ninety Steelcase Kast 136
  • 137. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• PG&E’s Emerging Technology Program’s ‘High Efficiency Office Low Ambient / Task Lighting Pilot Project’ – results_m126/criteria:1/query:any/jr_endyear:2009/jr_organization:Pacific+Gas+and +Electric+%28PG%26E%29/order:alpha/page:2/limit:10/ – .66 watts per square foot – If 5000K and high performance fixed output ballasts would have been used, that power density could have been lower – Although dimming ballasts were used in the suspended ambient fixtures, that was for tuning, not for energy savings – This report clearly states that it would be much more cost effective to go with fixed output instant start ballasts• Since there are millions and millions of square feet of offices in North America and the world, reducing wattage and improving lighting is so important 137
  • 138. TASK AMBIENT LIGHTING• With good task ambient lighting the power density can be low all of the time that expensive and complex dimming daylight harvesting peak load shedding systems are not cost effective – Even with dimming ballasts in ambient fixtures, good task lights are usually recommended 138
  • 139. TYPICAL OFFICE 12 long x 10 wide x 9 high $0.150 KWH rate $0.05 /KWH 1st year saved rebate 15 years of long term benefit existing proposed long term payback benefit pay- including long annual watts annual rated lamp including fixture & appr. appr. back maintenance term total annual elect- option total per watts elec- life @ 3 maintenanceapplication retrofit/replacement option description incen- installed just savings & benefit watts hours rical letter watts square redux trical hour savings & type tive cost elec- worker just elec- cost foot savings cycles worker tricity productivity tricity productivity benefits benefits Retrofit each troffer with 3 25W F32T8 30,000 - A 5000K lamps & .71 BF extra efficient 112 0.93 68 $41 $14 $120 2.6 2.2 $506 $628 36,000 program start parallel wired ballast Retrofit each troffer with upscale kit which eliminates parabolic louvers, 1 high lumen 30,000 - B 78 0.65 102 $61 $20 $230 3.4 1.9 $708 $1,443 F32T8 5000K lamp & 1.15 BF extra efficient 36,000 program start ballast Retrofit each troffer with upscale kit which eliminates parabolic louvers, 1 high lumen 30,000 - B1 F32T8 5000K lamp & .89 BF extra efficient 67 0.56 113 $68 $23 $310 36,000 4.2 2.1 $730 $1,747 program start ballast. Also include for T8s12 x 10 x 7W LED task light.9 office Retrofit each troffer with upscale kit whicharea with eliminates parabolic louvers, 1 high lumen 30,000 -2 2x4 18 B2 F32T8 5000K lamp & .71 BF extra efficient 62 0.52 118 $71 $24 $380 36,000 5.0 2.3 $706 $1,980cell program start ballast. Also include for T8sparabolic 2 7W LED task lights.troffers, Remove both troffers. Install 8 suspendedeach with indirect/direct fixture that has 2 high lumen 30,000 - C 70 0.58 110 $66 $22 $410 5.9 2.7 $602 $1,7903 32W 700 F32T8 5000K lamps & 1.15 BF extra 36,000series efficient program start ballast.20,000 180 4000 $108 Remove both troffers. Install 8 suspendedhour rated direct/indirect fixture that has 2 high lumen 30,000 -F32T8s C1 F32T8 5000K lamps & .89 BF extra efficient 63 0.53 117 $70 $23 $490 36,000 6.6 2.7 $586 $2,166and instant start ballast. Also include 7W for T8sgeneric LED task light..88 BF Remove both troffers. Install 8 suspendedballasting direct/indirect fixture that has 2 high lumen 30,000 -(1.51 C2 F32T8 5000K lamps & .71 BF extra efficient 60 0.50 120 $72 $24 $560 36,000 7.4 2.7 $544 $2,488watts per instant start ballast. Also include 2 for T8ssquare 7W LED task lights.foot) Retrofit each troffer with 3 15W LED T8 25,000 - F2 lamps. Also include 2 7W LED task lights to 104 0.87 76 $46 $15 $640 13.7 8.6 $59 $470 50,000 provide sufficient light. Remove both troffers. Install 2 high G performance 2x2 LED troffers, set at full 82 0.68 98 $59 $20 $900 50,000 15.0 9.4 $2 $531 41W, so sufficient light at end of life. Remove both troffers. Install 2 high G1 performance 2x2 LED troffers, set at 34W. 75 0.63 105 $63 $21 $980 50,000 15.2 8.5 -$14 $742 Also include 7W LED task light. Remove both troffers. Install 2 high G2 performance 2x2 LED troffers, set at 28W. 70 0.58 110 $66 $22 $1,060 50,000 15.7 8.7 -$48 $744 Also include 2 7W LED task lights. copyright of Stan Walerczyk of Lighting Wizards,, 1/10/10 version 139
  • 141. FUTURE OF INTERIOR LIGHTING• It sure looks like it will be – Color changing LEDs • Match daylight throughout the day • Benefits of spectrally enhanced lighting for a variety of tasks • For aesthetics • For circadian rhythms – Philips has already started with fluorescents in elementary schools » testimonials-du/696111180001 – With personal wireless controls 141
  • 143. WALL WASHING EMC BUILDING IN IOWA• Mike Lambert’s project• Custom Musco LED fixtures• Reduced wattage by 88.5% replacing MH 143
  • 145. LED vs. INDUCTION STREETLIGHTS• The short version of my white paper is available on my website for free – Its eight pages has the same information that is in this seminar – I am working on expanding it, so it will have detailed information that is not in this seminar 145
  • 146. HPS, INDUCTION & LED COBRAHEAD GENERAL COMPARISON TABLE EOL lumen EOL system initial EOL fixture initial fixture initial EOL fixture lighting lamp rated life initial EOL fixture qualifier mainten- lumens wattage lumens per lumens efficiency lumens per fixture lumens source wattage hours lumens lumens ance (approx.) (277V) watt per watt (approx.) watt lumens per watt clear 24,000 - HPS 100 9,500 75% 7125 130 73 55 75% 55 7125 41 5344 lamp 40,000 60,000 - Sylvania 70 6,500 64% 4160 77 84 54 70% 59 4550 38 2912 100,000 60,000 - Philips 85 6,000 70% 4200 85 71 49 70% 49 4200 35 2940 100,000 60,000 -Induction Sylvania 100 8,000 64% 5120 103 78 50 70% 54 5600 35 3584 100,000 60,000 - Sylvania 150 12,000 64% 7680 156 77 49 70% 54 8400 34 5376 100,000 60,000 - Philips 165 12,000 70% 8400 165 73 51 70% 51 8400 36 5880 100,000 4000K 50 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 67 NA NA NA 58 3866 40 2706 350ma LEDs - 100,000 4000K 40 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 70 NA NA NA 61 4239 42 2967 525ma LEDs - 100,000 LED 6000K 40 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 50 NA NA NA 72 3606 50 2524 350ma LEDs - 100,000 6000K 30 1W 50,000+ NA 70% NA 54 NA NA NA 67 3624 47 2537 525ma LEDs - 100,000 notesEOL is end of life. NA is not applicable. Real rated life is discussed in related white paper. HPS and LED info is generic. Induction fixture info is also generic.100W generator is used with Sylvania 70W induction lamp. For induction EOL numbers are based on 100,000 hours, and EOL numbers would be better at 60,000.Listed induction fixture efficiency is better than most IES files, because includes when lamps are properly prepared and some recent fixture improvements.LED fixtures are tested as complete units, not based on components.4000K includes 4000 - 4500 Kelvin. Some people think that 6000K is too blue. LEDs driven at 350ma would have longer life than at 525ma.Table does NOT include where the available lumens out of the fixture are directed. LED fixtures direct light where necessary, so fewer lumens are required.Since Induction lamps have same or worse optical control as HPS, their EOL fixture lumens should match HPS EOL fixture lumens.Listed LED specs would provide sufficient light for minimum footcandles between fixtures and around designated perimeters, but maybe not for average footcandles. Stan Walerczyk of Lighting Wizards 2/20/10 version 146
  • 147. ISOLUX DIAGRAM FOR TYPE II STREET LIGHTING• The following three isolux diagrams came from PG&E for City of Santa Rosa, which base case is 100W HPS cobraheads• Distribution patterns and amount of footcandles would vary some what with various manufacturers and models – But general distribution patterns are pretty consistent for HPS, induction and well designed LED cobraheads• These are with bottom flat lensed HPS and induction cobraheads – SAG or drop lens would increase light between fixtures, but also not be good for dark skies and light pollution on house and opposite sides 147
  • 148. 100W100W HPS HPSCalculation SummaryLabel CalcType Units Avg. Max. Min. Avg/Min. Max/Min.Layout 1_Lum L_Roadway Cd/Sq. M. 0.26 0.76 0.09 2.09 0.44Layout 1_Ill Illuminance Fc 0.40 1.96 0.12 3.33 16.33Layout 1_Lv L Veiling Cd/Sq. M. 0.02 0.10 0.00 N.A. N.A.Layout 1_STV Vis. Level N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
  • 149. 85W INDUCTIONCalculation SummaryLabel CalcType Units Avg. Max. Min. Avg/Min. Max/Min.Layout 1_Lum L_Roadway Cd/Sq. M. 0.13 0.43 0.03 4.33 14.33Layout 1_Ill Illuminance Fc 0.21 0.95 0.03 7.00 31.67Layout 1_Lv L Veiling Cd/Sq. M. 0.01 0.03 0.00 N.A. N.A.Layout 1_STV Vis. Level N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
  • 150. 70W LEDCalculation SummaryLabel CalcType Units Avg. Max. Min. Avg/Min. Max/Min.Layout 1_Lum L_Roadway Cd/Sq. M. 0.29 0.97 0.10 2.90 9.70Layout 1_Ill Illuminance Fc 0.35 1.12 0.12 2.92 9.33Layout 1_Lv L Veiling Cd/Sq. M. 0.03 0.12 0.00 N.A. N.A.Layout 1_STV Vis. Level N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
  • 151. WHAT IS BETTER THAN LUMENS PER WATT?Footcandles, and really footcandleswhere the light is necessary, per watt 151
  • 152. FOOTCANDLES PER WATT units 85W induction 100W HPS 60 LEDsfixture mounting height feet 28 28 28roadway width feet 40 40 40pole spacing feet 120 120 120illuminance - average maintained fc 0.64 0.78 0.69illuminance - maximum maintained fc 1.6 2.3 1.3illuminance - minimum maintained fc 0.1 0.3 0.4uniformity - avg/min 6.4 2.6 1.7system power watts 85 130 71100 x avg fc/watt 7.5 6.0 9.7100 x min fc/watt 1.2 2.3 5.6 based on the work by Chris Nye at Leotek, 152
  • 153. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS• Where full cut-off for dark sky and maybe other concerns is important• Where getting sufficient light in far corners of necessary area without excessive light underneath fixture 153
  • 154. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS• 24 hour applications, like garages, because most potential savings• Garages and parking lots where can use occupancy sensors for high/low or on/off lighting – Neither of these shorten LED life, like they can for other lighting technologies – No long warm up and restrike times like HID 154
  • 155. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR LEDS• Replacing relatively low wattage HPS and standard or probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasts – Lower wattage HID lamps and ballasts are considerably less efficacious than higher wattage ones • HPS (initial lumens per watt including magnetic ballast) – 69 for 100W – 107 for 400W (55% better) • MH (initial lumens per watt including mag ballast) – 65 for 175W – 79 for 400W (22% better) – Lower wattage MH lamps typically have much shorter lamp life than higher wattage ones – For example, 10,000 hours for 175W and 20,000 hours for 400W 155
  • 156. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS• FOR LEDS Replacing relatively low wattage HPS and standard or probe start MH lamps with magnetic ballasts – Higher wattage and lumen HID lamps and the fixtures for them often cost about the same as lower wattage versions • But since more LEDs are required to replace high wattage HID fixtures, LED fixtures with more LEDs cost significantly more than LED fixtures with fewer LEDs• HPS because ugly yellow color and low S/P ratio• HID fixtures with low fixture efficiency, bad optics, not dark sky compliant, etc. – A few fixture type examples • Typical cobra head • Acorn without reflector which would prevent too much uplight• Ballasts in existing fixtures nearing end of rated life• Have to buy new fixtures anyway, so can do financials by subtracting cost of baseline fixtures 156
  • 157. LOOK FOR THESE APPLICATIONS FOR• New construction LEDS – Often fewer LED pole fixtures will be required, because of better distribution patterns • So even if the unit pricing on LED fixtures is more, if need fewer of them, poles, foundations and trenching, the total job cost can be significantly less, not even including electrical savings • I clearly saw this for a new parking lot for one of my clients in the San Francisco Bay Area comparing pulse start quartz MH lamps with magnetic ballasts in high performance vertical base up fixtures compare to high performance LED fixtures – Required 20% less LED fixtures, poles, labor, etc. 157
  • 158. INDUCTION 158
  • 159. INDUCTION• Since fall of 2009 LED have become significantly better than induction for cobraheads, cold storage hibays and many other applications – LED can even cost less, like in Chula Vista• Induction can still be a good solution for the acorn post top type of application that optical control is not important – With large size of induction lamps would need fixtures as big as large kitchen sinks for decent optical control – There are also some good LED kits and new fixtures for this type of application 159
  • 160. INDUCTION• Induction will probably become an afterthought in a year or two• If you want to go with induction – Recommend only go with Philips or Sylvania, because they have stated that they will continue providing product, support for the long term – Who know what other domestic and import manufacturers and sales firms will be around down the road – Several of the other induction companies infringe on Philips and/or Sylvania patents 160
  • 162. ELECTRONICALLY BALLASTED PS MH• Two types of PS MH – Ceramic or CMH • 90+ CRI • Up to 110 lumens/watt • Does not work with all electronic ballasts • Long restrike times even with electronic ballasts • Quite expensive – Quartz • 65 - 70 CRI • Lower lumens per watt • 30 second to few minute restrike time • Usually can work on all electronic ballasts • Relatively inexpensive 162
  • 163. ELECTRONICALLY BALLASTED PS MH• Electronic ballasts (EHID) – These have been quite expensive, like $150 – I have had concerns about heat, including in dark colored fixtures blasted by summer sun, even when not on • But at least Metrolight has an external pod, with excellent thermal design –• PS MH lamp life may be up to 60,000 hours, but that should be verified from lamp manufacturers’ and/or ballast manufacturers’ extended warranty 163
  • 164. ELECTRONICALLY BALLASTED PS MH• LEDs are probably better to replace up to175 or 250W HPS or standard magnetically driven MH• But electronically ballasted PS MH may be currently more cost effective to replace 250, 400 and higher wattage HPS or standard MH with magnetic ballasts• Philips Widelite EON fixtures – 2 or 3 PS MH lamps in a fixture with electronic ballast – One lamp on at a time, for about 60,000 hours • When burns out, Philips thinks that fixtures could be replaced with LED fixtures – Aiming at $250 for a cobrahead – 164
  • 165. PLASMA 165
  • 166. PLASMA• Luxim has developed a chicklet sized lamp with plasma metal halides, driven by a high frequency amplifier• This is really a point source• This technology is quite expensive• Cannot really compete against LED in relatively low wattage applications• But may be more competitive than LEDs replacing 400W MH or HPS or 1000W MV – So many LEDs would be required, which brings the cost up 166
  • 167. PLASMA• First fixture manufacturer and model is Stray Light’s Tesla – – Other fixture manufacturers are also working with Luxim• There are also competitors to Luxim 167
  • 168. ALL OF STAN’S PRESENTATIONS• ADVANCED LIGHTING RETROFIT OPTIONS – With John Fetters• INTERIORS - LEDs vs. Incumbents: With a big dose of task ambient lighting• EXTERIOR LIGHTING - LED, Induction, HPS, MH, Plasma, Fluorescent• FREE FOR ALL IN THE HIBAY ARENA - Fluorescent, Induction, LED & MH• HOW DO LEDs COMPARE WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE FLUORESCENT, INDUCTION, HALOGEN, PLASMA, HID – Significant new material, but not as in depth as dedicated interiors or exteriors ones• HOW LOW CAN YOU GO• DIMMING vs. NON-DIMMING - 10 Rounds in the Daylight Harvesting and Peak Load Reduction Arena• LIGHTING 101• RETROFIT (WITHOUT UPGRADE) = WASTED OPPORTUNITY – Will present this one Tuesday 4:30 - 6:00 PM• THE GOOD, THE BAD & THE UGLY – Developed for IES Sections• WHERE, WHEN & WHICH LIGHTING CONTROLS ARE REALLY COST EFFECTIVE• Also custom ones for specific purposes 168
  • 170. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO FOLLOW UP• Contact information for Stan Walerczyk – 925-944-9481(San Francisco Bay Area) – – 170
  • 171. Please remember to complete the course evaluation. Thank You. We hope you enjoy the trade show and conference! We hope to see you at LFI 2012! Stay Connected. Only at LIGHTFAIR. 171