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Fuel Cells Residential Workshop
 

Fuel Cells Residential Workshop

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First clean-energy fuel cells for generating electricity and heat for large homes.

First clean-energy fuel cells for generating electricity and heat for large homes.

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  • CO2 reduction calc.: solar offset grid @ 1100 lbs. per MW (CCNG power plant), 8.5MW*1100/2200=4.3 metric tons; CE5 elect. side 1100-1060=40 lbs. per MW*43.8=1752 lbs, plus heat at 500 lbs. per MW (80% efficiency heater)=51*500=25,000 lbs. + 1752 lbs.; = 12.4 metric tons Residential cost savings in PG&E territory $13,900 vs. $3500 = 4X NG offset by 8500 kWh is 830 therms, NG offset by CE5 is 2235 therms Commercial backup for costs: Solar @ 30% ITC, CSI @ $1.55 per watt = $23,650 CE5 @ 30% or $15,000 cap, SGIP @ $2.50 per watt = $27,500; residential Fed TC cap’d at $5000 Residential savings: CE5 from Atherton model, solar in PG&E @ Tier 5 rate of $.41/kWh Comc’l Savings: Solar all @ $.174 per kWh, CE5 all elect. @ $.174 per kWh, heat at $.91 per therm (save 140 therms/mo. =$1530) (produce elect. @ $.09 per kWh =$3360) Residential: Solar @ 30% ITC and CSI of $1.55 = $23,650 CE5 @ $5000 ITC and SGIP @ $2.50 = $17,500 Savings: Solar all @ $.41, CE5 from Atherton case study

Fuel Cells Residential Workshop Fuel Cells Residential Workshop Presentation Transcript

  • N Stationary Fuel Cells For Homes March 8, 2010 Bill Sproull SVP Business Development
  • What Are You Going to Learn?
    • Fuel Cells as Distributed Generation
    • It’s about clean, highly efficient energy!
    • How does a Fuel Cell Integrate with a Home?
    • Using both electricity and heat
    • What Incentives are in Place for Fuel Cells?
    • Tax Credits, Rebates, Financing
  • Fuel Cells as Distributed Generation
    • It’s about clean, highly efficient energy!
    • Fuels, like natural gas, are a significant source of how we get energy today, and for the foreseeable future
    • Efficiency is key to stretching our scarce fuel resources and reducing emissions now
    • Fuel Cells: One of the efficient ways to address today’s urgent concerns:
      • Criteria pollutants, CO 2, and climate change
      • Rising energy costs
      • Energy security
      • Increasing demand on grid infrastructure
  • The Power of Efficiency
    • Energy efficiency measures to reduce consumption have been the low hanging fruit
      • Cost effective, long term, standard equipment & build practices today
      • Homes are becoming very energy efficient (Title 24, utility EE programs)
    What’s Next? Double Pane Windows High Efficiency Appliances Insulation Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs
  • The Power of Efficiency (continued)
  • SDG&E Energy Generation Mix
    • Electricity Generation Mix (2008): Fuel Efficiency 1 CO 2 Emissions 2
      • 56% Natural Gas ~40% 1,100 lbs/MWh
      • 15% Renewables ~90% zero
      • 10% Coal ~30% 2,500 lbs/MWh
      • 19% Nuclear ~80% zero
    • Heat Generation:
    • 100% Natural Gas ~80% 550 lbs/MWh
    • Weighted Energy Mix
    • Typical Home in SDG&E Area
      • Electricity 80% ~59% 1416 lbs/MWh
      • Heating 20%
    • Fuel Efficiency measures fuel consumed and line losses vs. what is consumed by the building
    • CO 2 emissions in pounds per MWh of energy consumed
    • SDG&E grid estimated to be 54% efficient and emits 866 lbs/MWh of CO 2
  • For the Future: Focus on Renewables… at a Price The Oregonian, March 2, 2010
  • Tomorrow’s Energy Generation Mix
    • Wind
    • Solar
    • Geothermal
    • Bicycle
    • Fuel Cells
    No transmission lines. Empower the energy user. Adding Clean Distributed Generation
  • Today’s Energy From Fuel Cell CHP Systems
      • Maximizing the value of scarce fuel resources
    Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina Fuel Cell Energy Boutique Hotel– Palm Desert ClearEdge Power
      • Heat & Power from one distributed generation source
  • Fuel Cells – What Are They?
  • Ancient History of Fuel Cell Development
    • Humphry Davy of the Royal Institution discovers fuel cells
    • 1839 Sir William Grove demonstrates fuel cells
    • Francis Bacon shows the first prototype and gets a patent
    • NASA starts research on fuel cells
    • 1965 Gemini V rocket goes to space using fuel cells
    • Apollo 11 lands on the moon
    • UTC deployments of PAFC systems in the USA and Japan
    • ‘ 95-’03 Many PEM, SOFC, other fuel cell developments initiated
    • 2003 ClearEdge Power started with the vision for fuel cell microCHP
  • Recent History of Stationary Fuel Cell Applications
    • All manned US space flights have fuel cells on board
      • Space shuttle has three Alkaline fuel cell systems
      • Cryogenic H 2 and O 2 as fuel
      • Fuel cells provide drinking water for astronauts
    • Industrial / large commercial use of 200 kW+ fuel cell CHP
    • Japanese trials of 1 kW residential fuel cell microCHP
    • ClearEdge Power and Bloom Energy, new US products
    UTC PAFC 200 kW FCE MCFC 300 kW PEFC (Japan) 1 kW ClearEdge 5 20 kW (4 x 5 kW) Bloom Box 500 kW (5 x 100 kW)
  • Cell Voltage Phosphoric Acid (150°C – 180 °C) - + H2 or Reformate How a Fuel Cell Works Cathode 2H+ + 2e- + ½O2 H2O Anode H2 2H+ + 2e-
  • IN: Natural Gas Propane Bio-Gas Fuel Processor Fuel Cell Stack Power Inverter OUT: Heat OUT: AC Power How a Fuel Cell CHP System Works
    • Advantages
    • Highest efficiency device, most economic value
      • 90%, with over 40% as electricity
    • Cleaner: No burning of fuel
      • Addresses all areas of EPA concern
        • NOx
        • SOx
        • VOC
        • Particulates
        • Coal Ash
        • CO 2
    • Energy generation at point of use
      • Relieves grid investment requirements
      • Picks up future loads (electric cars)
    • Base load power - higher reduction in CO 2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption than renewables
    Why a Fuel Cell CHP System?
    • Disadvantages
    • Today, runs on fossil fuels or biogas
      • Future: on hydrogen from renewable source
    • Cost of Systems
      • Grid parity in some areas (CA/NE/HI)
      • Low volume production
      • Cost of integrating w/ heat systems
    • Products relatively new to market
      • Not well understood by public and policy makers
    • Need to match CHP to heat load for max efficiency
  • The Time Is Right For Fuel Cell CHP Technology
    • Public Awareness:
    • 60 Minutes Fuel Cell Segment CBS February 21, 2010
    • Clean, Cheap Power From Fuel Cells In A Box? USA Today, February 24, 2010
    • Will Fuel Cells Rival Solar In California? greentechmedia.com, November 24, 2009
    • Practical Power Montecito Journal, November 09, 2009 issue
    • Green Fuel Gone Residential Sierra Club GreenHome Featured Blog, October 26, 2009
    • Public Policy:
    • California:
    • Net Metering —Fuel Cell systems fully qualify for utilities’ net metering programs
    • AB 811 —Fuel Cell systems qualify for low interest financing via regional programs
    • AB 32 —Greenhouse Gas reduction w/ CHP deployment
    • Federal:
    • Investment Tax Credit—Fuel Cell systems qualify for $1,000 per kW (residential)
    • Fuel Cell Tax Parity Act— Expected to create an even playing field with other clean energy systems ($3,000/kW)
    • Other incentives pending legislation
    Montecito Journal, November 09, 2009
  • Electrochemical Conversion Environmental Impact 5.3 lbs CO 2 per hour 22 Tons per Annum Efficiency: 80% Efficiency: 40% Efficiency: Reduces Building’s CO 2 Emissions Electricity Heat 5kW AC Heat Natural Gas Nuclear Coal Renewable Natural Gas } Natural Gas } Environmental Impact 8.35 lbs CO 2 per hour 34 Tons per Annum } Efficiency: 90% This approach provides a 37% reduction in CO 2 How You Receive Energy Today … And Will Tomorrow
  • With this approach you need 37% less natural gas to generate the same energy 3,900 therms 2,175 therms 6,075 therms 43,800 kWh electricity per annum 51,000 kWh heat per annum Low Efficiency No additional therms needed 3,840 therms High Efficiency Fuel Cell System Efficiency: Less Natural Resources Consumed Status Quo (Grid Power) 3,840 therms + + Power Generation and Transmission Dual Energy Creation at the point of use
    • Domestic Hot Water Tanks
    • Radiant Heat Boilers
    • Pool & Spa Heat Systems
    20,000 BTUs / hr Captured In 120 Gallon Hot Water Storage Tank CHP Waste Heat Reduces Your Monthly Heating Bill Domestic Hot Water Radiant Floor Heating Pool & Spa Heating
    • Forced Air Heating
    • Interior Lighting Systems
    • Refrigerator & Freezer
    • Small Wine Coolers
    • Home Office Receptacles
    • Communication Equipment
    • Computer Systems
    • Landscape Lighting
    • Garage Door Systems
    Power Essential Systems During Loss of Utility Power Power to Maintain Your Quality of Life
  • Smart Fuel Cell CHP Systems Central Data Server Web monitoring system (custom integration with other home monitoring systems possible) sends SMS or email to FSE in the event of an issue Each system contains 1 GB of NVM rolling memory , equivalent to a “Black Box” Real time monitoring of all safety and control parameters via remote HMI Real Time Data Real time customer interface iPhone &
  • Fuel Cell Combined Heat & Power vs. Solar
    • On a capital dollar invested basis, CHP technology outperforms solar power
        • 10x the energy productivity
        • 2x faster return on invested capital
        • 2x the reduction in CO 2 emissions
        • 2x the reduction in natural gas consumption
        • 24/7 all-weather; grid-connected or grid-independent / back-up power 1
    1) Grid Independent & Backup capability to be added in late 2010 *Solar Calculation Source: www.findsolar.com
  • Fuel Cell microCHP vs. Solar Comparison *Solar Calculation Source: PVwatts1 Performance Calculator (San Diego Site) 5kW Fuel Cell 5kW Solar Panel Array 27kW Solar Panel Array High Efficiency 5 kW Fuel Cell 5kW Solar 27kW Solar Electric Production-Annual 43,800 kWh 8000 kWh 43,200 kWh Heat Production 51,000 kWh None None Space Required 6 sq. ft. 500 sq. ft. 2,700 sq. ft.
  • ClearEdge5 vs. Solar — CO 2 Reduction *CCNG power plant, PG&E 4.0 Metric Tons per year 11.7 Metric Tons per year
  • Utility Bills – How do you pay for your energy today?
    • Electricity
    • Components
      • Electric Energy Charge (kWh) – total kilowatts consumed during period
        • Tiered rate structure (typical)
          • Baseline (about 11 kWh per day) @ 12.4 cents per kWh
          • Tier 2 (next 3 kWh per day) @ 13.4 cents per kWh
          • Tier 3 (next 7 kWh per day) @ 29.8 cents per kWh
          • Tier 4 (amount above 22 kWh per day) @ 32.3 cents per kWh
      • Transmission/Distribution
      • Other: public purpose charge, taxes and fees
      • Alternative Tariff
      • TOU (time of use) – coming to all in next couple years
  • Utility Bills – How do you pay for your energy today?
    • Gas for Heating
    • Energy Charge
      • follows monthly spot market changes to natural gas ($4.60 mmBTU)
    • Transportation Charge
      • doesn’t change much year to year
    • Other:
      • public purpose charge, taxes and fees
  • Utility Bills – How does a fuel cell impact my energy cost?
    • Large home: 9,000 sq. ft., pool heated, A/C use, 5,500 kWh/mo., 450 therms
    • Electricity Type Charge Before w/ 5 kW Fuel Cell Change
            • kWh (88% in tier 4) $24,079 $8,311 - $15,768
    • Gas Energy/transport $6,778 $9,338 $2,560
    • Total Energy Cost $30,857 $17,649 - $13,208
  • Integrating a Fuel Cell microCHP with the Building
  • Elements of Fuel Cell microCHP Installation Hot Water to Building Natural Gas to Fuel Cells Seismic Rated Installation Electricity to Sub-Panel
  • How Does a Fuel Cell System Work with My Building?
    • Electrical interface:
    • 120/240 VAC, 60 Hz, single-phase native output, 50 amp breaker
      • Can be transformed to 208 VAC, three-phase
    • Open air disconnect, visible within 10 feet
    • Hydronic pump requires 120V, 20 amp circuit
  • How Does a Fuel Cell System Work with My Building?
    • Hydronic interface (heat):
    • Heat is transferred at 150F via water loop through integrated or separately installed heat exchangers
      • Separated (double wall) from customer potable water
    • Piping can be copper, Pex or CPVC, compatible with 150F, insulated (R5)
    • Over pressure and over temperature protection required
  • How Does a Fuel Cell System Work with My Building?
    • Mechanical interface:
    • Natural gas line ½” minimum, capable of 50,000 BTU/hour, 0.5 to 2 psi pressure
      • Flex connections required
    • Minimum pad requirement: 34” x 46” x 8” deep, with #4 rebar, 12” OC
    • Clear service area: 3 feet on front and left side
    • Indoor install: 8” class D vent, 1000 cfm of make up air, condensate drain
      • Gas detector required
      • 14.5” stand for garage install elevation
  • Certification & Safety Requirements
    • Fuel Cell systems need to be certified by a Nationally Recognized Testing Lab (NRTL)
      • CSA, UL, ETL (Intertech) are recognized
      • ANSI / FC1-2004 is the standard
    • Safety codes that apply
      • NFPA 853 – Standard for installation of stationary fuel cell power systems
      • NFPA 70 – National electric code
    • Local building permit required
  • What Incentives are in Place For Fuel Cells?
    • Federal Incentives
      • ITC provides $1,000 per kW tax credit
        • HR 3660, in Congress, takes it to $3,000/kW
    • CA SGIP Rebate
      • $2,500 per kW on natural gas
      • $4,500 per kW on diverted biogas (30 kW min)
    • Fast-track Plan Check in San Diego
      • Time is money
    • Clean Energy Financing – City of San Diego
      • Residential only
      • Summer 2010
      • $50,000 project cap
  • ClearEdge Power LEADING THE SMART ENERGY REVOLUTION Contact Info: Bill Sproull, SVP of Business Development (877) 257-3343 x1606 [email_address]