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New Title 24 Standards For Lighting Windows And Ventilation
 

New Title 24 Standards For Lighting Windows And Ventilation

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    New Title 24 Standards For Lighting Windows And Ventilation New Title 24 Standards For Lighting Windows And Ventilation Document Transcript

    • Lighting, Windows & Ventilation California Title 24 Standards Prepared by Douglas Beaman Associates
    • Windows, Lighting & Ventilation California Title 24 Standards Table of Contents 1 Introduction and Window Basics 2 Lighting Basics 3 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Copyright 2009 Douglas Beaman Associates ©
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Wi d Windows, Li hti d Lighting and Ventilation Welcome and Window Basics Welcome and Window Basics Page 2 Introduction and Window Basics Page 1
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Presenters: Douglas Beaman, Gary Wollin 608 - 13th Street Modesto, California 95354 doug@dougbeaman.com gary@dougbeaman.com (209) 524-1000 Welcome and Window Basics Page 3 January 1, 2010 Any building permit applied for on or after January 1 1, 2010 must comply with the new Standards. Welcome and Window Basics Page 4 Introduction and Window Basics Page 2
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Available in PDF format from the CEC website: Publication #: CEC-400-2008-001-CMF The Standards contain the actual code language, harder to understand understand, but the last word. www.energy.ca.gov/title-24 Welcome and Window Basics Page 5 Available in PDF format from the CEC website: Publication #: CEC-400-2008-016-CMF Designed to be used by building departments, builders, builders energy consultants. www.energy.ca.gov/title24 Welcome and Window Basics Page 6 Introduction and Window Basics Page 3
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Welcome and Window Basics Page 7 The word fenestration finds its root in the Latin word for window, fenestra. Architecture Products that fill openings in a building envelope, such as windows, doors, skylights, curtain walls, etc., designed to permit the passage of air, light, vehicles, or people. l Welcome and Window Basics Page 8 Introduction and Window Basics Page 4
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Almost no homes enjoyed the benefits of insulation. Homes either had mass, stone walls, sod or logs, were timber ll d l i b framed with possibly some straw or mud in the voids. For many glass was an expensive luxury. Well into the 19th century glass was expensive and many homes had double shutters. Homes were naturally ventilated. Summer and Winter. Welcome and Window Basics Page 9 Homes for millennia had heating that was provided by a fireplace. In f t th E gli h I fact the English word for window does not come from a df i d d t f hole in a wall but a hole in the roof that the Vikings used to allow the smoke out of a building. Origin: 1175–1225; Middle English windoge, windowe Old Norse vindauga equiv to vindr = wind + auga = eye vindauga, equiv. Welcome and Window Basics Page 10 Introduction and Window Basics Page 5
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Window glass, in use since the 1st century AD, was originally made by casting, or by blowing hollow cylinders that were slit and flattened into sheets sheets. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance. Welcome and Window Basics Page 11 The crown process was a later technique, in which a gather of glass was blown and shaped into a flattened globe or crown. The Th pontil rod was attached to the flat side, the blowpipe il d h d h fl id h bl i removed. By spinning the reheated crown on the rod, the hole left by the blowpipe enlarged, and eventually the disk, through centrifugal force, flapped out in a large circular sheet. The pontil rod was cracked off, leaving a scar, or bull's-eye. Welcome and Window Basics Page 12 Introduction and Window Basics Page 6
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 1834, Robert Lucas Chance introduced "Improved Cylinder Sheet" glass which was produced using a process invented in Germany. This produced even finer and larger glasses. This was the glass used to glaze the "Crystal Palace" in London. Welcome and Window Basics Page 13 Today, nearly all window glass is made mechanically by drawing g y g glass upward from a molten p p pool fed from a tank furnace. In the Fourcault process the glass sheet is drawn through a slotted refractory block submerged in the surface of the glass pool, into a vertical annealing furnace from which it emerges to be cut into sheets. Welcome and Window Basics Page 14 Introduction and Window Basics Page 7
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The new glass provides a vacuum space between two panes of glass. To keep the two sheets of glass from being drawn together by the vacuum, low thermal-conductivity spacers are placed in the space between the two panes. (These are the small dots that can be seen in the photograph.) The vacuum is only about 1/100th as strong as what is typically found in an ordinary thermos, it is still far better than standard double pane glass in preventing heat loss from conduction and from convection. The only other glazing systems I have come across with close to this level of insulation value have been nanogel-filled windows, but those are just translucent, and do not allow clear vision through the glass. Welcome and Window Basics Page 15 U-Factor SHGC (Solar SHGC—(Solar Heat Gain Coeffieicnt) AL—(Air Leakage) VT—Visible Light Transmittance Welcome and Window Basics Page 16 Introduction and Window Basics Page 8
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy A measure of the rate of non-solar heat flow through a material or assembly. The lower the U-factor, the greater a window’s resistance to heat flow and the better its insulating value. The U-factor is the reciprocal of the R-value (U=1/R). Welcome and Window Basics Page 17 The fraction of solar radiation transmitted through a window, expressed as a percentage. The lower a window s SHGC, window’s SHGC the less solar heat it transmits and the greater its shading ability. Generally, a lower SHGC is desirable in warm climates, and a higher SHGC in cold ones. Welcome and Window Basics Page 18 Introduction and Window Basics Page 9
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Heat loss and gain occur by infiltration through cracks in the window assembly. It is indicated by y y an air leakage rating (AL) expressed as the equivalent cubic feet of air passing through a square foot of window area. The lower the AL, the less air will pass through cracks in the window assembly. assembly At this time, the AL is optional. time optional Select windows with an AL of 0.30 or less (units are cfm/sq ft). Welcome and Window Basics Page 19 The visible transmittance (VT) is an optical property that indicates the amount of visible light transmitted. transmitted The NFRC's VT is a whole window rating and includes the impact of the frame which does not transmit any visible light. While VT theoretically varies between 0 and 1, most values are between 0.3 and 0.8. The higher the VT, the more light is transmitted. A high VT is desirable t d i bl to maximize d light i i daylight. Welcome and Window Basics Page 20 Introduction and Window Basics Page 10
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Welcome and Window Basics 21 An Insulating Glass Unit is the transparent component of a window or door assembly. An IGU p y comprises two or three panes of glass separated with spacers and sealed at the edges. IGU also includes the insulating air space between the panes. Often this air space is replaced with a gas-fill. gas fill Welcome and Window Basics Page 22 Introduction and Window Basics Page 11
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Welcome and Window Basics Page 23 Welcome and Window Basics Page 24 Introduction and Window Basics Page 12
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Single-Glazed with Clear Glass Relative to all other glazing options, single-glazed with clear glass allows the highest transfer of energy (i.e. heat loss or heat gain depending on local climate p g conditions) while permitting the highest daylight transmission. Welcome and Window Basics Page 25 Originally, the space was filled with air or flushed with dry nitrogen just prior to sealing. In a sealed glass insulating unit, air currents between the two panes of glazing carry heat to the top of the unit and settle into cold pools at the bottom. Filling the space with a less conductive, more viscous, or slow-moving gas minimizes the convection currents within the space, conduction through the gas is reduced, and the overall transfer of heat between the inside and outside is reduced. Argon is inexpensive, nontoxic, nonreactive, clear, and odorless. The optimal spacing for an argon-filled unit is the same as for air, about 1/2 inch (11-13 mm). Krypton has better thermal performance, but is more expensive to produce. Krypton is particularly useful when the space between glazings must be thinner than normally desired, for example, 1/4 inch (6 mm). The optimum gap width for krypton is 3/8" 3/8 (9mm). A mixture of krypton and argon gases is also used as a compromise between thermal performance and cost. Welcome and Window Basics Page 26 Introduction and Window Basics Page 13
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Low-emittance (Low-E) coating are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface primarily to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat U factor flow. The principal mechanism of heat transfer in multilayer glazing is thermal radiation from a warm pane of glass to a cooler pane. Coating a glass surface with a low-emittance material and facing that coating into the gap between the glass layers blocks a significant amount of this radiant heat transfer, thus lowering the total heat flow through the window. Low-E coatings are transparent to visible light. Different types of Low-E coatings have been designed to allow for high solar gain, moderate solar gain, or low solar gain. Welcome and Window Basics Page 27 One approach to reducing heat loss has been to replace the aluminum spacer with a metal that is less conductive, e.g. stainless steel, and change the cross-sectional shape of the spacer. Another approach is to replace the metal with a design that uses materials that are better insulating. The most commonly used design incorporates spacer, sealer, and desiccant in a thermoplastic compound that contains a blend of desiccant materials and incorporates a thin, fluted metal shim of aluminum or stainless steel. Another approach uses an insulating silicone foam spacer that incorporates a desiccant and has a high-strength adhesive at its edges to bond to glass. The foam is backed with a secondary sealant. Both extruded vinyl and fiberglass spacers have also been used in place of metal designs. For purposes of determining the overall window U-factor, the edge spacer has an effect that extends beyond the physical size of the spacer to a band about 2-1/2 inches wide. The contribution of this 2-1/2-inch-wide "glass edge" to the total window U-factor depends on the size of the window. Glass edge effects are more important for smaller windows, which have a proportionately larger glass edge area. Welcome and Window Basics Page 28 Introduction and Window Basics Page 14
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Back to California Welcome and Window Basics Page 29 §151(f)3 and 4 have the prescriptive requirements for fenestration in low-rise residential buildings. These include requirements for maximum glazing area, maximum U-factor, and for some climate zones, a maximum SHGC requirement. Welcome and Window Basics Page 30 Introduction and Window Basics Page 15
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Welcome and Window Basics Page 31 Window values: U-factors from 0.55 – 0.67 to 0.40 Welcome and Window Basics Page 32 Introduction and Window Basics Page 16
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy §151(f)3 Exception allows up to 3 square feet of the glazing installed in doors and up to 2 square feet of tubular skylight with dual-pane diffusers to have an assumed U-factor equivalent to the Package requirements. Welcome and Window Basics Page 33 Type 1 Manufactured products are delivered pre-assembled pre assembled from the factory. This is the most common type of fenestration in residential construction. Welcome and Window Basics Page 34 Introduction and Window Basics Page 17
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Type 2 Site built Site-built products are glazed or assembled on site using factory prepared systems. . . . For unlabeled site-built fenestration use default values from Standards Table 116-A for U-factor and Table 116-B for SHGC, otherwise, select site-build fenestration from NFRC’s Certified Products Directory NFRC s Directory. See http://www.NFRC.org. Welcome and Window Basics Page 35 Type 3 Field fabricated Field-fabricated products are built on site using standard dimensional lumber or other materials not intentionally prepared for use as a fenestration product. For field-fabricated fenestration use default values from Standards Table 116-A for U-factor and Table 116-B for SHGC 116 B SHGC. Welcome and Window Basics Page 36 Introduction and Window Basics Page 18
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Welcome and Window Basics Page 37 Answer For glass block, use the U-factor and SHGC values from Standards Tables 116-A and 116-B for the frame type in which the g yp glass blocks are installed. The worst-case scenario would be a metal-framed glass. The U-factor for metal framed glass block is from Table 116-A is therefore 0.87. The SHGC depends on whether the glass block has a metal or non-metal frame, and is operable or fixed or clear or tinted. For this example, the glass block is operable and clear, therefore the S GC f SHGC is 0.70. Glass block is considered a field-fabricated product and therefore does not need a label. Welcome and Window Basics Page 38 Introduction and Window Basics Page 19
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Welcome and Window Basics Page 39 Welcome and Window Basics Page 40 Introduction and Window Basics Page 20
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Doors with less than 50% glass areas are treated as a door with fenestration installed within the door. The glass area is calculated as the sum of the glass areas plus two inches on all sides (to account for framing). Welcome and Window Basics Page 41 The NFRC label if one is available, or The default values from Standards Table 116-A and 116-B. The opaque part of the door is ignored in the prescriptive approach. If the performance approach is used for the glazing part of the door, an NFRC label or default values for U-factors and SHGC must be used, for the opaque portion of the door, a default value of 0.50 must be assumed. assumed Alternatively, if available, NFRC values for U-factor and SHGC may be used for the entire door, including the opaque areas. Welcome and Window Basics Page 42 Introduction and Window Basics Page 21
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy I plan on installing a tubular skylight using the performance approach. The skylight has a clear plastic dome exterior to the roof, a single pane 1/4.- in. (6 mm)-thick acrylic diffuser mounted at the ceiling, and a metal tube connecting the two. How do I determine the U-factor and SHGC that I will need to comply with the Standards? Welcome and Window Basics Page 43 Method 1 Use the default U-factor from Standards Table 116-A 116-A. This tubular skylight would be considered a metal frame, fixed, single-pane resulting in a U-factor of 1.19, which must appear on a label preceded by the words “CEC Default U-factor.” (A tubular skylight would have to have two panes of glazing with an air space of less than two inches (50 mm) between them at the plane of the ceiling insulation for it to be considered double-pane.) Welcome and Window Basics Page 44 Introduction and Window Basics Page 22
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Method 2 Determine the U-factor from the Reference U factor Nonresidential Appendix NA6, Equation NA6-1. The U-factor for this tubular skylight is based on the metal with no curb (Table NA-1). The U-factor for this skylight using Equation NA6-1 is 1.25, where Ut = (0.195 + (0.882 x 1.20)). This must appear on a label stated as: “CEC Default U-factor 1.25.” Welcome and Window Basics Page 45 Method 3 If the skylight has been tested and certified pursuant to NFRC procedures, then use the NFRC label that states, “Manufacturer stipulates that this rating was determined in accordance with applicable NFRC procedures NFRC 100” followed by the U-factor. Welcome and Window Basics Page 46 Introduction and Window Basics Page 23
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy How would the U-factor and the SHGC be determined if the skylight in the example above has a dual pane diffuser (instead of single pane) mounted at the ceiling? Welcome and Window Basics Page 47 The procedure would be exactly the same as the example above, except that double pane U-factor and SHGC values from Standards Tables 116-A and 116-B would be used instead of single pane values. Note: Up to 2 square feet of tubular skylight is assumed to have the U-factor required to meet prescriptive compliance or the Package D value for performance compliance (Exception to §151(f)3A). Welcome and Window Basics Page 48 Introduction and Window Basics Page 24
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy There is no credit for interior shading devices, although they can be effective in reducing solar gains and should be considered by homeowners. The Energy Commission considers interior shades in the category of home furnishings and not a feature of the house that is provided by the builder. Welcome and Window Basics Page 49 Welcome and Window Basics Page 50 Introduction and Window Basics Page 25
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The field inspector should verify that the windows and other fenestration products installed have performance characteristics that are documented on the temporary NFRC labels and that comply with the U-factor and SHGC used in the compliance documentation, including the CF-6R. All fenestration products must have a temporary label indicating U f t SHGC, and air t l b l i di ti g U-factor, SHGC d i infiltration rate (only field-fabricated products are exempt from labeling requirements). Welcome and Window Basics Page 51 Welcome and Window Basics Page 52 Introduction and Window Basics Page 26
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The heat transfer characteristics of site-built curbs are not included in the NFRC rating and must be modeled as a part of the opaque building envelope. For compliance purposes with the low-rise residential standards, the U-factor for a skylight rated with any of the three mounting variations described above is applied to the area of the rough opening opening. Welcome and Window Basics Page 53 1. Inset mount, where the curb of the skylight extends into the rough opening on the roof; 2. Curb mount, where the outside of the curb is equal to the rough opening in the roof; and 3. Curb mount, where the inside of the curb is equal to the rough opening in the roof. Welcome and Window Basics Page 54 Introduction and Window Basics Page 27
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The heat transfer characteristics of site-built curbs are not included in the NFRC rating and must be modeled as a part of the opaque building envelope. For compliance purposes with the low-rise residential standards, the U-factor for a skylight rated with any of the three mounting variations described above is applied to the area of the rough opening opening. Welcome and Window Basics Page 55 Advisory: New Year, New Numbers As of January 4, 2010, ENERGY STAR qualified windows, doors, and skylights will meet new performance levels levels. In the next few months, you will see two new labels to help you choose windows, doors, or skylights for your home: Starting October 1, 2009, you might see the label, in red or in black, in combination with ENERGY STAR product labels. This label identifies high-efficiency products that currently qualify for the ENERGY STAR but will not meet the more stringent requirements that go into full effect April 1, 2010. Another new label helps you find products that are eligible for the federal tax credit of up to $1,500. The label to the left, already visible in stores today, tells you the product qualifies for ENERGY STAR and is also eligible for the tax credit. Welcome and Window Basics Page 56 Introduction and Window Basics Page 28
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Answer Yes, there is a tax credit for storm windows and doors in 2009 and 2010 that meet this criteria: Storm Window. A storm window that, in combination with the exterior window over which it is installed- 1. Has a U-factor and SHGC of 0.30 or below; and 2. Meets the prescriptive criteria for such component established by the IECC. Welcome and Window Basics Page 57 Answer Yes, there is a tax credit for storm windows and doors in 2009 and 2010 that meet this criteria: Storm Door. A storm door that, in combination with the exterior door over which it is installed-- 1. (a) Has a U-factor and SHGC of 0.30 or below; and 2. (b) Meets the prescriptive criteria for such component established by the IECC. To verify tax credit eligibility, ask your retailer to provide the Manufacturer's Certification Statement for the storm windows/doors you plan to purchase. Welcome and Window Basics Page 58 Introduction and Window Basics Page 29
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy “Most Americans spend about 90 percent of their time indoors, where pollutant levels may be 2-5 times higher, and occasionally 100 times higher, than outdoors.” —The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Welcome and Window Basics Page 59 Welcome and Window Basics Page 60 Introduction and Window Basics Page 30
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 2008 Titl 24 Title Residential Lighting Is available from the California Lighting Technology Center www.CLTC.ucdavis.edu 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 2 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 1
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy These lighting fixtures are designed and built to operate only energy-efficient light sources, such as fluorescent T8 lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 3 A high efficacy luminaire is one that meets the efficacies listed in Table 150-C of the Standards (shown as Tables 6-1 and 6-2 in this presentation), contains only high efficacy lamps or high efficacy LED lighting, and must not contain a socket which allows any low efficacy lighting system to be used. For example, any luminaire containing a medium screw base socket is classified as low efficacy, regardless of the type of lamp installed into that socket. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 4 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 2
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 5 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 6 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 3
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Must not contain medium based incandescent sockets. [ [except for Outdoor high intensity discharge lighting ( p g y g g g (HID) containing a HID ) g lamp, and factory-installed hardwired HID ballast and HID rated socket, and meeting minimum lumens per watt] Medium Base Lamp 4-pin Quad Compact Medium Base HID Fluorescent Fluorescent 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 7 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 8 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 4
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy http://www.buy-cfls.com/ http://www.schoolhouseelectric.com/ http://www schoolhouseelectric com/ http://www.destinationlighting.com/ 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 9 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 10 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 5
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Select the appropriate color: Warmer lamp colors (CCT = 2700-3000K) = closest color match to incandescent 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 11 Incandescent HPS Incandescent Cool White CFL 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 12 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 6
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Must be approved for zero-clearance insulation cover (IC) And Electronic Ballast And Air-tight (AT) © Progress Lighting, used by permission 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 13 For these reasons, luminaires recessed in insulated ceilings must meet three requirements: They must be approved for zero clearance insulation cover (IC) by Underwriters Laboratories or other testing/rating laboratories recognized by the International Conference of Building Officials. This enables insulation to be packed in direct contact with the luminaire. The luminaire must have a label certifying air tight (AT) construction. Air tight construction means that leakage through the l i i will not exceed 2 0 cfm when exposed h h h luminaire ill d 2.0 f h d to a 75 Pa pressure difference, when tested in accordance with ASTM E283. The luminaire must be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and ceiling. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 14 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 7
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 1. A gasket is attached to the bottom of the certified airtight housing prior to the installation of the ceiling (i.e. drywall or other ceiling materials) to create an airtight seal. g ) g OR 2. A gasket is applied between the certified airtight housing and the ceiling opening after the ceiling has been installed. OR 3. Caulk is applied between the certified airtight housing and the ili th ceiling after the ceiling h been i t ll d ft th ili has b installed. OR 4. A certified airtight trim kit is attached to the housing after the ceiling has been installed. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 15 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 16 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 8
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Luminaires recessed in insulated ceilings must be IC rated and have a gasket or caulking between the housing and ceiling to prevent the flow of heated or cooled air between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. The luminaire must include a label certifying airtight or similar designation to show air leakage less than 2.0 CFM at 75 Pascals when tested in accordance with ASTM E283. The label must be clearly visible for the building inspector. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 17 © Progress Lighting, used by permission 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 18 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 9
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Low Efficacy System Required High Efficacy System 1 recessed can with screw Minimum Required: based socket. 100 Watts Relamping rated wattage on Example: factory installed label 4 CF fixtures x 26 watts = 100 Watts = 104 watts Low Efficacy System = 100 Watts 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 19 Once it has been determined that the installed low efficacy lighting wattage is no greater than the installed high efficacy wattage, a limited number of additional low efficacy lighting wattage may be installed. The dditi i t ll d Th additional l efficacy wattage shown b l i T bl l low ffi tt g h below in Table 6-3 may be installed provided that all of the following conditions are met: 1. All installed low efficacy luminaires in the kitchen are controlled by a manual-on occupant sensor, dimmer, energy management control system (EMCS), or a multi-scene programmable control system, And 2. All permanently installed luminaires in garages, laundry rooms, closets greater than 70 square feet, and utility rooms are high efficacy and are also controlled by a vacancy sensor. THEN 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 20 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 10
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 21 At least half the installed wattage of luminaires in kitchens shall be high efficacy. However, lighting installed inside a cabinet is not included in the wattage calculation that determines the half of the installed wattage that is high efficacy. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 22 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 11
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Lighting internal to cabinets is not considered when determining that at least 50% of the permanently installed lighting in a residential kitchen is high efficacy. Permanently installed lighting that is internal to cabinets shall use no more than 20 watts of power per linear foot of illuminated cabinet. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 23 The following lighting systems are not considered lighting internal to cabinets: 1. Lighting recessed into a cabinet for the purpose of illuminating surfaces outside of the cabinet 2. Lighting attached to any surface on the outside of a cabinet, including the top, bottom, or sides 3. Lighting attached to the inside of a cabinet, such as reflector lamps, for the purpose of projecting light out of the cabinet. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 24 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 12
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Question I have 23 linear feet of upper kitchen cabinets, and 32 feet of lower kitchen cabinets. I want to install lighting on the inside of 18 feet of cabinets upper cabinets which have glass doors. The upper cabinets have three shelves. I want to install lights under all three shelves. How many watts of lighting may I install in the cabinets? Answer The cabinet lighting allowance is based upon the linear foot of illuminated cabinet, regardless of the number of shelves in each cabinet. cabinet Therefore, multiply 18 feet times 20 watts per foot = 360 watts. You are allowed to install up to 360 watts of internal cabinet lighting. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 25 Question In the above example, if I have 18 linear feet of upper cabinets with p , pp glass doors, but I only want to install lighting in 10 linear feet of the cabinets, how many watts of lighting may I install in the cabinets? Answer The allowance is based upon the linear feet of cabinet that is illuminated. In this case, multiply 10 feet time 20 watts per foot = 200 watts. You are allowed to install up to 200 watts of internal cabinet lighting. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 26 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 13
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The residential lighting Standards require luminaire input power (wattage) to be determined in kitchens. Blank electrical boxes §150(k)3 In residential kitchens, the wattage of electrical boxes finished with a blank cover or where no electrical equipment has been installed, and where the electrical b can b used f a l i i or a l t i l box be d for luminaire surface mounted ceiling fan, shall be calculated as 180 watts of low efficacy lighting per electrical box. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 27 High efficacy lighting must be switched separately from low efficacy lighting. There are no longer any constraints on where the separate switches are located. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 28 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 14
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Lighting in areas adjacent to the kitchen, such as dining and nook areas and even family rooms, is considered to be kitchen lighting if it is not separately switched from the kitchen lighting. The switches may be mounted on the same faceplate, but as long as the lights can be switched independently, these areas do not count as being in the kitchen. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 29 All hardwired lighting must be high efficacy, Or Controlled by a manual-on motion sensor, (Occupancy/Vacancy Sensor) 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 30 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 15
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Lighting in Garages, Laundry Rooms, and Utility Rooms must all meet the same requirements as Bathrooms. Motion control wall switch 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 31 A manual-on motion sensor must turn off automatically when no one is present, then as normally done when lighting is needed, must be turned on manually with a switch. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 32 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 16
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy All luminaires shall either be high efficacy Or Controlled by a manual-on motion sensor, (Occupancy/Vacancy Sensor) Closets that are less than 70 square feet are exempt from this requirements. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 33 Bathroom is a room containing a shower, tub, toilet or a sink that is used for personal hygiene. © Progress Lighting, used by permission 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 34 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 17
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Question We would like to use incandescent lighting in a bathroom along with a vacancy sensor. Alth gh th sensor has l g ith Although the h the “manual-on” capability, it also has the capability of turning the lights on automatically by flipping a switch that is located under the switch plate cover. Does this sensor meet the requirements of the Standards? Answer No, this sensor does not meet the requirements of the Standards. Section 119 requires that the vacancy sensor shall not have an override switch that converts the sensor from a manual-on to an automatic-on system. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 35 Must be manual on. Time Delay cannot be greater than 30 minutes. Cannot be ‘locked’ in a permanent ‘on’ state. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 36 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 18
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Dimmers, which are already common in many residential applications, allow the room occupants to lower the room lighting (and thus the power used) as desired. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 37 All installed luminaires shall either be high efficacy Or shall be controlled by a vacancy sensor or dimmer. 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 38 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 19
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Closets less than 70 square feet are exempt from this requirement 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 39 Luminaires providing outdoor lighting, including outdoor lighting for private patios on low-rise residential buildings with f b ildi i h four or more d lli units, entrances, dwelling i balconies, and porches, and which are permanently mounted to a residential building or to other buildings on the same lot shall be high efficacy luminaires, or they may be low efficacy luminaires if they are controlled by all three of the following lighting controls: © Progress Lighting, used by permission 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 40 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 20
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 1. Controlled by a manual on/off switch, and 2. A motion sensor that is not equipped with an override or bypass switch that di bl the motion sensor which automatically turns i h h disables h i hi h i ll off the lights when no motion is detected, and 3. One of the following three methods to automatically turn the lights off during the daytime: A. Photocontrol not having an override or bypass switch that disables the photocontrol; or B. Astronomical time clock not having an override or bypass switch that disables the astronomical time clock; or C. Energy management control system (EMCS) not having an override or bypass switch that allows the luminaire to be always on. on. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 41 Lighting in detached storage buildings less than 1000 square feet, when those storage buildings are located on a residential site, is not required to comply with §150(k)11. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 42 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 21
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy When it is desirable to allow residential outdoor lighting to be on for more than 30 minutes after the sensor has stopped sensing activity For example when someone is activity. example, entertaining in their backyard, they may want the lights to stay on longer than 30 minutes. To address this issue, the residential lighting Standards allow low efficacy outdoor luminaires to be controlled by a motion sensor controlled by a temporary override switch to bypass the motion sensing function, provided that the motion ti i gf ti id d th t th ti sensor is automatically reactivated within six hours. The motion sensor must automatically reactivate itself without any action on part of the operator. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 43 Lighting that is not permanently attached to buildings, such as decorative landscape lighting when it is not permanently attached to buildings, is not regulated by the Standards. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 44 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 22
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Parking lots and carports for a total of seven or fewer cars per site must meet the residential outdoor lighting requirements as applicable. <7 Cars per site p Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 45 Parking lots and carports for a total of eight or more cars per site must meet the nonresidential outdoor lighting requirements (see §130, §132, §134, and §147). Parking garages that house eight or more cars shall meet the interior lighting control and power requirements of the Nonresidential Standards Standards. ≥8 Cars per site Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 46 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 23
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The nonresidential outdoor lighting Standards include the following requirements for parking lots and car ports that accommodate a total of eight or more vehicles per site: Luminaires rated for lamps over 100W must have a lamp efficacy of at least 60 lumens per watt, or be controlled by a motion sensor Luminaires rated for sensor. use only with LED, compact fluorescent, linear fluorescent, metal halide, and high pressure sodium lamps are not affected by this requirement. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 47 Luminaires with lamps rated over 175 watts shall be designated “cutoff” in a photometric test report. Luminaires shall be controlled by a photocontrol, or an astronomical time switch that turns the lighting off when daylight is available. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 48 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 24
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Question I have a low-rise multi-family complex with a total of 20 parking spaces. H ki g However, th parking spaces are the ki g arranged throughout the site in groups of only 4 spaces each. Are these parking spaces required to comply with the nonresidential outdoor lighting requirements? Answer Yes, these spaces are required to comply with the nonresidential outdoor lighting Standards. Parking lots and carports for a total of eight or more cars per site must meet the nonresidential outdoor lighting requirements. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 49 Lighting for common areas of low-rise residential buildings with four or more dwelling units shall be high efficacy, or shall be controlled by an occupant sensor. Occupant sensors used in common areas may have the capability of turning the lights on automatically. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 50 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 25
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview 51 Other Issues 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview Page 52 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 26
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy §130(b) and (c) The design and installation of all lighting systems systems, lighting controls and equipment in high-rise residential dwelling units and in hotel/motel guest rooms shall comply with the applicable provisions of §150(k). Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 53 Permanently installed luminaires include the following: 1. Lighting attached to walls, ceilings, columns 2. Track d flexible lighting 2 T k and fl ibl li hti systems t 3. Lighting inside permanently installed cabinets 4. Lighting attached to the top or bottom of permanently installed cabinets 5. Lighting attached to ceiling fans 6. Lighting integral to exhaust fans. 7. Lighting that is integral to garage door openers if it is designed to be used as general lighting, is switched independently from the garage door opener, and does not automatically turn off after a pre- determined amount of time. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 54 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 27
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Permanently installed lighting does not include 1. Portable lighting as defined by §101 2. Lighting installed by the manufacturer in refrigerators, stoves, microwave ovens, exhaust hoods for cooking equipment, refrigerated cases, vending machines, food preparation equipment, and scientific and industrial equipment. 3. Lighting in garage door openers which consists of no more than two screw-based sockets integrated into the garage screw- door opener by the manufacturer, where the lights automatically turn on when the garage door is activated, and automatically turn off after a pre-determined amount of time. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 55 LED—Light Emitting Diode Lighting 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview Page 56 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 28
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The 2008 Standards include the following language to address the use of LED lighting: 1. §101 contains definitions for LED lighting. 2. §119 requires LED lighting to be certified to the Energy Commission before it can be classified as high efficacy for residential applications. An LED luminaire, l i i or LED light engine with integral heat sink, li ht i ith i t lh t i k shall be classified as low efficacy if it has not been certified to the Energy Commission as high efficacy. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 57 3. §130(d)5 points to Reference Joint Appendix JA-8 for determining how much power (wattage) is installed with an LED lighting system. JA-8 requires that JA- wattage for LEDs shall be the maximum rated input wattage of the LED lighting system, including power used by fans, transformers, and power supply devices. 4. §150(k)1 and Table 150-C (shown as Table 6-2) has requirements for determining when an LED lighting source system can be classified as high efficacy. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 58 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 29
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Lighting controls, ballasts for residential recessed luminaires, and high efficacy LED lighting source systems shall not be installed unless they have been certified by the manufacturer and listed on this database. The database and certification instructions are available from the following web link: http://www.energy.ca.gov/appliances/appliance/index.html Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 59 Controls 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview Page 60 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 30
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Following are controls that are required for compliance with the 2008 residential lighting Standards: All Permanently Installed Luminaires must be switched separately from low efficacy luminaires. Exhaust Fans. There are two options for the switching of lighting associated with exhaust fans: 1. All lighting must be switched separately from exhaust fans, OR 2. For an exhaust fan with an integral lighting system, the lighting system must be able to be manually turned on and off while allowing the fan to continue to operate for an extended period of time. An exhaust fan may need to run continuously if used to comply with §150(o), (Whole house Ventilation). 150(o), Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 61 All permanently installed luminaires shall be switched with readily accessible controls that permit the luminaires to be manually switched on and off. All lighting controls and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 62 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 31
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Multiple Switches. This requirement applies to all three- way, four-way, and other lighting circuits controlled by more than one switch. 1. No controls shall bypass the dimmer or vacancy sensor function. 2. The dimmer or vacancy sensor shall be certified to the E th Energy Commission th t it complies with the C i i that li ith th applicable requirements of §119. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 63 For control systems consisting of two or more components, such as an Energy Management Control System (EMCS), the manufacturer of the control system shall certify each of the components required for the system to comply with §119. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 64 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 32
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy The Standards do not require a vacancy sensor to be used with any high efficacy luminaire. Manual-on / automatic-off occupant sensors, also known as vacancy sensors, automatically turn lights off if an occupant forgets to turn them off when a room is unoccupied. Additionally, these sensors shall provide the occupant with the ability to turn the lights off manually upon leaving the room, and turn them on manually upon entering the room. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 65 Vacancy sensors are required to be certified as meeting all of the following requirements: Provides the P id th occupant with the ability to manually turn the t ith th bilit t ll t th lights on and off. Shall be capable of turning off the lighting automatically within 30 minutes or less after the room has been vacated in response to the absence of occupants in the room, and Have a visible status signal that indicates that the device is operating properly or that it has failed or malfunctioned. The visible status signal may have an override switch that turns the signal off. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 66 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 33
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Shall not turn on the lighting automatically, except the sensor shall have a grace period of 15 seconds to 30 seconds to turn on the lighting automatically after the sensor has timed out, and Shall not have an override switch that disables the vacancy sensor, and Shall t have an override switch that converts the Sh ll not h id it h th t t th sensor from a manual-on to an automatic-on system. manual- automatic- system Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 67 Dimmers are required to be certified to the Energy Commission as meeting all of the following requirements: 1. 1 Be capable of reducing power consumption by a minimum of 65 percent when the dimmer is at its lowest light level, and 2. If the device is a dimmer controlling incandescent or fluorescent lamps, provide electrical outputs to lamps for reduced flicker operation through the dimming range, so that the light output has an amplitude modulation of less than 30 percent for frequencies less than 200 Hz, and without causing premature l i lamp failure; and f il d 3. Be listed by a rating lab recognized by the International Code Council (ICC) as being in compliance with Underwriters Laboratories Standards, and Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 68 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 34
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 4. If the device is a wall box dimmer designed to be used in a three or more-way circuit with non-dimmable switches, the level set by the dimmer shall not be overridden by dimmer, any of the switches in the circuit. The dimmer and all of the switches in the circuit shall have the capability of turning lighting OFF if it is ON, and turning lighting ON to the level set by the dimmer if the lighting is OFF. Any wall box dimmer that is connected to a system with an emergency override function shall b controlled by the g id f ti h ll be t ll d b th emergency override. 5. If the device is a stepped dimmer, shall include an off position to turn lights completely off. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 69 Question I am doing minor renovations to my kitchen that has six recessed incandescent cans and I am adding a new luminaire over the sink. Does this luminaire have to be a high efficacy luminaire? Answer Yes, all new luminaires must be high efficacy until at least 50% of the total lighting wattage comes from high efficacy luminaires (§152 (b) 1 and §152 (b) 2). Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 70 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 35
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy EnergyStar CFL Information 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview Page 71 How Much Light? "Warm light 60" means that this CFL provides the same light as a 60-watt 60- incandescent bulb. "Warm" indicates a color temperature between 2700-3000K. 2700- Brightness is a description of light output, which is measured in lumens (not watts). Light bulb manufacturers include this information and the equivalent wattage right on the packaging. To save energy, find the bulbs with the light output you need, and then choose the one with the lowest wattage. You can also look for a CFL that is labeled as equivalent to the i i l h incandescent b lb you are replacing. d bulb l i The color of light may also affect how bright a light appears, even if the lumens are the same. Since most people are used to the soft yellowish glow from incandescent light bulbs, CFLs that produce light closer to the color of daylight (color temperatures above 3000K) may appear brighter because the color of the light is less yellow. yellow. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 72 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 36
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Incandescent ENERGY STAR Bulbs Qualified Light Bulbs Watts lumens Watts 40 450 9 to 13 60 800 13 to 15 75 1,100 1 100 18 to 25 100 1,600 23 to 30 150 2,600 30 to 52 Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 73 Choosing the right color: Light color is measured on a temperature scale referred to as Kelvin (K). Lower Kelvin numbers mean the light appears more yellow; higher Kelvin numbers mean the light is whiter or bluer. Most ENERGY STAR qualified bulbs are made to match the color of incandescent bulbs at 2700 3000K 2700-3000K. For a whiter light, look for bulbs marked 3500-4100K. For bluer white light, look for bulbs marked 5000-6500K. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 74 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 37
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 75 Use about one-quarter of the energy to produce the same amount of light, Last about 10 times longer, Produce about 75 percent less heat, which reduces cooling costs, Save about $30 or more in electricity costs over the lifetime of the bulb, Have manufacturer-backed warranties, and Meet strict energy efficiency and performance requirements. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 76 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 38
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Do the twist. Screw in your CFL by holding the ballast (the white plastic part), NOT the glass tubing. Don’t flip too fast. You’ll maximize the lifetime savings and effectiveness of your CFLs by keeping them on for 15 minutes or more at a time time. Choose 3 for 3. Only use bulbs labeled as three-way on three-way sockets. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 77 Don’t dim a non-dimmable. Only use bulbs labeled as dimmable on dimmer switches. Check your controls. Most photocells, motion sensors and electric timers are not designed to work with CFLs. Always check with the manufacturer of the control for compatibility. Give them air. CFLs are sensitive to extreme temperatures, so place your CFLs in open fixtures indoors. Using them in enclosed fixtures indoors can create a hot environment that reduces the lifetime of your bulbs. Note that covered reflectors are best used in recessed cans cans. Protect them outside. Protect bulbs from the elements by placing them inside enclosed fixtures outdoors. For colder climates, look at the packaging for optimal operating temperatures. Title 24 2008 Overview—Lighting 78 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 39
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy 2008 Title 24 Residential Lighting Overview Page 79 California 2008 Title 24 Lighting Basics Page 40
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy I d Ai Q lit d Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation—§150(o) and 152(a) With the 2008 update, all low-rise residential buildings low- are required to have a whole house ventilation system and satisfy other requirements to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. The CEC adopted the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007, 62.2- except that opening and closing windows (although permitted by ASHRAE) is not an acceptable option in California. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 2 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 1
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality §150(o) All dwelling units shall meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Window 62 2 operation is not a permissible method of providing the Whole Building Ventilation required in Section 4 of that Standard. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 3 Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality —CONTINUED The indoor air quality requirements are not triggered for renovations renovations. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 4 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 2
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality —CONTINUED The typical solutions are described in the following section. Kitchens and bathrooms shall have local exhaust systems vented to the outdoors. Clothes dryers shall be vented to the outdoors. Ventilation air shall come from the out of doors and shall not be transferred from adjacent dwelling units, garages or crawlspaces. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 5 Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality —CONTINUED Ventilation system controls shall be labeled and the home owner shall be provided with instructions on how to operate the system. h Combustion appliances shall be properly vented and air systems shall be designed to prevent back drafting. The wall and openings between the house and the garage shall b sealed. be sealed. l d Habitable rooms shall have windows with a ventilation area of at least 4% of the floor area (see 3.5.2). 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 6 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 3
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality —CONTINUED Mechanical systems including heating and air conditioning systems that supply air to habitable spaces shall have MERV 6 filt filters or b tt better. Air inlets (not exhaust) shall be located away from known contaminants. Air moving equipment used for to meet either the whole building ventilation requirement or the local exhaust requirement shall be rated in terms of air flow and sound Continuously operating sound. fans shall be less than 1.0 sone, and intermittently operated sone, fans shall be less than 3.0 sone. Remotely located equipment sone. is excepted. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 7 Typical Solutions for Whole Building Ventilation There are three generic solutions to meeting the outside air ventilation requirement: q Exhaust ventilation, Supply ventilation, or a Combination of supply and exhaust ventilation. If the supply and exhaust flows are within 10% of each other this is called a balanced ventilation system. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 8 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 4
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Exhaust Ventilation Exhaust Ventilation is usually achieved by a quiet ceiling- ceiling- mounted bath fan or remote mounted inline or exterior- exterior- mounted f d fans. Air is drawn from the house by the exhaust fan and outdoor air enters the house through leaks in the building envelope. Because the leaks are generally uniformly scattered throughout the house, outdoor air entering the house does not generally create drafty or uncomfortable conditions. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 9 Many high quality bath fans are available in the 30 to 150 cfm size range and are quiet enough to be used continuously. One or more fans of this size will meet the requirements of most homes. The exhaust fan can be a dedicated IAQ fan or it can be a more typical bath fan that is used for both whole building ventilation and local ventilation. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 10 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 5
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Supply Ventilation Supply ventilation works in just the opposite way as exhaust ventilation. Outside air enters the house through a dedicated supply fan or through the central HVAC system air handler. The fan(s) pressurizes the house and air escapes through leaks in the building envelope. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 11 Central Fan-Integrated Ventilation System Central Fan-Integrated Ventilation System is a central forced air Fan- heating and/or cooling system which is intended to operate on a regular basis to bring in outdoor ventilation air and/or distribute air around the home for comfort and ventilation even when heating and cooling are not needed. This strategy, uses the negative pressure in the return plenum to pull in outdoor air and th push it td i d then h through the air handler. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 12 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 6
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Combination Ventilation Combination systems use both exhaust fans and supply fans. If both fans supply the same air flow pp y pp y the system is balanced and the house has a neutral pressure, as opposed to a supply ventilation system which results in a positive pressure or an exhaust ventilation system which results in a negative pressure pressure. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 13 Combination Ventilation—CONTINUED Combination systems are often integrated devices, sometimes with a heat exchanger or heat recovery g y wheel, the supply and exhaust airstreams are typically of equal flow. Combination systems can also consist of a mixture of supply fans and exhaust fans. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 14 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 7
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Ventilation Flow Rate (Chapter 4 of ASHRAE 62.2) The continuous ventilation rate is one cubic foot per minute (cfm) for each 100 ft2 of floor area plus 7.5 cfm for each occupant. The number of occupants is approximated as the number of bedrooms plus one. Equation 4-1 4- Ventilation Rate (cfm) = CFA/100 + [7.5 x (Number Bedrooms +1)] Table 4-7 may be used to determine the required 4- ventilation. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 15 Table 4-7 Continuous Ventilation Rate 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 16 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 8
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Example 4-6–Required Ventilation Question What is the required continuous ventilation rate required for a 3 bedroom, 1,800 ft2 townhouse. Answer 48 cfm. This is calculated as: 1800/100 + (3+1)*7.5 = 48 cfm. Using Table 4-7, the required ventilation rate would be 60 cfm. 4- 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 17 Example 4-6 – Required Ventilation —CONTINUED Question The house I am building has a floor area of 2,240 ft2 and 3 2 240 bedrooms. My calculations come out to 52.4 cfm. Can I use a 50 cfm fan? Answer No, a 50 cfm fan does not meet the standard. You would No, need to select the next larger size fan, such as a unit rated at 55 cfm or 60 cfm. If you use Table 4-7 to select 4- the fan size, you get 60 cfm. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 18 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 9
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Ventilation Rate for Combination Systems When a combination ventilation system is used, meaning that both supply and exhaust fans are installed, the provided ventilation rate is the larger of the total supply airflow or the total exhaust airflow. The airflow rates of the supply and exhaust fans cannot be added together. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 19 Intermittent Ventilation In some cases, it may be desirable to design a ventilation system that operates intermittently. The most common example of intermittent ventilation is a when outside air is ducted to the return plenum and the central HVAC fan is used to provide ventilation. This type of ventilation is permitted as long as the ventilation air flow is increased to respond to the fewer hours of fan operation. The increased flow depends on the fraction of time the fans operate. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 20 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 10
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Intermittent Ventilation —CONTINUED Figure 4-23 shows the multiplier based on the total 4- hours per day of fan operation. There is very little need to increase fan flow when the fans operate for more than about 20 hours per day. However, the required flow rate can be 10 to 20 times greater when the fans operate for less than 6 hours per day. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 21 Equation 4-2 The multipliers in Figure 4-23 are determined from the 4- following equation, which can be used in lieu of the graph. Qf = Qr/(ef) Qr/(ef) Where: Qf = fan flow rate Qr = ventilation air requirement (continuous) e = ventilation effectiveness, (Table 4-8, next slide) 4- f = fractional on-time. on- 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 22 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 11
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Table 4-8–Ventilation Effectiveness for Intermittent Fans Intermittent ventilation systems have to be automatically controlled by a timer or other device that assures that they will operate the minimum amount of time needed to meet the ventilation requirement. The automatic controls shall make sure that the fan operates at least one hour in twelve. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 23 Table 4-8–Ventilation Effectiveness for Intermittent Fans Intermittent ventilation systems have to be automatically controlled by a timer or other device that assures that they will operate the minimum amount of time needed to meet the ventilation requirement. The automatic controls shall make sure that the fan operates at least one hour in twelve. Determine Intermittent CFM Step 1:Determine fractional on-time, EXAMPLE: With the fan running on- 2 hours every 12 hours, 2/12 = 0.167 = f Step 2:Locate the Daily Fractional On-time and take the On- Effectiveness factor from that line. EXAMPLE: .33 Step 3:CFA x 0.01 +( (bedrooms + 1) X 7.5) / (0.167 x .33) EXAMPLE: 1,800 x 0.01 + ((3 + 1) x 7.5) / 0.05511 = 871 CFM 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 24 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 12
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Control and Operation The standard requires that the ventilation system have an override control which is readily accessible to the occupants. The “fan-on” switch on a typical “fan- thermostat controlling the HVAC system and the wall switch for an exhaust fan are both allowed as acceptable controls. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 25 Example 4-9–Control Options Question I plan to use a bathroom exhaust fan to provide the ventilation for a house. The fan is designed to be operated by a typical wall switch. Do I need to put a label on the wall plate to comply with the requirement that controls be “appropriately labeled”? Answer Yes. If the exhaust fan were serving only the local exhaust requirement for the bathroom, then a label would not be required. q , q Since the fan is providing whole house ventilation, a label is needed to inform the occupant of that. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 26 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 13
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Heat Recovery or Energy Recovery Ventilators Systems using Heat Recovery or Energy Recovery ventilators may need to account for the heat recovery benefit in the performance calculation to make up for their high energy use. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 27 Ventilation Rate A minimum flow of 100 cfm is required for the range hood and 50 cfm for the bath fan. The 100 cfm fan. requirement f the range h d or microwave/hood i for h hood i /h d combination is the minimum to adequately capture the moisture and other products of cooking and/or combustion. The kitchen exhaust requirement can also be met with either a ceiling or wall mounted exhaust fan or with a ducted fan or ducted ventilation system that provides at least 5 air changes of the kitchen volume per hour. hour. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 28 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 14
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Example 4-13–Is an Intermittent Range Hood Required? Question I am building a house with a kitchen that is 12’ x 14’ with a 10 foot ceiling. What size ceiling fan is required? Answer The kitchen volume is 12’ x 14’ x 10’ = 1680 cubic feet 5 ACH = 8400 ft3/hour 8400/60 min/hr = 140 cfm So this kitchen must have a ceiling or wall fan of 140 cfm or a 100 cfm vented range hood. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 29 Clothes Dryers All laundry rooms must be built with a duct to the outdoors, designed to be connected to the dryer. Devices which allow the exhaust air to be diverted into the indoor space to provide extra heating are not permitted. This requirement is consistent with existing clothes dryer installation and design standards. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 30 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 15
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Garages If an air handling unit (furnace) is located in the garage, or return ducts are located in the garage (regardless of the air handler location) the entire duct system must meet the sealed and tested ducts criteria. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 31 Example 4-16–Garages Question The building designer located the air handler in the garage. The main return trunk from the dwelling is connected to the air handler. Is this acceptable? Answer Yes, provided that the duct system is leak tested at 25 Pa. and sealed, if necessary, to have leakage no greater than 6% of the total fan flow. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 32 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 16
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Minimum Filtration The standard requires that particulate air filtration of no less than MERV 6 efficiency be installed in any o ess t a e c e cy sta ed a y HVAC system having more than 10 ft of ductwork. The particulate filter must be installed such that all of the air circulated through the furnace or air handler is filtered prior to passing through the t e a co d t o g po t o o t e syste thermal conditioning portion of the system. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 33 Airflow Rating The air flow rating can be verified in one of two ways. The system can be tested after installation to show that the delivered airflow meets the design requirement. requirement. A prescriptive alternate is available for simple exhaust systems where the fan has a certified airflow rating that meets or exceed the required airflow when measured at 0.25” iwc. iwc. And the duct system meets the requirements of Table 4-9. 4- 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 34 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 17
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Table 4-9 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 35 Example 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 36 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 18
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Example 4-20–Prescriptive Duct Sizing Question I need to provide 75 cfm of continuous ventilation, ventilation which I plan to do using a central exhaust fan. I plan to connect the fan to a roof vent termination using flex duct. The duct will be about 8 feet long, with no real elbows, but some slight bends in the duct. What size duct do I need to use? 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 37 Example 4-20–Prescriptive Duct Sizing —CONTINUED Answer From Table 4-9, using the 80 cfm flex duct column, we find that the 4-9 cfm, column maximum length with 4” duct is 3 feet, so you cannot use 4” duct. feet, With 5” duct the maximum length is 70 feet, so that will clearly be feet, adequate. Even if the bend in the duct is treated as an elbow, the elbow, allowable length only drops to 55 feet, more than adequate for the 8 feet required. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 38 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 19
    • California Center for Sustainable Energy Multi-Branch Exhaust Ducting The first restriction is that if more than one exhaust fan in a dwelling shares a common duct, then each fan must be equipped with a backdraft damper so that air exhausted from one bathroom or unit is not allowed to go into another space. 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 39 Questions? 2008 Title 24 Ventilation Basics Page 40 Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation Page 20