WWII

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WWII

  1. 1. The Outbreak of World War II & U.S. Response
  2. 2. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Post World War I Europe Rise of Totalitarian States The Treaty of Versailles The Great Depression <ul><li>Single Party Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Strong charismatic Leader </li></ul><ul><li>State control of economy </li></ul><ul><li>Use of police, spies, terror </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. control of media </li></ul><ul><li>Use of schools to spread ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Strict censorship </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian New Ideologies Fascism Socialism <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Puts economy under govt. control </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes control of state over individual </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, Germany, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to create a classless state </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on dismantling capitalism by putting means of production under state control </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul>Liberal Democracy <ul><li>Has a Constitution & elected representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Has Rule of Law---Constitution applies to everyone </li></ul>OPPOSE
  4. 4. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Soviet Union and Italy Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini <ul><li>Soviet Union & Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Came to power in 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>10 million people died during his time in office </li></ul><ul><li>Purged Communist Party of rivals for power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy & Mussolini </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded the Fascist Party in 1919 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came to power in 1922 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed political parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a secret police </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Germany <ul><li>Challenges Facing Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Struggled to set up a functioning democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Hampered by severe economic issues </li></ul><ul><li>Angered by the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s Rise to Power </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed Chancellor in 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidated power by 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Used secret police and state controlled press </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Japan <ul><li>1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Increased democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced power of military </li></ul><ul><li>1930s & Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered the military </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded into China (1931) </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded again (1937) 200,000 deaths </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Dictators Expand <ul><li>Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilt German army, navy, air force </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilt German economy </li></ul><ul><li>Reoccupied the Rhineland (1936) </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Ethiopia (1935) </li></ul>No response from the League of Nations!
  8. 8. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Appeasement <ul><li>Munich Conference, 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Prompted by Hitler’s expansion into Austria and Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Attended by Britain, France, and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in a lack of action against Hitler; U.S. did not respond </li></ul>Why?
  9. 9. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Great Debate 1940 - 1941 There have been a number of fierce national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties---but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” ---Arthur Schlessinger, Historian At no other time in our history have these processes of democratic discussion had freer reign than in the debate on lend-lease. It was as if the whole American people were thinking out loud.” ---U.S. Undersecretary of State, Edward Stettinius, 1943
  10. 10. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian American Isolationism 1935 - 1941 <ul><li>Did NOT mean complete isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Did believe the U.S. was protected by its oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Did believe involvement would threaten our independence and our democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Included diverse group of Americans </li></ul>In matters of trade and commerce we have never been isolationist and never will be. In matters of finance, unfortunately, we have not been isolationists. . .But in all matters political . . . which encroach in the slightest upon the free and unembarrassed action of our people. . .we have been free, we have been independent, we have been isolationist. Senator William E. Borah, Republican of Idaho (1934)
  11. 11. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Nye Committee 1934 - 1937 “ War and warfare since time immemorial have been primarily instituted by a comparatively few of the high and mighty in the political and financial structures of the countries of the world, for political aggrandizement and commercial advantage.” ---Chicago Federation of Labor in response to Nye Committee <ul><li>Created by Senator Gerald Nye (R) ND </li></ul><ul><li>Held investigations for 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Investigated banking &munitions industries </li></ul><ul><li>Found that the industries were “greedy” </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed that Wilson provoked Germany by sailing into warring nation’s waters </li></ul>
  12. 12. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Neutrality Acts Neutrality is to be had if we are willing to pay the price of abandonment of expectation of profits from the blood of other nations at war.” ---Senator Gerald Nye, January 6, 1936 <ul><li>Neutrality Act of 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>prohibited shipping or carrying arms to warring nations. </li></ul><ul><li>established the Munitions Board to bring armament industry under fed. control </li></ul><ul><li>allowed sale of oil/ steel </li></ul><ul><li>Italy, 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>attacked Ethiopia, Oct. 3, 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>unprovoked act of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>FDR’s Response </li></ul><ul><li>applied the arms embargo required by act </li></ul><ul><li>could not prevent the sale of oil by private industry </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Neutrality Acts We have learned that when we try to legislate neutrality, our neutrality laws may operate unevenly and unfairly---may actually give aid to an aggressor and deny it to the victim. ---FDR on ‘36 Act <ul><li>Neutrality Act of 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>prohibited all loans or credits to belligerents </li></ul><ul><li>prohibited sale of war material including steel and oil </li></ul><ul><li>treated all countries equally </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Act of 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>extended prohibitions to wars within a state (Spain) as well as wars between states </li></ul><ul><li>prohibited American ships from sailing in war zones </li></ul><ul><li>prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of belligerents </li></ul>
  14. 14. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian World War II Begins Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland
  15. 15. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian FDR’s Response to Poland When peace has been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries everywhere is in danger. [It is easy for you and for me to shrug our shoulders and say that conflicts taking place thousands of miles . . .from the whole American hemisphere do not seriously affect the Americas0—and that all the United States has to do is to ignore them and go about its business. Passionately though we may desire detachment, we are forced to realize that every word that comes through the air, every ship that sails the sea, every battle that is fought does affect the American future. ---FDR, fireside chat, Sept. 3, 1939
  16. 16. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Neutrality Act of 1939 <ul><li>In response to Germany’s invasion of Poland : </li></ul><ul><li>FDR persuades Congress in special session to allow the US to aid European democracies in a limited way: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The US could sell weapons to the European democracies on a “cash-and-carry” basis. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FDR was authorized to proclaim danger zones which US ships and citizens could not enter. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results of the 1939 Neutrality Act: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressors (Germany and Italy) could not send ships to buy US munitions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The US economy improved as European demands for war goods helped bring the country out of the 1937-38 recession. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>America becomes the “Arsenal of Democracy.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian World War II Continues. . . April 9, 1940: Germany attacks Denmark & Norway May 10, 1940: Germany attacks Belgium and Netherlands and heads into France July 1940: Germany attacks Britain June, 1940: Italy joins the war.
  18. 19. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Lend Lease Bill Proposed: Dec. 1940 | Passed March 1941 “ What do I do in such a crisis? I don’t say, Neighbor, my garden hose cost me $15; you have to pay me $15 for it. . I don’t want $15---I want my garden hose back after the fire is over. ---FDR, Dec., 1940 <ul><li>Churchill sends message to FDR asking for aid. </li></ul><ul><li>FDR proposes Lend –Lease Bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Lend Lease would allow FDR to give arms/war material to any nation deemed central to the protection of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Lend Lease placed NO limits on quantities which could be shipped. </li></ul><ul><li>Lend Lease allows “friendly” belligerents to use American ports. </li></ul>
  19. 20. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian December 7, 1941 <ul><li>Attack on Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed ½ the U.S. Pacific Fleet </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 2887 American soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Killed hundreds of civilians </li></ul>Click here to hear an acct. of the attack .
  20. 21. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian FDR Signs War Declaration “ My convictions regarding international cooperation and collective security for peace took firm form in the aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack. The day ended isolationism for any realist.” ---Senator Arthur Vandenberg (R) Michigan
  21. 22. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mrs. L.L. Kellam : “Mr. President, I think I speak for the community here and say that we are all behind you. You have led us through some very trying times, and we feel like that you're going to lead us on through this troublesome time that we have ahead of us. . . We have unlimited confidence in your leadership.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Worker : &quot;I am not ready for our country to enter a war. I suppose I could be called an isolationist, but I went through school and college during the '20s and early '30s when the emphasis was upon the futility of war, specifically on the failure of the last world war in settling any of the essential problems and particularly in saving the world for democracy.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Postal Clerk Carrier : I am full of great joys and happiness after I listened to our great president's speech. It has made me feel like a new man . . . And action will now talk the loudest. . . .I know this will be a terrible struggle, but I know the goodness of man, backed by the fineness of our president, and the great preservation of our people, will conquer in the end all that is evil. And thank God we have a great man above us who is our president.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian
  23. 24. 1942 - 1945 Turning the Tide in Europe & the Pacific
  24. 25. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Advantages & Disadvantages? The Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) The Allies (U.S. Britain, Soviet Union)
  25. 26. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Turning the Tide in Europe <ul><li>Challenge #1: Defeating German U- Boats </li></ul><ul><li>sunk merchant ships carrying necessary supplies to the Allies (3,500) </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? Convoys </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge #2: Turning Back the Nazis in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>attacked Stalingrad to capture oil fields </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? Germans surrendered on Jan. 31, 1943 </li></ul>
  26. 27. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Turning the Tide in North Africa Challenge #3: Opening a Second Front 1940: Battle for North Africa begins---Germany & Italy vs. Britain Oct., 1942 : British win major victory in Egypt (El Alamein) and push west Nov., 1942 : Allied troops land in Morocco and Algeria and push east Feb., 1943: German general Erwin Rommel attacks Allies in Tunisia—Allies finally win! May, 1943 : Allies defeat German and Italians in Tunisia---capture 240,000 troops
  27. 28. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Casablanca Meeting January, 1943 2 Key Decisions 1.) Allies will increase bombing of Germany & invade Italy 2.) FDR announces that only unconditional surrender will end the war: Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo cannot stay in power Allies defeat Italy by September, 1943 but get bogged down fighting the Germans.
  28. 29. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Bombing Germany <ul><li>Challenge #4: Bringing the war to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation Bombing </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out at night </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to inflict maximum damages </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted at German cities </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Bombing </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out during the day </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at key political and industrial centers </li></ul>20% Casualty Rate
  29. 30. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian And in the Pacific . . .
  30. 31. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Turning the Tide in the Pacific <ul><li>Battle of Midway (June 5, 1942) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. broke Japanese code and knew about the attack </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and 250 planes </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. killed most of Japan’s </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced pilots </li></ul><ul><li>Impact : halted Japanese advance & put U.S. on offensive </li></ul>
  31. 32. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Planning Germany’s Defeat
  32. 33. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian D-Day: June 6, 1944 <ul><li>Operation Overlord </li></ul><ul><li>21 American divisions, 26 British, Canadian and Polish divisions </li></ul><ul><li>4,400 landing crafts and ships </li></ul><ul><li>11,000 planes </li></ul><ul><li>Impact : Opened the second front and allowed Allied forces to advance toward Germany. </li></ul>Eisenhower addresses Allied troops.
  33. 34. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Battle of the Bulge, Dec. 1944 <ul><li>Last German Offensive </li></ul><ul><li>aimed to drive a wedge through Allied forces </li></ul><ul><li>crippled German forces </li></ul>German Surrender: May 7, 1945!

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