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Wwi

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  • 1. Unit 1: The Emergence of Modern America Topic #2: World War I Guiding Questions ‐‐‐How and why did the United States enter World War I?   ‐‐‐What were Wilson's goals upon entering World War I? Why didn't more Americans share his vision of  American national interests? ‐‐‐How did World War I affect the United States at home? Who benefited? Who did not? Why? ‐‐‐How did the American government shape public opinion during the war? What can we learn from  these efforts? ‐‐‐Why did the Senate reject the Versailles Treaty? What were the implications of this decision?  ‐‐‐What was the post‐war backlash?  1
  • 2. 20th Century U.S. Wars 1898:  1914 ‐ 1918:  1939‐ 1945:  1945 ‐ 1989 Spanish‐American  World War I:  World War II:  Cold War War Europe Europe 1950 ‐ 1953 1960 ‐ 1975 Korean War Vietnam War 1917 ‐ 1918:  1941‐ 1945:  World War I:  World War II:  United States United States Why did we enter each war?  What was our national interest?  2
  • 3. World War I in Europe (1914 ‐ 1918) Causes (Brief!) Allies:  Central Powers: Nature of the War 3
  • 4. Wilson's Neutrality Policy (1914):  What is the nature of this policy? Why does this policy fail to keep us out of war? 4
  • 5. What factors undermined Wilson's neutrality policy? Why did the U.S. enter World War I in  1917? Economic Argument  5
  • 6. Political Argument  Moral Argument  6
  • 7. OUR QUESTIONS FOR THE DAY 1.) How did World War I end? 2.) What did President Wilson hope to get out of the peace? 3.) What actually happened instead and why? 4.) Why did the U.S. Senate fail to ratify the Treaty of Versailles? 5.) What were the lasting implications of this failure? 7
  • 8. Turning Points in Ending World War I ` March 1917 April 1917 June 1917 Nov. 1917 Nov. 1918 German U Boat  U.S. Declares War  American Forces  Bolshevik Revolution  Armistice Ends War War Intensifies on Germany Arrive in Europe in Russia 8
  • 9. The Peace Conference The Palace of Versailles, January 1919 The Big 4: President Wilson, Prime Minister Lloyd George (England), Prime Minister George Clemenceau (France) and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Imagine you can step in the minds of these four world leaders as they discuss their hopes for the upcoming peace conference. What are they concerned about? What are their goals? 9
  • 10. What kind of peace did  Wilson envision? 10
  • 11. How would you describe the provisions of the peace treaty? 11
  • 12. The Senate Debate Over the League of Nations Internationalists Mild Reservationists  Strong Reservationists  Irreconcilables  President Wilson  Senator Hitchcock Senator Lodge Senator Borah 27 Senate Democrats 20 Senate Republicans 7 Senate Republicans 14 Senate Republicans 20 Senate Democrats 1 Democrat 12
  • 13. Covenant of the League of Nations Article X  quot;The Members of the League undertake to  respect and preserve as against external  aggression the territorial integrity and  existing political independence of all  Members of the League. In case of any such  aggression or in case of any threat or  danger of such aggression the Council shall  advise upon the means by which this  obligation shall be fufilled.quot; 13
  • 14. The Senate Vote November 19, 1919 Treaty + Lodge Reservations Senate Democrats + Irreconcilables Voted Against = 55 Lodge Reservationists = 39  The Senate Vote March 19, 1920 Treaty ­ Lodge Reservations Still Failed! 14
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  • 16. Lodge, Knox and  What issue is the cartoonist  Borah are Republican  addressing?  Senators What's the main message of  the cartoon? 16
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