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Us And Wwii

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  • 1. U.S. Entry Into World War II The Great Debate
  • 2. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Great Debate 1940 - 1941 There have been a number of fierce national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties---but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” ---Arthur Schlessinger, Historian At no other time in our history have these processes of democratic discussion had freer reign than in the debate on lend-lease. It was as if the whole American people were thinking out loud.” ---U.S. Undersecretary of State, Edward Stettinius, 1943
  • 3. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian American Isolationism 1935 - 1941
    • Did NOT mean complete isolation
    • Did believe the U.S. was protected by its oceans
    • Did believe involvement would threaten our independence and our democracy
    • Included diverse group of Americans
    In matters of trade and commerce we have never been isolationist and never will be. In matters of finance, unfortunately, we have not been isolationists. . .But in all matters political . . . which encroach in the slightest upon the free and unembarrassed action of our people. . .we have been free, we have been independent, we have been isolationist. Senator William E. Borah, Republican of Idaho (1934)
  • 4. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Nye Committee 1934 - 1937 “ War and warfare since time immemorial have been primarily instituted by a comparatively few of the high and mighty in the political and financial structures of the countries of the world, for political aggrandizement and commercial advantage.” ---Chicago Federation of Labor in response to Nye Committee
    • Created by Senator Gerald Nye (R) ND
    • Held investigations for 3 years
    • Investigated banking &munitions industries
    • Found that the industries were “greedy”
    • Claimed that Wilson provoked Germany by sailing into warring nation’s waters
  • 5. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Neutrality Acts Neutrality is to be had if we are willing to pay the price of abandonment of expectation of profits from the blood of other nations at war.” ---Senator Gerald Nye, January 6, 1936
    • Neutrality Act of 1935
    • prohibited shipping or carrying arms to warring nations.
    • established the Munitions Board to bring armament industry under fed. control
    • allowed sale of oil/ steel
    • Italy, 1935
    • attacked Ethiopia, Oct. 3, 1935
    • unprovoked act of aggression
    • FDR’s Response
    • applied the arms embargo required by act
    • could not prevent the sale of oil by private industry
  • 6. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Neutrality Acts We have learned that when we try to legislate neutrality, our neutrality laws may operate unevenly and unfairly---may actually give aid to an aggressor and deny it to the victim. ---FDR on ‘36 Act
    • Neutrality Act of 1936
    • prohibited all loans or credits to belligerents
    • prohibited sale of war material including steel and oil
    • treated all countries equally
    • allowed sale of oil/ steel
    • Neutrality Act of 1937
    • extended prohibitions to wars within a state (Spain) as well as wars between states
    • prohibited American ships from sailing in war zones
    • prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of belligerents
  • 7. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian No foreign entanglements!
  • 8. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Context Changes 1935 : Hitler denounced the Versailles Treaty & the League of Nations [re-arming] Mussolini attacks Ethiopia. 1936 : German troops sent into the Rhineland. Fascist forces sent to fight with Franco in Spain. 1938 : Austrian Anschluss . Rome-Berlin Tokyo Pact [AXIS] Munich Agreement  APPEASEMENT! 1939 : German troops march into the rest of Czechoslovakia. Hitler-Stalin Non-Aggression Pact. September 1, 1939 : German troops march into Poland  blitzkrieg WW II begins!!!
  • 9. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian FDR’s Response to Poland When peace has been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries everywhere is in danger. [It is easy for you and for me to shrug our shoulders and say that conflicts taking place thousands of miles . . .from the whole American hemisphere do not seriously affect the Americas0—and that all the United States has to do is to ignore them and go about its business. Passionately though we may desire detachment, we are forced to realize that every word that comes through the air, every ship that sails the sea, every battle that is fought does affect the American future. ---FDR, fireside chat, Sept. 3, 1939
  • 10. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Neutrality Act of 1939
    • In response to Germany’s invasion of Poland :
    • FDR persuades Congress in special session to allow the US to aid European democracies in a limited way:
          • The US could sell weapons to the European democracies on a “cash-and-carry” basis.
          • FDR was authorized to proclaim danger zones which US ships and citizens could not enter.
    • Results of the 1939 Neutrality Act:
        • Aggressors could not send ships to buy US munitions.
        • The US economy improved as European demands for war goods helped bring the country out of the 1937-38 recession.
    • America becomes the “Arsenal of Democracy.”
  • 11. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Context Changes: 1940
    • Hitler conquers Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands and France
    • Italy joins the war on June 10 th .
    • Japan moves into French Indochina.
    • Germany, Italy, & Japan sign the Tri-Partite Pact in Sept.
    • America First Committee is formed in September.
    • FDR wins reelection in November.
    We will not participate in foreign wars and will not need our army naval, or air forces to fight in foreign wars outside of the Americas except in case of attack.” ---FDR, Oct. 29, 1940
  • 12.  
  • 13. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Lend Lease Bill Dec. 1940 “ What do I do in such a crisis? I don’t say, Neighbor, my garden hose cost me $15; you have to pay me $15 for it. . I don’t want $15---I want my garden hose back after the fire is over. ---FDR, Dec., 1940
    • Churchill sends message to FDR asking for aid.
    • FDR proposes Lend –Lease Bill.
    • Lend Lease would allow FDR to give arms/war material to any nation deemed central to the protection of the U.S.
    • Lend Lease placed NO limits on quantities which could be shipped.
    • Lend Lease allows “friendly” belligerents to use American ports.
  • 14. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian The Great Debate 1941 Charles Lindbergh, 1941 FDR, 1941
  • 15. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian Context Changes December 7, 1941
    • Attack on Pearl Harbor
    • Began at 7:55 a.m.
    • Destroyed 19 Navy ships—including 8 battleships; aircraft carriers were out to sea
    • Killed 2403 American soldiers
    • Killed 68 Civilians
  • 16. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian FDR Signs War Declaration “ My convictions regarding international cooperation and collective security for peace took firm form in the aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack. The day ended isolationism for any realist.” ---Senator Arthur Vandenberg (R) Michigan
  • 17. “ There have been a number of fierce, national quarrels in my lifetime---over communism in the late Forties, over McCarthyism in the Fifties, over Vietnam in the Sixties—but none so tore apart families and friendships as the great debate of 1940 – 1941.” Arthurs Schlessinger Jr. , Historian FDR’s Vision of the War & Its Aftermath