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The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace, QUT
 

The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace, QUT

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  • This is the first two experiments (same treatments), but conducted on fresh area of pasture
  • N use efficiency is important where labile C is available, and in practice NUE has remained static in Australia.

The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace, QUT The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace, QUT Presentation Transcript

  • The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program (NORP) Peter Grace n2o.net.au N 2 O Network
  • Acknowledgements
    • Graeme Schwenke (NSW I&I)
    • Louie Barton (UWA)
    • Clemens Scheer (QUT)
    • Sally Officer & Kevin Kelly (Vic DPI)
    • Weijin Wang (Qld DERM)
    • Deli Chen & Helen Suter (Uni Melb.)
  • Why N 2 O?
    • Global warming potential is 300 x CO 2
    • Principally emitted from N sources applied to soils
    • Intimately linked to crop and pasture production and resource use efficiency (profitability)
    • Mitigation is a permanent, avoided emission
  • Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification Fertiliser etc
  • Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification Soil water content < Field capacity Saturated
  • Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification LABILE CARBON Soil water content < Field capacity Saturated
  • Why N 2 O? NH 4 + NO 3 + N 2 O N 2 N 2 O Nitrification Denitrification N 2 /N 2 O = 30+ Soil water content < Field capacity Saturated
  • NORP Objectives
    • Reduced uncertainty re the magnitude of N 2 O, CH 4 and CO 2 emissions in response to management.
    • Evidence based mitigation practices and systems.
    • Improve the accuracy of simulation models and the national greenhouse gas inventory.
    • Provide technical support for NAMI (National Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative)
  • NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe
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  • NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Rainfed grains
  • Wongan Hills, Western Australia
    • Louise Barton , UWA
    • Rainfed, lupin-wheat & wheat-wheat rotation
    • Reducing N 2 O emissions by raising soil pH (via liming).
    • Reducing CO 2 emissions from urea by substituting urea with grain-legume fixed N.
  • Tamworth, New South Wales
    • Graeme Schwenke , I&I NSW
    • Rainfed grains
    • Reducing N 2 O emissions through inclusion of grain. legumes to reduce N fertilizer inputs within a rotation.
  • Hamilton, Victoria
    • Sally Officer, DPI Vic
    • Rainfed, legume/wheat rotation after pasture
    • N 2 O and CO 2 emissions from direct drilled and conventionally sown legume/wheat rotations, with and without the use of nitrification inhibitors.
    Late August Early October Late November
  • NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Irrigated grains/cotton Rainfed grains/sugar cane Rainfed grains
  • Kingsthorpe, Queensland
    • Peter Grace , Queensland University of Technology
    • Irrigated cotton-grains
    • Reducing N 2 O emissions through irrigation and nitrogen management.
  • NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Irrigated grains/cotton Rainfed grains/sugar cane Rainfed grains Dairy
  • Terang, Victoria
    • Kevin Kelly, DPI Victoria
    • Pasture systems
    • Impact of inhibitors on N 2 O emissions following the application of urine to high rainfall dairy pastures.
  • NORP Core Field Sites Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Rainfed grains Rainfed grains Rainfed grains/sugar cane Rainfed grains
  • Mackay, Queensland
    • Dr Weijin Wang, Sugar Research & Development Corporation
    • Rainfed, sugar cane
    • Reducing N fertilizer inputs through use of legume-fixed N.
    • Impact of nitrification inhibitors on N 2 O emissions.
  • NORP Core Field Sites + Wongan Hills Terang Hamilton Tamworth` Mackay Kingsthorpe Narrabri Griffith Wollongbar
  • Daily N 2 O flux (+/- inhibitor) - dairy Terang (Vic) Kelly et al. unpublished
  • Hourly N 2 O flux – wheat Wongan Hills (WA) Barton et al. unpublished
  • www.N2O.net.au Repository
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Wide range in N 2 O emissions
      • 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.
    • Highest emissions
      • High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.)
      • High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.)
      • High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)
    • Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O.
    • Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Wide range in N 2 O emissions
      • 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.
    • Highest emissions
      • High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.)
      • High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.)
      • High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)
    • Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O.
    • Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Wide range in N 2 O emissions
      • 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.
    • Highest emissions
      • High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.)
      • High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.)
      • High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)
    • Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O.
    • Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Wide range in N 2 O emissions
      • 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.
    • Highest emissions
      • High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.)
      • High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.)
      • High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)
    • Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N 2 O.
    • Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N 2 O emissions due to residue removal.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.
    • Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.
    • Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific.
    • Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.
    • Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.
    • Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific.
    • Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.
    • Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.
    • Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific.
    • Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N 2 O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.
    • Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH 4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.
    • Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N 2 O emissions but highly variable and site specific.
    • Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N 2 O emissions.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Magnitude of N 2 O emissions is heavily dependent on the ability to produce and retain significantly large amounts of biomass and readily decomposable carbon.
    • Tendency for increased inputs of carbon in irrigated and medium-high rainfall cropping systems of NE Aust. (i.e. retaining residues and use of legume N sources) will potentially increase N 2 O emissions.
  • Top 10 findings to date
    • Magnitude of N 2 O emissions is heavily dependent on the ability to produce and retain significantly large amounts of biomass and readily decomposable carbon.
    • Tendency for increased inputs of carbon in irrigated and medium-high rainfall cropping systems of NE Aust. (i.e. retaining residues and use of legume N sources) will potentially increase N 2 O emissions.
  • Labile carbon and N 2 O emissions in cropping systems
  • Labile carbon and N 2 O emissions in cropping systems
  • Labile carbon and N 2 O emissions in cropping systems
  • Nitrogen Use Efficiency (Cereals)* *FAOSTAT
  • Regional N 2 O Emission Potential Low Medium High No data/uncertain Grace et al. unpublished
  • Conclusions
    • Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N 2 O emissions.
    • Maintaining profitability requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation.
    • The significant variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across a wide range of climates and soils underscores the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations.
  • Conclusions
    • Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N 2 O emissions.
    • Productive and profitable farming requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation.
    • The significant variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across a wide range of climates and soils underscores the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations.
  • Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum Dryland Average Flux (g N 2 O-N/ha/day) 5.5 3.2 3.3 Seasonal Flux (kg N 2 O-N/ha) 0.75 0.43 0.45 Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23 Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219 Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6 Emissions intensity (kg N 2 O-N/t yield) 0.25 0.27 0.33
  • Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum Dryland Average Flux (g N 2 O-N/ha/day) 5.5 3.2 3.3 Seasonal Flux (kg N 2 O-N/ha) 0.75 0.43 0.45 Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23 Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219 Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6 Emissions intensity (kg N 2 O-N/t yield) 0.25 0.27 0.33
  • Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum Dryland Average Flux (g N 2 O-N/ha/day) 5.5 3.2 3.3 Seasonal Flux (kg N 2 O-N/ha) 0.75 0.43 0.45 Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23 Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219 Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6 Emissions intensity (kg N 2 O-N/t yield) 0.25 0.27 0.33
  • Conclusions
    • Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N 2 O emissions.
    • Maintaining productivity & profitability requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation.
    • Variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across climates and soils emphasises the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations.
  • THANK YOU