Securing pulses under changed climates - Rebecca Ford

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Securing pulses under changed climates - Rebecca Ford

  1. 1. Securing pulses under changed climates Potential impacts of foliar fungal pathogens Rebecca Ford1 and Kurt Lindbeck2 1MelbourneSustainable Society Institute & Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, The University of Melbourne 2Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Industry and Investment NSW
  2. 2. Food security and plant fungal diseasesPast impact of Potato Blight - Phytophthora infestans• Oomycete (water mould)• A series of very wet and cooler years prior to the epidemic• Sole cause of 1845 irish potato famine - 1M people starved, 2M people migrated
  3. 3. Current threat from Wheat Stem Rust - Puccinia graminis• Ug99 – Uganda Africa Asia (in India now)• The “polio of agriculture”• Wheat, rice and maize provide 60% of the world’s food energy intake• China and India - world’s biggest populations AND biggest wheat consumers• 90% of wheat varieties highly susceptible, 100% crop loss• 44% yield decrease by 2030 with 1-2oC rise alone in India (Swaminathan)
  4. 4. Australian pulse productivity • N2 fixation 2001-2009 • disease break • high return export • staple food 3 000.0 • moral obligation ~ 40 million 2 500.0 • sucker for diseases 2 000.02001-02 2002-03 1 500.0 2008-2011 2003-04 1 000.0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 500.0 700 2007-08 2008-09 0.0 600 Value ($m Area (ooo Production AUD) ha) (kt) 500 Production (kt) 400 300 Chickpea 200 Field pea 100 Faba B ean 0 Lentil 2008-09 2009-10 201 1 0-1Source: www.ABARE.gov.au
  5. 5. Disease threats and costsSource: Murray and Brennan (2011). Current and potential costs from diseases of pulse crops in Australia. GRDC report
  6. 6. Disease control and costs on chickpea $m AUDSource: Murray and Brennan (2011). Current and potential costsfrom diseases of pulse crops in Australia. GRDC report
  7. 7. The disease triangle ENVIRONMENT DISEASEPATHOGEN HOST
  8. 8. The disease quadrangleExternal environment Microclimaterainfall (frequency and humidity, dewvolume), temperature, soil period, temperature, lighconditions, CO2 t intensitylevel, cultural Environmentpractices, chemicals, vectorsPathogen Host plantfitness, virulence, reproducti architecture, canopyon, dissemination, population density, resistancesize, adaptive potential genes, additional stress, alternate host Genetics
  9. 9. External environment Phylloclimate climate changes altered timing and atmospheric CO2, heavy periods of leaf unseasonal wetness, relative rain, humidity, drought, winte humidity, temperature, w r temperature, cyclones ind speed, radiation Factors likely to influence disease severity and spreadPathogen Host plantaccelerated pathogen evolution – growth earlier inlarge and dense canopy = high season, plant height andrelative humidity + reduced branches, thickness andradiation and wind speed = area of leaves, leafpotential more infection = larger waxes and epidermalpopulations = greater chance for thicknessbeneficial recombination ormutation events
  10. 10. Effect of elevated CO2 (700 ppm) on pea plant biomass • Early growth stage and cultivar specific • Reproducible in the field (Ag-Face)? • Physiology association?Source: Saman Seneweera
  11. 11. Flooding in Wagga Wagga – December 2010 Water-logged paddocks in Tamworth August 2010 (Source: Kevin Moore I&INSW)
  12. 12. Rainfall events and volumes on northern NSW chickpea crops 2008 vs 2010 Year 2008 180 160 140 Rainfall (mm) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Year 2010 • 10 fungicide applications 50 45 40 • ran out of chemicals Rainfall (mm) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1/04/2010 1/05/2010 1/06/2010 1/07/2010 1/08/2010 1/09/2010 1/10/2010 1/11/2010 1/12/2010 DateSource: Kevin Moore I&INSW
  13. 13. “Chasing the water” – transformational consequences Ascochyta Blight Similar occurrence of major chickpea diseasesSource: Murray and Brennan (2011). Current and potential costs from diseases of pulse crops in Australia. GRDC report
  14. 14. Disease management options under shifting climates A need for “anticipatory research”• Changes in farming practices • Earlier sowing to avoid earlier rains at maturity • Appropriate sowing rate 9 8 • Appropriate row spacing 7 6 Disease Score Northfield B. cinerea • Chemical usage 5 Indianhead B. cinerea 4 Northfield B. fabae Indianhead B. fabae 3 2 1 0 6week 8week 10week 12week Time (weeks)• Resistance breeding • Germplasm from regions with predicted climates • Screening under altered environments
  15. 15. Back to basics! Leaf wetness period influenceBotrytis Grey Mould of lentil 7.0 6.0 5.0 Disease score 4.0 B. cinerea 3.0 B. fabae 2.0 1.0 0.0 3hr 6hr 9hr 12hr 18hr 24hr 36hr 48hr 72hr Leaf wetness period Spore concentration influence 5 4.5 4 3.5 Disease score 3 B. cinerea 2.5 B. fabae 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 100 spores/mL 1,000 spores/mL 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 spores/mL spores/mL spores/mL Spore concentration
  16. 16. Predicted disease changes by fungal foliar pathogens on field crops under changed climates Crop Disease and pathogen Predicted influence of climate change Reference on disease Barley Powdery mildew – Decrease at higher CO2 Hibberd et al, 1996 Blumeria graminis Rice Leaf blast – Increase at higher CO2 Kobayashi et al, 2006 Magnaportha oryzae Soybean Brown spot – Increase at higher CO2 Eastburn et al, 2010 Septoria glycines Soybean Sudden death syndrome – No effect at higher CO2 Eastburn et al, 2010 Fusarium virguliforme Wheat Stripe rust – Increase with higher temperature Coakley, 1979; Chakraborty et al, 1998; Puccinia striiformis Milus et al, 2006 Wheat Crown rot – Increase at higher CO2, cultivar and Chakraborty et al, 1998 ; Mulloy et al, Fusarium pseudograminearum soil water dependant 2010Adapted from Luck et al, (2011) Plant Pathology 60: 113-121
  17. 17. Ranking risks to crop yield and quality from effects of climate change on foliar borne pathogens “risk analyses to inspire farmer confidence”Adapted from Chakraborty and Newton (2011) Plant Pathology 60: 2-14
  18. 18. Revised disease management guides and adapted cultivarsBased on:• Multifactor studies of climate changeeffects on: • agroecological regions • disease (pathosystem-specific) • pathogen population dynamics• Smarter breeding for resistance • Better understanding of gene expression in plants and pathogens in response to climatic factors • traditional selective • GM
  19. 19. External environment climate changesCurrent changes in the Australian climateAtmospheric CO2 (88 ppm in 250 years)mean temperature (0.74 oC in 100 years)# of warm days# of cold days and frost eventstotal annual rainfall (6% in 100 years)Predicted changes in the Australian climate by 2095 underthe A2 scenario Atmospheric CO2 (1250 ppm) mean temperature (3-4 oC ) # of very warm days # of very cold days and frost events frequency of severe weather events (flooding, drought, cyclones) spatially and temporarily heterogeneous rainfall Source: Cosmos magazine
  20. 20. The phylloclimate and pathogen-host interaction[CO2] Solar radiation Temperature Chemicals Antagonists Water and % RH Host defence responses
  21. 21. The microclimate environmentNo air 95 -100% 95 -100% 95 – 100% No air humidity humidity humidity movementmovement Closed canopy High humidity High leaf wetness
  22. 22. • Precision agriculture tools Digital Thermography for Disease Control Pathogen affects water uptake and translocation = transpiration and leaf temperature Infrared thermography detects disease-induced changes in plant transpiration and water status.Source: Lenthe (2003). Joint conference of ECPA-ECPLF p477-478.
  23. 23. Agro ecological zones of the Australian cropping belt
  24. 24. Regions of major chickpea diseaseSource: Murray and Brennan (2011). Current and potential costs from diseases of pulse crops in Australia. GRDC report

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