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Plant adaptation to climate change - Scott Chapman
 

Plant adaptation to climate change - Scott Chapman

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  • Departure, trial, prize, return detachment, difficulty, understanding, transformation
  • Some genes very important (instructions for sparkplugs). Others not.
  • Breeders screen 1000s of lines; phenotypic data is expensive 2 traits, 5 genes = 3 10 genotypes… more realistically, breeders work with ca. 10 50 genotypes…. (There are about 10 18 to 10 25 grains of sand on this planet…)
  • For index of frost and heat stress
  • Change - economic importance - stubble diseases notes to help you with - Diseases by pathogens that can live on stubble, etc will become more important than rusts that are more severe on healthy plants- these are the necrotrophic pathogens. These are the pathogens causing wilts, scabs, blights, blotches, spots etc. with poorly understood genetics. Change – geographic distribution notes to help you with – Crops will be increasingly grown in marginal soils as cropping areas shift pole ward. New diseases and disease complexes will become important on stressed crops. Increase - risk of new races evolving notes to help you with – Extended growing season, enlarged crop canopy and other pathogen factors will accelerate pathogen evolution. We have to be prepared for new races like UG99 affecting resistances that have been effective for a very long time [30 years for UG99]. Consequence - my favourite gene is ineffective - notes to help you with – Do we know how mfg will perform under CC? Examples are temperature-sensitive rust resistance genes, high CO2 effects on some host defence genes
  • Development – avoiding high temperature at flowering Faster crop development in winter crops (earlier maturing) Slower crop development in summer crops? Leaf growth and tillering Faster appearance of more tillers Trade-off for water use Biomass accumulation Lower stomatal conductance, higher photosynthetic rates, higher transpiration efficiency, lower N requirement? Partitioning/yield components Higher carbohydrate storage in stems Grain number and potential size High temperature tolerance for seedlings, pollen germination and grain set
  • Link: Crop reflectance is one of the technologies available for quantitative phenotyping
  • Cut and paste from C:\\Ky\\1projects\\GCPIC28\\Analyses\\GenstatQTLxE\\SeriBabax\\401Map\\AusOnly\\1results\\QE_SIMyldantht_LiJi_correctwts.R and image plot from C:\\Ky\\1projects\\GCPIC28\\Analyses\\GenstatQTLxE\\SeriBabax\\401Map\\AusOnly\\yieldant\\BLUEs_correctwts\\QE1_SIM_image_NoColour.pdf Cut and paste from C:\\Ky\\1projects\\GCPIC28\\Analyses\\GenstatQTLxE\\SeriBabax\\401Map\\AusOnly\\1results\\QE_SIMyldantht_LiJi_correctwts.R and image plot from C:\\Ky\\1projects\\GCPIC28\\Analyses\\GenstatQTLxE\\SeriBabax\\401Map\\AusOnly\\yieldant\\BLUEs_correctwts\\QE1_SIM_image_NoColour.pdf and Cut and paste from C:\\Ky\\1projects\\GCPIC28\\Analyses\\GenstatQTLxE\\SeriBabax\\401Map\\AusOnly\\1results\\QE_SIMyldantht_LiJi_correctwts.R and image plot from C:\\Ky\\1projects\\GCPIC28\\Analyses\\GenstatQTLxE\\SeriBabax\\401Map\\AusOnly\\ant\\BLUEs_correctwts\\QE1_SIM_image_NoColour.pdf
  • Captures understanding Receives parameter inputs Translates knowledge from descriptive to predictive
  • Drivers Molecular, GM, food quality, biofuels, climate change

Plant adaptation to climate change - Scott Chapman Plant adaptation to climate change - Scott Chapman Presentation Transcript

  • Plant adaptation to climate change – opportunities in breeding SC Chapman , MF Dreccer , S Chakraborty , SM Howden
  • Climate change in Queensland? CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Plant adaptation to climate change – opportunities in breeding
    • Climate effects and challenges
    • Plant species, genetic diversity and breeding programs
    • What breeders do
    • Challenges of climate change for breeding
    • Integration of genotype, environment and management to develop new breeding systems
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Climate change effects on crops
    • Seasonal effects (‘intrinsic’)
      • Increased CO2, reduce water use *
      • Increased temp = shorter season *
      • Lower rainfall and drought (?)
      • Pests, weeds
    • Extreme effects (‘catastrophic’)
      • poor crop establishment
      • ‘ heat shock’ events affecting grain/fruit set and quality *
      • pest epidemics
      • Russia 2010, Australia 2010, China 2011 ?
    • Fitzgerald/Tauz – wheat and CO2 (Tue, Thur)
    • Sadras – early maturing grapes (Tue)
    • McCaskill – Pome fruit heat damage (Tue)
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Who breeds and who pays?
    • Breeding is expensive
    • International networks and genetic diversity
    • Maintenance vs improvement
    • How good is breeding?
      • 1 to 3% yield increase per year
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Tractor Genetics and Breeding
    • Genotype - $50 each
      • Blueprint of ‘genes’
    • Phenotype - $60 each?
      • a ‘trait’ interacting with environment e.g. How good is tractor in the mud?
    • What breeders do:
      • Genotyping – read the ‘blueprints’
      • Phenotyping – evaluate performance
      • Crossing - parts of tractors
      • Do it again…
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Breeding for effects of climate change
    • 5-25 years to breed a variety
    • 2050 is 2 to 8 cycles away
    • Genotypes – at least 10 50 genotypes (cf. 10 25 grains of sand on earth…)
    • Environments – 1000s All ‘possible’ farm paddocks
    • Traits – 10s yield, quality, disease resistance, biomass and energy
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Parental pool Selection of best Novel germplasm Industry output New cultivars Crossing Climate, Management New Traits and methods
  • Challenges for breeding
    • Which environments and diseases?
    • How much genetic variation?
    • What traits and methods to use?
    • How to deploy genetics?
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Parental pool Selection of best Novel germplasm Industry output New cultivars Crossing Climate, Management New Traits and methods
  • Which environments? It’s hotter already in the north
    • 2000-2009 vs 1960-1969
    • First ‘hot’ day (Tmax > 35ºC)
      • 3 weeks earlier in north
      • 1 week earlier in south
      • No change in west
    • What flowering date will we need in future? De Li Liu - wheat phenology (Thur)
    • Zhang, Chenu and Chapman (unpubl.)
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
      • What environments and diseases?
      • How much genetic variation?
      • What traits and methods to use?
      • How to deploy genetics?
  • Which environments will be where? Latitudinal shift 2050 vs Present
    • Frost and heat index
    • Which present day stations (start of arrow) best represent ‘future’ climates? i.e. screening in north is relevant to ‘future’ southern locations
    • Zhang, Chenu and Chapman (unpubl.)
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Which diseases?
    • Increased temperature and CO2 levels
    • Change in geographic distribution
    • More stubble = more necrotrophs
    • Increased risk of new races –
      • Rust strain UG99 broke through against 30 years of resistance
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Challenges for breeding
    • Which environments and diseases?
    • How much genetic variation?
    • What traits and methods to use?
    • How to deploy genetics?
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Parental pool Selection of best Novel germplasm Industry output New cultivars Crossing Climate, Management New Traits and methods
  • Genetic variation Traits for elevated CO 2 and temperature
    • Development – avoiding high temperature at flowering
      • Faster (winter crops) or slower (summer)
    • Tolerance to extremes (heat, frost, drought, water-logging)
      • Seedling vigour, pollen sterility, embryo growth
    • Leaf growth and tillering
      • Trade-off for water use
    • Biomass accumulation
      • Low stomatal conductance, higher photosyn rate, higher TE (C3 plants)
    • Partitioning/yield components
      • Carbohydrate storage in stems
      • Grain growth rate
    Photosynthesis CO 2 H 2 O CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Genetic variation Phenotyping heat and drought adaptation
    • Dreccer, Chapman (unpubl. data)
    Stem WSC Predicted Visible & IR cameras on Autonomous UAV LAI & canopy cover Canopy Temperature & water use Canopy N% for stay-green monitoring Measured CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Crop reflectance
  • Genetic variation - connecting Genotype and phenotype for heat and drought
    • Association of high grain number and yield with cool canopies
    • Collaboration with CIMMYT, Mexico
    • Pinto et al 2010 Theoretical and Applied Genetics
  • Challenges for breeding
    • Which environments and diseases?
    • How much genetic variation?
    • What traits and methods to use?
    • How to deploy genetics?
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Parental pool Selection of best Novel germplasm Industry output New cultivars Crossing Climate, Management New Traits and methods
  • Deploying genetics Comparing breeding methods
    • Breeding methods
      • Pedigree breeding – keeps ‘good’ genes together
      • Gene pyramiding – introducing ‘new’ genes
      • Recurrent selection – inbred development
      • Hybrid breeding – selection on progeny and testcross performance
      • Clonal, mass and other propagation methods
    • Molecular Marker assisted breeding methods
      • MAB – Marker assisted backcrossing
      • MAS – Marker assisted selection
      • MARS – Marker assisted recurrent selection
      • GWS – Genome wide selection
    • Podlich and Cooper (1998) Bioinformatics
    • Chapman et al (2003) Agron. J.
    • Wang et al (2004) Crop Sci.
    • Hammer et al (2005) AJAR
    • Cooper et al (2005) AJAR
    • Wang et al (2007) Crop Sci.
    • Hammer et al (2006) Trends in PlantSci.
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding http://www.uq.edu.au/lcafs/qugene/
  • Deploying genetics: Exploiting G x E x M
    • Basis for the green revolution
      • Dwarf genes + nitrogen + water + new management system
    • Combining molecular technologies and systems modelling
    • In a climate-change context
      • Water-saving
      • High temperature adapted
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Chapman et al 2007 Euphytica Hammer, G.L. and Jordan, J. (2007) In, G. van Laar (ed.) Gene-Plant-Crop Relations: Scale and Complexity in Plant Systems Research . Frontis Series. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands
  • Deploying genetics: A research framework for physiological and genetic simulation of plant breeding Trait genetics Simulate Crop Improvement Strategies Trait dissection and functional physiology Cooper et al. 2002, In Silico Biol. Software and Database Tools Genotype (AA, Aa, aa) Phenotype (P AA ,P Aa ,P aa ) Environment (climate, soil, management) Experiments –physiology and genetics APSIM
  • Plant adaptation to climate change – opportunities in breeding CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding AIM: identifying superior combinations of ‘useful’ genetic regions and re-packaging these into new varieties in new cropping systems for climate change environments GxExM Germplasm resources Non-invasive phenotyping Design of robuststrategies Genetic mapping and analysis Photo-synthesis Grain filling WSC Physiological analysis
  • Challenges for breeding
    • Which environments and diseases?
      • Where can we breed now for the ‘future’?
      • Necrotophic diseases
    • How much genetic variation?
      • Accessing international networks and companies
      • Phenology and per se tolerance
    • What traits and methods to use?
        • Direct and remote phenotyping
        • Genetic mapping
    • How to deploy genetics?
      • Accelerated breeding strategies
      • Marker and gene-aided selection, GM
    • Will it be enough?
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Opportunities Parental pool Selection of best Novel germplasm Industry output New cultivars Crossing Climate, Management New Traits and methods
  • Plant adaptation to climate change – opportunities in breeding CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding Breeding takes time, but new technologies accelerate it SC Chapman 1 , MF Dreccer 1 , S Chakraborty 1 , SM Howden 2 Acknowledgements K Chenu 3 , D Jordan 3 , G McLean 4 , GL Hammer 3 , M Bourgault 1 , S Milroy 1 , JA Palta-Paz 1 , KB Wockner 1 , B Zheng 1 1 CSIRO Plant Industry/Climate Adaptation Flagship, Australia 2 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences/Climate Adaptation Flagship, Australia 3 QAAFI, The University of Queensland, Australia 4 DEEDI, Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia
    • End…
    CCRSPI Feb 2011 Plant adaptation to climate change - opportunities in breeding
  • Crop Science is about creating additional “Breeding Knowledge”
    • What information will we have in future breeding programs?
      • Gene locations resolved to gene level
      • Gene pedigrees resolved to gene level
      • Gene effects resolved to component trait level
        • e.g. height, tillering, flowering
      • Selection environments characterised and/or managed
      • Traits phenotyped with non-invasive technologies
      • Improved statistical methods
      • Effects of component traits on yield (target) trait understood?
    • Complementary experiments and simulation help to
      • Anticipate how to best use new technologies
      • Create “breeding knowledge” from this information
      • Accelerate genetic gain across an industry or geographic range