The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace

638 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
703
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • N use efficiency is important where labile C is available, and in practice NUE has remained static in Australia.
  • The Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program - Peter Grace

    1. 1. n2o.net.au N2O NetworkThe Australian Nitrous Oxide Research Program (NORP) Peter Grace
    2. 2. Acknowledgements• Graeme Schwenke (NSW I&I)• Louie Barton (UWA)• Clemens Scheer (QUT)• Sally Officer & Kevin Kelly (Vic DPI)• Weijin Wang (Qld DERM)• Deli Chen & Helen Suter (Uni Melb.)
    3. 3. Why N2O?• Global warming potential is 300 x CO2• Principally emitted from N sources applied to soils• Intimately linked to crop and pasture production and resource use efficiency (profitability)• Mitigation is a permanent, avoided emission
    4. 4. Fertiliser etc Why N2O? N2O N2O NH4+ NO3+ N2 Nitrification Denitrification
    5. 5. Why N2O? N2O N2ONH4+ NO3+ N2 Nitrification Denitrification < Field capacity Saturated Soil water content
    6. 6. Why N2O? LABILE N2O N2O CARBONNH4+ NO3+ N2 Nitrification Denitrification < Field capacity Saturated Soil water content
    7. 7. Why N2O? N2/N2O = 30+ N2O N2ONH4+ NO3+ N2 Nitrification Denitrification < Field capacity Saturated Soil water content
    8. 8. NORP Objectives• Reduced uncertainty re the magnitude of N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions in response to management.• Evidence based mitigation practices and systems.• Improve the accuracy of simulation models and the national greenhouse gas inventory.• Provide technical support for NAMI (National Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative)
    9. 9. NORP Core Field Sites Mackay KingsthorpeWongan Hills Tamworth` Hamilton Terang
    10. 10. NORP Core Field Sites MackayRainfed grains Kingsthorpe Wongan Hills Tamworth` Rainfed grains Hamilton Rainfed grains Terang
    11. 11. Wongan Hills, Western AustraliaLouise Barton, UWARainfed, lupin-wheat & wheat-wheat rotation•Reducing N2O emissions by raising soil pH (via liming).•Reducing CO2 emissions from urea by substituting ureawith grain-legume fixed N.
    12. 12. Tamworth, New South WalesGraeme Schwenke, I&I NSWRainfed grains•Reducing N2O emissions through inclusion of grain.legumes to reduce N fertilizer inputs within a rotation.
    13. 13. Hamilton, VictoriaSally Officer, DPI VicRainfed, legume/wheat rotation after pasture•N2O and CO2 emissions from direct drilled andconventionally sown legume/wheat rotations, with andwithout the use of nitrification inhibitors. Late August Early October Late November
    14. 14. NORP Core Field Sites Rainfed grains/sugar cane Mackay Irrigated grains/cottonRainfed grains Kingsthorpe Wongan Hills Tamworth` Rainfed grains Hamilton Rainfed grains Terang
    15. 15. Kingsthorpe, QueenslandPeter Grace, Queensland University of TechnologyIrrigated cotton-grains•Reducing N2O emissions through irrigation and nitrogenmanagement.
    16. 16. NORP Core Field Sites Rainfed grains/sugar cane Mackay Irrigated grains/cottonRainfed grains Kingsthorpe Wongan Hills Tamworth` Rainfed grains Hamilton Rainfed grains Dairy Terang
    17. 17. Terang, VictoriaKevin Kelly, DPI VictoriaPasture systems•Impact of inhibitors on N2O emissions following theapplication of urine to high rainfall dairy pastures.
    18. 18. NORP Core Field Sites Rainfed grains/sugar cane MackayRainfed grains Kingsthorpe Wongan Hills Tamworth` Rainfed grains Hamilton Rainfed grains Terang
    19. 19. Mackay, QueenslandDr Weijin Wang, Sugar Research & Development CorporationRainfed, sugar cane• Reducing N fertilizer inputs through use of legume-fixed N.•Impact of nitrification inhibitors on N2O emissions.
    20. 20. NORP Core Field Sites + Mackay Kingsthorpe Wongan Hills Wollongbar Narrabri Tamworth` Hamilton Griffith Terang
    21. 21. Daily N2O flux (+/- inhibitor) - dairy Terang (Vic) 240 0.60 200 0.50 Soil water (mm3/mm3)Flux (g N2O-N/ha/d) 160 0.40 120 0.30 80 0.20 40 0.10 0 - Aug-09 Oct-09 Dec-09 Feb-10 Apr-10 Jun-10 Aug-10 Oct-10 Urine day 1 Urine day 1 + DCD day 1 Urine day 28 Urine day 28 + DCD day 1 average SW Kelly et al. unpublished
    22. 22. Hourly N2O flux – wheat Wongan Hills (WA) 140 Wheat (+lime) Wheat 120 FertiliserN2O Flux (ug N2O-N m h )-1 100-2 80 60 40 20 0 -20 Jun-09 Aug-09 Oct-09 Dec-09 Feb-10 Apr-10 Jun-10 Aug-10 Oct-10 Dec-10 Feb-11 Barton et al. unpublished
    23. 23. www.N2O.net.au Repository
    24. 24. Top 10 findings to date• Wide range in N2O emissions – 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.• Highest emissions – High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) – High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) – High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)• Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N2O.• Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N2O emissions due to residue removal.
    25. 25. Top 10 findings to date• Wide range in N2O emissions – 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.• Highest emissions – High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) – High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) – High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)• Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N2O.• Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N2O emissions due to residue removal.
    26. 26. Top 10 findings to date• Wide range in N2O emissions – 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.• Highest emissions – High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) – High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) – High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)• Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N2O.• Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N2O emissions due to residue removal.
    27. 27. Top 10 findings to date• Wide range in N2O emissions – 0.06 kg N/ha/annum in coarse textured soils of the WA wheat belt to > 1 kg N/ha/day from high carbon soils of SE Victoria.• Highest emissions – High rainfall pasture (dairy) systems (SE Aust.) – High rainfall residue retained cane systems (NE Aust.) – High rainfall cropping systems after pasture (SE Aust.)• Semi-arid continuously cropping systems of Australia are historically low emitters of N2O.• Irrigated cotton/cereal systems (NE Aust.) historically have low N2O emissions due to residue removal.
    28. 28. Top 10 findings to date• Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N2O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.• Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.• Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N2O emissions but highly variable and site specific.• Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N2O emissions.
    29. 29. Top 10 findings to date• Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N2O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.• Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.• Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N2O emissions but highly variable and site specific.• Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N2O emissions.
    30. 30. Top 10 findings to date• Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N2O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.• Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.• Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N2O emissions but highly variable and site specific.• Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N2O emissions.
    31. 31. Top 10 findings to date• Nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) potentially reduces N2O emissions from urine deposition by 40%.• Residue retained soils in cane have sufficient C inputs to produce of CH4 if waterlogged for prolonged period.• Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers (EEFs) have potential for reducing N2O emissions but highly variable and site specific.• Farming system history plays a highly significant roles in the magnitude of N2O emissions.
    32. 32. Top 10 findings to date• Magnitude of N2O emissions is heavily dependent on the ability to produce and retain significantly large amounts of biomass and readily decomposable carbon.• Tendency for increased inputs of carbon in irrigated and medium-high rainfall cropping systems of NE Aust. (i.e. retaining residues and use of legume N sources) will potentially increase N2O emissions.
    33. 33. Top 10 findings to date• Magnitude of N2O emissions is heavily dependent on the ability to produce and retain significantly large amounts of biomass and readily decomposable carbon.• Tendency for increased inputs of carbon in irrigated and medium-high rainfall cropping systems of NE Aust. (i.e. retaining residues and use of legume N sources) will potentially increase N2O emissions.
    34. 34. Labile carbon and N2O emissions in cropping systems150130N emissions110 N2O – without carbon 90 70 50 30 22 42 62 N rate
    35. 35. Labile carbon and N2O emissions in cropping systems150130N emissions110 N2O – without carbon 90 70 50 N2O – with carbon 30 22 42 62 N rate
    36. 36. Labile carbon and N2O emissions in cropping systems150130Yield/N emissions 110 YIELD 90 70 50 N2O 30 22 42 62 N rate
    37. 37. Nitrogen Use Efficiency (Cereals)*80 NUE70 (kg grain/60 kg N applied)5040302010 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 *FAOSTAT
    38. 38. Regional N2O Emission PotentialLowMediumHighNo data/uncertain Grace et al. unpublished
    39. 39. Conclusions• Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N2O emissions.• Maintaining profitability requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation.• The significant variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across a wide range of climates and soils underscores the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations.
    40. 40. Conclusions• Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N2O emissions.• Productive and profitable farming requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation.• The significant variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across a wide range of climates and soils underscores the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations.
    41. 41. Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum DrylandAverage Flux 5.5 3.2 3.3 (g N2O-N/ha/day)Seasonal Flux 0.75 0.43 0.45 (kg N2O-N/ha)Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6Emissions intensity 0.25 0.27 0.33 (kg N2O-N/t yield)
    42. 42. Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum DrylandAverage Flux 5.5 3.2 3.3 (g N2O-N/ha/day)Seasonal Flux 0.75 0.43 0.45 (kg N2O-N/ha)Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6Emissions intensity 0.25 0.27 0.33 (kg N2O-N/t yield)
    43. 43. Irrigation management – wheat Kingsthorpe (Qld) Treatment Irrigated Optimum DrylandAverage Flux 5.5 3.2 3.3 (g N2O-N/ha/day)Seasonal Flux 0.75 0.43 0.45 (kg N2O-N/ha)Emissions factor (%) 0.38 0.22 0.23Irrigation/rain (mm) 417 315 219Yield (t/ha) 3.1 1.9 1.6Emissions intensity 0.25 0.27 0.33 (kg N2O-N/t yield)
    44. 44. Conclusions• Increased emphasis on carbon farming and a wide variety of carbon enhancing strategies (proven and unproven) will potentially have a major impact on N2O emissions.• Maintaining productivity & profitability requires an emphasis on reducing emissions intensity (GHGs/unit product) not just GHGs in isolation.• Variability in the impact of management practices, rotations, EEFs and nitrogen inputs across climates and soils emphasises the need for increased use of a variety of simulation modelling techniques to predict the behaviour of mitigation practices in different situations.
    45. 45. THANK YOU

    ×